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The Assassination Of Armenia -mr191511
The Assassination of Armenia
THE most brutal, the most ruthless, the most inexcusable, and the most widespread massacres of Christians in the last one thousand years are deluging Armenia with the blood of men, women, and children. Whole villages are wiped out by fire, sword, and deportation. It seems evident that this movement against the Armenians is part of a concerted scheme against all non-Turkish and Christian inhabitants of Turkey. It is estimated that already 800,000 have perished at the hands of the Turks and Kurds in their fiendish "Holy War." In the massacres of 1895-6 under the Sultan Abdul-Hamid II., according to carefully prepared statistics, 88,243 Armenians, of whom about 10,000 were Protestants, were murdered; more than 500,000 robbed of all they possessions; 2,493 villages and towns were plundered; 568 churches, of which 50 were protestant, were pillaged and destroyed, and 282 others were turned into mosques. In many places the victims were offered the choice death or Islam and unhesitatingly chose to die rather than most of them possess. In 1909, soon after the Young Turks came into power, there were 5,000 or more who died in the Adana onslaught for which the government disclaimed responsibility. To-day, however, the Yong Turk government is responsible for the systematic program of extermination. Is not Germany also responsible--if not for inciting the outrage, at least for failure to demand that Turkey, her ally, immediately put an end to these butcheries. Turkey would not dare to continue a course that would involve the loss of German military and financial support.
The following is the text of the government order covering the case. Art. 2d. "The commanders of the army, of independent army corps, and of divisions may, in case of military necessity, and in case they suspect espionage or treason, send away, singly or in mass, the inhabitants of villages or town and install them in other places."
The original orders to commanders may have been reasonable humane; but the execution of them has been for the most part currently harsh, and in many cases accompanied by horrible brutality to women and children, to the sick and the Aged. Whole villages were deported at an hour's notice, with no opportunity to prepare for the journey, not even, in some cases, to gather together the scattered members of the family, so that little children were left behind.
The accounts of the sorrows of Armenia are harrowing reading. Many of the facts have already been published. We gather many of them here that the readers of the REVIEW may make them a subject of sympathetic prayer, and that some may be led to give financial help toward the relief of the surviving widows and orphans.*
For obvious reasons the names of the various writers can not be given at this time. These are known to the American Committee, who vouches for them and their statements. In most cases it is necessary to conceal the place form which the statements were written, and even the name of the cities and towns referred to, in order that the writer or his interests may not suffer irreparable harm.
We quote from a few of the documents which are in the possession of the American Committee:
The reports of persecution, plunder, and massacre of Armenians in the interior parts of the country began to come in April, when the scattering of large numbers of innocent people was manifestly a part of a campaign of extermination.
July 10. Persecution of Armenians assuming unprecedented proportions. Reports from widely scattered regions indicate systematic attempt to uproot peaceful Armenian populations, and through arbitrary arrests, terrible tortures, wholesale expulsions and deportations from one end of the empire to the other, accompanied by frequent instances of rape, pillage, and murder, turning into massacre, to bring destitution and distraction upon them. This is not in response to fanatical or popular demand, but is purely arbitrary, and directed from Constantinople. Untold misery, disease starvation and loss of life will go on unchecked.
July 16. "Deportation of and excesses against peaceful Armenians are increasing, and from harrowing reports of eye-witnesses it appears that a campaign of race extermination is in progress." Protests and threats are unavailing and probably incite the Ottoman government to more drastic measures, as they are determined to disclaim responsibility for their absolute disregard of capitulations, and I believe nothing short of actual force, which obviously the United States is not in a position to exert, would adequately meet the situation.
July 31. "Armenians, mostly women and children, deported from the Erzerum district, have been massacred near Kemakh, between Erzerum and Harput." Similar reports from other sources, that probably few of these refugees will reach their destination. . . .
