Difference between revisions of "Azerbaijan"

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==History==
 
==History==
In de oudheid werden belangrijke delen van het huidige Azerbeidzjan, geregeerd door een christelijke staat bekend als Kaukasisch Albanië (niet te verwarren met de hedendaagse Republiek Albanië in het zuidoosten van Europa). Het land was een confederatie van verschillende volksstammen van Kaukasische afkomst (nauw verbonden met de Georgiërs en de volkeren van de moderne Russische Noord-Kaukasus). Net als Armenië en Georgië, het was gekerstend in de 4e eeuw. Hun kerk volgde dezelfde tak van het christendom als de Armeense Kerk, en zij gebruikten hetzelfde alfabet. Toch was het koninkrijk veroverd door de Arabieren in de 7e eeuw en vrijwel verdwenen. De inheemse bevolking ofwel uitgestorven of werd geassimileerd door de indringers, de vaststelling van de islam en later Turkse en Perzische invloeden. In de bergen, zakken van christenen bleven. Sommigen hebben geconcludeerd dat de moderne Udis zijn afstammelingen van de Albanezen die zich verzetten tegen assimilatie.
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In antiquity, significant portions of present-day Azerbaijan were ruled by a Christian state known as [[Caucasian Albania]] (not be confused with the modern-day [[Albania|Republic of Albania]] in southeastern [[Europe]]). The country was a confederation of various tribal peoples of Caucasian descent (closely associated with the Georgians and the peoples of the modern Russian North Caucasus). Like Armenia and Georgia, it was Christianized in the 4th century. Their church followed the same branch of Christianity as the [[Armenian Church]], and they used the same [[Armenian Alphabet|alphabet]]. However, the kingdom was overrun by the Arabs in the 7th century and virtually disappeared. Its indigenous population either died out or was assimilated by its invaders, adopting Islam and later Turkic and Persian influences. In the mountains, pockets of Christians remained. Some have concluded that the modern [[Udis]] are descendants of Albanians who resisted assimilation.  
  
Na de Russisch-Perzische Oorlog van 1804-1813, het gebied werd een deel van het Russische Rijk in het Verdrag van Gulistan. De meeste van de hedendaagse Azerbeidzjan komt grofweg overeen met de Russische Keizerlijke Bakoe en Elisabethpol Gouvernement (delen van de laatstgenoemde uiteindelijk geworden wat zijn nu de provincies en Syunik Tavush in Armenië en Nagorno-Karabach). In 1873 werd olie ontdekt in en rond de stad Bakoe, Azerbeidzjan toekomstig kapitaal. Olie is sindsdien uitgegroeid tot een belangrijke bron van inkomsten voor het gebied.
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After the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, the area became part of the Russian Empire in the [[Treaty of Gulistan]]. Most of present-day Azerbaijan roughly corresponds to the Imperial Russian Baku and Elisabethpol Governorates (parts of the latter eventually became what are today the provinces of [[Syunik Marz|Syunik]] and [[Tavush Marz|Tavush]] in Armenia and [[Karabakh|Nagorno-Karabakh]]). In 1873, oil was discovered in and around the city of [[Baku]], Azerbaijan's future capital. Oil has since become an important source of revenue for the area.
  
Het concept van de Azerbeidzjaanse nationale identiteit ontstond voor het eerst met de oprichting van de Democratische Republiek Azerbeidzjan (ADR) in 1918. Voorafgaand aan dat moment, de term "Azerbeidzjan" was slechts toegepast op een regio in Noord-Iran, terwijl de term "Arran" werd toegepast op wat nu de Republiek Azerbeidzjan. Ook werden de Turkse inwoners van het gebied dat bekend staat als Tataren door zowel Russische autoriteiten, alsmede externe waarnemers. Dit duurde tot de oprichting van de Azerbeidzjaanse Socialistische Sovjetrepubliek (SSR Azerbeidzjan), wanneer de term "Azerbeidzjanen" of "Azeri's" viel in gemeenschappelijk gebruik.
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The concept of the Azerbaijani national identity came into being for the first time with the establishment of the [[Azerbaijan Democratic Republic]] (ADR) in 1918. Prior to that time, the term "Azerbaijan" had only been applied to a region in Northern Iran while the term "Arran" was applied to what is now the Republic of Azerbaijan. Likewise, the Turkic inhabitants of the area were known as Tatars by both Russian authorities as well as outside observers. This lasted until the founding of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR), when the term "[[Azerbaijani people|Azerbaijanis]]" or "Azeris" fell into common use.
  
