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Western Armenia, loosely defined as those parts of Historic Armenia which were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, or sometimes more concretely defined as the six Armenian vilayets of the Ottoman Empire were virtually completely depopulated of Armenians during centuries of persecution, kidnappings of Armenian girls, massacres, and finally the Armenian Genocide. The Armenian history and presence in these parts of Anatolia stretched back for over 3,000 years and ever since the genocide Turkish government has allowed - through neglect and deliberate policy - most traces of the Armenian presence to be destroyed and lost, while simultaneously preventing Armenians from returning or reclaiming their old homes and monuments. Dozens of Armenian dialects were lost, as the dispersed Armenian survivors learned the standardized Constantinople dialect of Armenian in order to be able to understand one another.
This section is a repository of information on the Armenian presence and history in these parts.
The following is a list of towns and cities in Western Armenia with a significant Armenian presence before the Armenian Genocide. They are separated out by province (Vilayet) and Cilicia is treated seperately.
(Կարս Նահանգ) - this province of the same name has straddled the divide between eastern and western Armenia for centuries. Because today it lays west of the border of Armenia, it will be included in Western Armenia.
(Բաթում Նահանգ) - Like the Kars Province, the Batum Province has straddled the divide between eastern and western Armenia for centuries. However, this region has tended to hold greater historical importance for Georgia than Armenia. It is named for the city of Batum (now Batumi, Georgia) and most of the province's northern territory is now part of the Georgian autonomous region of Adjara. Thus, only the Artvin area is included here and because it lays west of the border of Armenia, it will be also included in Western Armenia.
(Տրապիզոն Նահանգ) - Trebizond (Greek: Τραπεζοῦς Trapezûs or Τραπεζούντα Trapezúnta; Turkish: Trabzon) was an important city to the Pontian Greeks. It once served as the medieval Empire of Trebizond (Βασίλειον τής Τραπεζούντας), a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204. Nevertheless, the territory was once part of Lesser Armenia (Փոքր Հայք; not to be confused with Cilicia), a region that existed during the Imperial Roman period. It also historically held a significant Armenian population (including the Hamshen region). More importantly, however, the Trebizond Province was proposed to be included within Armenia by US President Woodrow Wilson at the Treaty of Sèvres, in order to secure Armenia "free access to the Black Sea" thus guaranteeing self-sufficiency and an open door to the international market.
(Սըվազ Նահանգ, Սեբաստիա)
- Iskenderun (Իսկենդերուն)
- Haleb (Հալեպ)
- Aintab/Aytab (Այնթապ)
- Marash (Մարաշ)
- Zeitun/Zeytun (Զեյթուն)
- Urfa (Ուրֆա / Ուռհա)
- Malatia/Malatya (Մալադիա)
- Arapkir (Արաբկիր)
- Kharpert (Խարբերդ Մեզրե / Harput-Mezraa)
- Kalan/Khalan (Խրլխն, Dersim-Mezraa)
- Khozat / Hozat (Խոզաթ)
- Metskert / Mazgert (Մեծկերտ / Մազկերտ)
- Kezel Kilisa / Kizil Kilise
- Chemish-Hezek / Cemisgezek
- Erzerum / Erzurum (Karin) (Էրզրում)
- Yerznga / Erzinjan (Երզնկա)
- Bayburt (Բաբերդ)
- Khnus / Hinis (Խնուս)
- Alashgerd/Eleshkirt (Ալաշկերտ)
- Beyazid (Բայազետ)
Metskert (Մեծկերտ, Мецкерт). was added, but what is it?