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The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Mediterranean by the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara, and to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch.
There is a net inflow of seawater through the Bosporus, 200 km³ per year. There is an inflow of freshwater from the surrounding areas, especially central and middle-eastern Europe, totalling 320 km³ per year. The most important river entering the Black Sea is the Danube. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km², with a maximum depth of 2200 m.
Countries bordering on the Black Sea are Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russia, and Georgia. The Crimean peninsula is a Ukrainian autonomous republic.
Important cities along the coast include: Istanbul, Burgas, Varna, Constanţa, Yalta, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Novorossiysk, Sochi, Sukhumi, Poti, Batumi, Trabzon, Samsun and Zonguldak.