De Musavat (gelijke kansen) partij opgericht en beheerste het ADR voor het grootste deel van haar korte bestaan. Zien Ottomaanse Turkije en de Jong-Turken als potentiële bondgenoten gaven ze hun land "Azerbeidzjan." Deze zet bevorderd het concept van de Pan-Turkism want als het Ottomaanse Rijk wilde dat ze het gebied konden verenigen met de regio in het noorden van Iran en vervolgens samen te voegen met de gecombineerde grondgebied van het Ottomaanse Rijk. Deze ideologie heeft geleid tot voortdurende botsingen tussen de ADR en de Democratische Republiek Armenië (DRA), die zelf zich bedreigd voelde door het concept. Beide landen betrokken zijn in de territoriale geschillen over Karabach, Nachitsjevan, Zangezur (Syunik), en de Kazachse-Shamshadin (vandaag de provincie Tavush in Armenië en het rayon van Qazakh in Azerbeidzjan), die uiteindelijk tot wederzijdse etnische zuiveringen leidde aan beide kanten. Uiteindelijk werden beide gedempt door de bolsjewieken. Tijdens sovjetisering, was de Kazachse-Shamshadin verdeeld tussen Armenië en Azerbeidzjan. Zangezur kwam onder Sovjet-Armeense volledige administratie, terwijl Nachitsjevan werd een deel een exclave en de autonome republiek van de Sovjet-Azerbeidzjan (grotendeels te wijten aan termen in het Verdrag van Kars). De overwegend Armeense regio Nagorno-Karabach werd ook toegewezen aan Azerbeidzjan als een "autonome oblast" bij besluit van de Sovjet-dictator (toen waarnemend commissaris van de Sovjet-nationaliteiten) Joseph Stalin.
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The Musavat (Equality) Party founded and controlled the ADR for most of its short existence. Seeing Ottoman Turkey and the [[Young Turks]] as potential allies they named their country "Azerbaijan." This move promoted the concept of [[Pan-Turkism]] for if the [[Ottoman Empire]] wished they could unify the area with region in northern Iran and then merge the combined territory with the Ottoman Empire. This ideology led to constant clashes between the ADR and the [[Democratic Republic of Armenia]] (DRA) which felt itself threatened by the concept. Both countries engaged in territorial disputes over Karabakh, Nakhichevan, Zangezur (Syunik), and Kazakh-Shamshadin (today the province of Tavush in Armenia and the rayon of Qazakh in Azerbaijan), which eventually led to mutual ethnic cleansings on both sides. Eventually, both were subdued by the Bolsheviks. During Sovietization, Kazakh-Shamshadin was divided between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Zangezur came under full Soviet Armenian administration while Nakhichevan became part an exclave and autonomous republic of Soviet Azerbaijan (largely due to terms in the [[Treaty of Kars]]). The predominately Armenian region of Nagorno-Karabakh was also assigned to Azerbaijan as an "autonomous oblast" by decision of Soviet dictator (then acting commissar of Soviet nationalities) [[Joseph Stalin]].
  
Na de Sovjet-overname van het gebied, de naam "Azerbeidzjan" werd gekozen, omdat de Sovjets te willen uitbreiden in de regio Noord-Iran (iets dat duidelijk is geworden tijdens de gezamenlijke Brits-Russische invasie van Iran). Bovendien, de Sovjet-regering begon ook het onderwijzen van de idee van een "patitioned Azerbeidzjan" de Azerbeidzjaanse schoolboeken, waardoor de kloof tussen de Azerbeidzjaanse SSR en de Azerbeidzjaanse regio in Noord-Iran gelijk aan de conflicten in Oost-en West-Duitsland of Noord-en Zuid-Korea goed , ook al is dit niet het geval was. Ondanks dit, veel Azerbeidzjanen tijdens de Sovjet-jaren misten nog een gevoel van een nationale identiteit en indien gevraagd in een stad als Moskou, waar ze vandaan kwamen, zouden zij reageren door het aangeven van een stad of regio in Azerbeidzjan (bv. "Baku," Kirovabad "," Sumgait "of" Lenkoran ") in plaats van de Republiek als een geheel.
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After the Soviet takeover of the area, the name "Azerbaijan" was retained because the Soviets too hoped to expand into the region of Northern Iran (something that became apparent during the joint Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran). Furthermore, the Soviet government also began teaching the idea of a "patitioned Azerbaijan" in Azerbaijani school textbooks, making the divide between the Azerbaijan SSR and the Azerbaijan region in Northern Iran sound similiar to the conflicts over East and West Germany or North and South Korea, even though this was not the case. Despite this, many Azerbaijanis during the Soviet years still lacked a sense of a national identity and if asked in a city like Moscow where they had come from, they would respond by indicating a city or region in Azerbaijan (e.g. "Baku," "Kirovabad", "[[Sumgait]]", or "Lenkoran") instead of the republic as a whole.
  
In het algemeen, de Azerbeidzjanen en Armeniërs vriendschappelijke betrekkingen had tijdens de Sovjet-jaren (met enkele gevallen van huwelijken). Maar dit veranderde met de verlenging van het conflict in Nagorno-Karabach. Lokale Armeniërs klaagde dat de regering inspanningen te assimileren en "Azerify" De overwegend Armeense regio te maken. Toen de Sovjet-leider Michail Gorbatsjov aan de macht kwam en introduceerde het beleid van glasnost ('openheid') en perestrojka (herstructurering '), de Armeniërs begon Karabach een vreedzame en democratische beweging in de regio met Armenië te verenigen. Grenzen wijzigingen voorgedaan ten minste een dozijn keer in de Sovjet-Unie, met name in 1964 toen een deel van de Manastyrshchyna Raion van de Russische oblast Smolensk SFSR's werd overgebracht naar het Wit-Russisch SSR op verzoek van de lokale bevolking van Wit-Rusland. Demonstraties werden gehouden in Yerevan Resultaat Armeense steun voor hun etnische verwanten Karabach. Echter, ondersteund de meeste Azerbeidzjanen behoud van Karabach, geloven dat zij de resterende grondgebied van Azerbeidzjan en dus het brandpunt van de nationale identiteit van hun republiek bedreigen. Counter-demonstraties gepland, maar werden gesponnen uit de hand en in plaats daarvan omgezet in anti-Armeense geweld in de stad Sumgait. Zo heeft de Karabach conflict uitbrak.
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In general, the Azerbaijanis and the Armenians had friendly relations during the Soviet years (with some cases of intermarriages). However this changed with the renewal of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Local Armenians complained that the government was making efforts to assimilate and "Azerify" the predominately Armenian region. When Soviet leader [[Mikhail Gorbachev]] came to power and introduced the policies of ''Glasnost'' ("openness") and ''Perestroika'' ("restructuring"), the Karabakh Armenians began a peaceful and democratic movement to unite the region with Armenia. Borders changes occured at least a dozen times in the Soviet Union, most notably in 1964 when part of the Manastyrshchyna raion of the Russian SFSR's Smolensk oblast was transferred to the Byelorussian SSR on request of the local Belarusian populace. Demonstrations were held in Yerevan showing Armenian support for their ethnic Karabakh kin. However, most Azerbaijanis supported retaining Karabakh, believing that it could threaten the remaining territory of Azerbaijan and thus the focal point of their republic's national identity. Counter-demonstrations were planned but spun out of control and instead turned into [[Sumgait Pogrom|anti-Armenian violence in the city of Sumgait]]. Thus, the Karabakh conflict erupted.
  
Tijdens het conflict, Azerbeidzjan ging door een opeenvolging van presidenten: de pro-Soviet/Russian Ayaz Mütallibov, Isa Voorbeeldweergave die in gevuld als president onmiddellijk na Mütallibov, de pan-Turkist Abülfaz Elçibay (waarvan de minister van Binnenlandse Zaken İsgandar Hamidov ontslag in april 1993 na dreigde Armenië met een nucleaire aanval), en tenslotte de voormalige KGB-officier en de Sovjet-leider Azerbeidzjan Heydar Aliyev. Hoewel de laatste manged om het land te stabiliseren in de nasleep van de oorlog Nagorno-Karabach en Bakoe de olierijkdom te benutten, ook hij regeerde Azerbeidzjan als een autoritaire dictatuur en bevorderd een persoonlijkheidscultus rond zichzelf. Aliyev presidentschap liet ook het land met een erfenis van het bruto corruptie. Na zijn dood werd hij geselecteerd zijn zoon Ilham Aliyev te lopen als president in zijn plaats.
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During the conflict, Azerbaijan went through a succession of presidents: the pro-Soviet/Russian [[Ayaz Mütallibov]], [[Isa Gambar]] who filled in as president immediately after Mütallibov, the pan-Turkist [[Abülfaz Elçibay]] (whose Minister of the Interior [[İsgandar Hamidov]] resigned in April 1993 after having threatened Armenia with a nuclear strike), and finally the former KGB officer and Soviet Azerbaijan leader [[Heydar Aliyev]]. Although the latter manged to stabilize the country in the aftermath of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and exploit Baku's oil wealth, he also ruled Azerbaijan as an authoritarian dictatorship and promoted a personality cult around himself. Aliyev's presidency also left the country with a legacy of gross corruption. Upon his death, he selected his son [[Ilham Aliyev]] to run as president in his place.
  
Ilham Aliyev gewonnen van Azerbeidzjan presidentsverkiezingen van 2003 temidden van massale protesten van pro-democratische Azerbeidzjaanse oppositie en de Azerbeidzjaanse intelligentsia. De verkiezing van Aliyev werd bekritiseerd door vele buitenlandse waarnemers en mensenrechtenorganisaties als noch vrij, noch fair. Onder het regime van Aliyev, heeft de mensenrechten Azerbeidzjan record hit een all-time laag, terwijl het land de militaire uitgaven heeft gezien een dramatische toename. Hij heeft ook in geslaagd om de oppositie met behoud van een zekere mate van populariteit door het houden van de kwestie van de status-Karabach's open te breken.
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Ilham Aliyev won Azerbaijan's 2003 presidential election amid massive protests by pro-democratic Azeri opposition forces and the Azerbaijani intelligentsia. The election of Aliyev was criticized by many foreign observers and human rights institutions as being neither free nor fair. Under Aliyev's regime, Azerbaijan's human rights record has hit an all-time low while the country's military spending has seen a dramatic increase. He has also managed to crush opposition while retaining a certain degree of popularity by keeping the question of Karabakh's status open.
  
Het bestuur stelt Aliyev regelmatig territoriale integriteit van Azerbeidzjan over Karabach. Bij gelegenheid stelt zij dat de vredesbesprekingen met Armenië zijn "hopeloze" en consequent weigert te hebben open dialoog met de regering van de Republiek Nagorno-Karabach zelf. Ondanks haar aanbod toe te kennen het gebied waarin het "hoogste niveau van autonomie," stimuleert de overheid ook anti-Armeense gevoelens in Azerbeidzjan. Aliyev zelf geeft regelmatig oorlogszuchtige verklaringen met betrekking tot de oplossing van de kwestie-Karabach. Hij heeft openlijk gedreigd te 'bevrijden' van de regio "met geweld" en "Armenië aanval in alle richtingen." Op 04-01-2008, Radio Free Europe rapporteerde een citaat uit Aliyev dat de Armeniërs moet Karabach Azerbeidzjaanse regel te accepteren, of worden gedwongen te emigreren. [1]
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The Aliyev administration regularly asserts Azerbaijan's territorial integrity over Karabakh. On occasion, it states that peace talks with Armenia are "hopeless" and consistently refuses to have open dialogue with the government of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic itself. Despite its offer to award the area the "highest level of autonomy," the government also promotes anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan. Aliyev himself regularly expresses belligerent statements regarding the solution of the Karabakh issue. He has openly threatened to "liberate" the region "by force" and to "attack Armenia in all directions."   On January 4, 2008, [[Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty|Radio Free Europe]] reported a quote from Aliyev that the Karabakh Armenians should accept Azerbaijani rule or be forced to emigrate. [http://www.armenialiberty.org/armeniareport/report/en/2008/01/7EC55FA6-AA55-4C7B-B5AF-030410065AC6.ASP]
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==

Revision as of 03:50, 26 May 2010

Azerbaijan

The Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Armenian: Ադրբեջան) is a country bounded by Armenia to the west, Iran to the south, Russia and Georgia to the north, and Turkey by way of the country's Nakhichevan exclave. Today there are thought to be perhaps 15,000 Armenians remaining in Azerbaijan's capital of Baku after most fled in the early 1990s following anti-Armenian pogroms. Those remaining are almost exlusively cases of mixed marriages, usually where the wife is Armenian and the husband Azeri.

Both Armenia and Azerbaijan were republics in the Soviet Union.

History

In antiquity, significant portions of present-day Azerbaijan were ruled by a Christian state known as Caucasian Albania (not be confused with the modern-day Republic of Albania in southeastern Europe). The country was a confederation of various tribal peoples of Caucasian descent (closely associated with the Georgians and the peoples of the modern Russian North Caucasus). Like Armenia and Georgia, it was Christianized in the 4th century. Their church followed the same branch of Christianity as the Armenian Church, and they used the same alphabet. However, the kingdom was overrun by the Arabs in the 7th century and virtually disappeared. Its indigenous population either died out or was assimilated by its invaders, adopting Islam and later Turkic and Persian influences. In the mountains, pockets of Christians remained. Some have concluded that the modern Udis are descendants of Albanians who resisted assimilation.

After the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, the area became part of the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Gulistan. Most of present-day Azerbaijan roughly corresponds to the Imperial Russian Baku and Elisabethpol Governorates (parts of the latter eventually became what are today the provinces of Syunik and Tavush in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh). In 1873, oil was discovered in and around the city of Baku, Azerbaijan's future capital. Oil has since become an important source of revenue for the area.

The concept of the Azerbaijani national identity came into being for the first time with the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) in 1918. Prior to that time, the term "Azerbaijan" had only been applied to a region in Northern Iran while the term "Arran" was applied to what is now the Republic of Azerbaijan. Likewise, the Turkic inhabitants of the area were known as Tatars by both Russian authorities as well as outside observers. This lasted until the founding of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR), when the term "Azerbaijanis" or "Azeris" fell into common use.

The Musavat (Equality) Party founded and controlled the ADR for most of its short existence. Seeing Ottoman Turkey and the Young Turks as potential allies they named their country "Azerbaijan." This move promoted the concept of Pan-Turkism for if the Ottoman Empire wished they could unify the area with region in northern Iran and then merge the combined territory with the Ottoman Empire. This ideology led to constant clashes between the ADR and the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) which felt itself threatened by the concept. Both countries engaged in territorial disputes over Karabakh, Nakhichevan, Zangezur (Syunik), and Kazakh-Shamshadin (today the province of Tavush in Armenia and the rayon of Qazakh in Azerbaijan), which eventually led to mutual ethnic cleansings on both sides. Eventually, both were subdued by the Bolsheviks. During Sovietization, Kazakh-Shamshadin was divided between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Zangezur came under full Soviet Armenian administration while Nakhichevan became part an exclave and autonomous republic of Soviet Azerbaijan (largely due to terms in the Treaty of Kars). The predominately Armenian region of Nagorno-Karabakh was also assigned to Azerbaijan as an "autonomous oblast" by decision of Soviet dictator (then acting commissar of Soviet nationalities) Joseph Stalin.

After the Soviet takeover of the area, the name "Azerbaijan" was retained because the Soviets too hoped to expand into the region of Northern Iran (something that became apparent during the joint Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran). Furthermore, the Soviet government also began teaching the idea of a "patitioned Azerbaijan" in Azerbaijani school textbooks, making the divide between the Azerbaijan SSR and the Azerbaijan region in Northern Iran sound similiar to the conflicts over East and West Germany or North and South Korea, even though this was not the case. Despite this, many Azerbaijanis during the Soviet years still lacked a sense of a national identity and if asked in a city like Moscow where they had come from, they would respond by indicating a city or region in Azerbaijan (e.g. "Baku," "Kirovabad", "Sumgait", or "Lenkoran") instead of the republic as a whole.

In general, the Azerbaijanis and the Armenians had friendly relations during the Soviet years (with some cases of intermarriages). However this changed with the renewal of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Local Armenians complained that the government was making efforts to assimilate and "Azerify" the predominately Armenian region. When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power and introduced the policies of Glasnost ("openness") and Perestroika ("restructuring"), the Karabakh Armenians began a peaceful and democratic movement to unite the region with Armenia. Borders changes occured at least a dozen times in the Soviet Union, most notably in 1964 when part of the Manastyrshchyna raion of the Russian SFSR's Smolensk oblast was transferred to the Byelorussian SSR on request of the local Belarusian populace. Demonstrations were held in Yerevan showing Armenian support for their ethnic Karabakh kin. However, most Azerbaijanis supported retaining Karabakh, believing that it could threaten the remaining territory of Azerbaijan and thus the focal point of their republic's national identity. Counter-demonstrations were planned but spun out of control and instead turned into anti-Armenian violence in the city of Sumgait. Thus, the Karabakh conflict erupted.

During the conflict, Azerbaijan went through a succession of presidents: the pro-Soviet/Russian Ayaz Mütallibov, Isa Gambar who filled in as president immediately after Mütallibov, the pan-Turkist Abülfaz Elçibay (whose Minister of the Interior İsgandar Hamidov resigned in April 1993 after having threatened Armenia with a nuclear strike), and finally the former KGB officer and Soviet Azerbaijan leader Heydar Aliyev. Although the latter manged to stabilize the country in the aftermath of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and exploit Baku's oil wealth, he also ruled Azerbaijan as an authoritarian dictatorship and promoted a personality cult around himself. Aliyev's presidency also left the country with a legacy of gross corruption. Upon his death, he selected his son Ilham Aliyev to run as president in his place.

Ilham Aliyev won Azerbaijan's 2003 presidential election amid massive protests by pro-democratic Azeri opposition forces and the Azerbaijani intelligentsia. The election of Aliyev was criticized by many foreign observers and human rights institutions as being neither free nor fair. Under Aliyev's regime, Azerbaijan's human rights record has hit an all-time low while the country's military spending has seen a dramatic increase. He has also managed to crush opposition while retaining a certain degree of popularity by keeping the question of Karabakh's status open.

The Aliyev administration regularly asserts Azerbaijan's territorial integrity over Karabakh. On occasion, it states that peace talks with Armenia are "hopeless" and consistently refuses to have open dialogue with the government of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic itself. Despite its offer to award the area the "highest level of autonomy," the government also promotes anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan. Aliyev himself regularly expresses belligerent statements regarding the solution of the Karabakh issue. He has openly threatened to "liberate" the region "by force" and to "attack Armenia in all directions." On January 4, 2008, Radio Free Europe reported a quote from Aliyev that the Karabakh Armenians should accept Azerbaijani rule or be forced to emigrate. [1]

See also

Conflicts