In many cases the men were (those of military age were nearly all in the army) bound tightly together with ropes or chains. Women with little children in their arms, or in the last days of pregnancy, were driven along under the whip like cattle. Three different cases came under my knowledge where the woman was delivered on the road, and because her brutal driver hurried her along she died of hemorrhage. I also know of one case where the gendarme in charge was a human man, and allowed the poor woman several hours' rest, and then procured a wagon for her to ride in. some women became so completely worn out and hopeless that they left their infants beside the road. Many women and girls have been outraged. At one place the commander of gendarmerie openly told the men to whom he consigned a large company that they were at liberty to do what they chose with the women and girls. . . .
The Use of Torture
The trouble for the Armenians began, as for all other nationalities, with the collection of soldiers. The government swept off all men possible for military service. Hundreds of the bread-winners marched way, leaving their wives and children without means of support. In many cases the last bit of money was given to fit out the departing soldier, leaving the family in a pitifully destitute condition. A number of Armenians were quite well off and paid their military exemption free. A much larger number escaped in one way and another, so there were more Armenians than Turks left in the city after the soldiers had gone. This made the government suspicious and fearful. The discovery of Armenian plots against the government in other places added to his feeling. The special Armenian troubles began in the beginning of May. In the middle of the night about 20 of the leading men of the Armenian political parties were gathered up and sent to where they have been imprisoned ever since. In June the government began looking for weapons. Some of the Armenians were seized, and, by torture, the confession was extracted that a large number of arms were in the hands of different Armenians. A second inquisition began. The bastinado was used frequently, as well as fire torture (in some cases eyes are said to have been put out). Many guns were delivered, but not all. The people were afraid that if they gave up their arms, they would be massacred as in 1895. Arms had been brought in after the declaration of the constitution with the permission of the government. and were for self- defense only. The torture continued, and under its influence one fact after another leaked out. Under the nervous strain and physical suffering many things were said which had no foundation in fact. Those inflicting the torture would tell the victim what they expected him to confess, and then beat him until he did it. The college mechanic had constructed an iron "shot" for the athletic games, and was beaten terribly in an effort to fasten the making of bombs on the college. Some bombs were discovered in the Armenian cemetery, which aroused the fury of the Turks to white heat. It should be said that it is very probable that these bombs had been buried there in the days of Abdul Hamid. . . .
Through the intervention of a Turk, the college was able to free those of its teachers already taken, and obtain a stay of proceedings against all of its teachers and employees, by the payment of the sum of 275 Turkish liras. Later this same Turk said that he believed that he could obtain the permanent exemption of the entire college by the payment of a further sum of 300 liras. The money was promised, but after some negotiations, which showed that no definite assurance of exemption would be forthcoming, the matter was dropt. . . .
Panic and Outrage
The panic in the city was terrible. The people felt that the government was determined to exterminate the Armenian race, and they were powerless to resist. The people were sure that the men were being killed and the women kidnapped. Many of the convicts in the prison had been released, and the mountains around ----------- were full of bands of outlaws. It was feared that the women and children were taken some distance from the city and left to the mercy of these men. However that may be, there are provable cases of the kidnapping of attractive young girls by the Turkish officials of------------. One Moslem reported that a gendarme had offered to sell him two girls for a mejidieh. The women believed that they were going to worse than death, and many carried poison in their pockets to use if necessary. Some carried picks and shovels to bury those they knew would die by the wayside. During this reign of terror notice was given that escape was easy; that any one who accepted Islam would be allowed to remain safely at home. The offices of the lawyers who recorded applications were crowded with people petitioning to become Mohammedans. Many did it for the sake of their women and children, feeling that it would be a matter of only a few weeks before relief would come.
This deportation continued at intervals for about two weeks. It is estimated that out of about 12,000 Armenians in ---------, only a few hundred were left. Even those who offered to accept Islam were sent away. . . . Dragged to Exile June 28, 1915
I wish to inform you to conditions here. They are very bad daily getting worse. I suppose ---------- told you of the horrible things taking place in -----------. Just such a reign of terror has begun in this city also. Daily the police are searching the houses of the Armenians for weapons, and not finding any, they are taking the best and most honorable men and imprisoning them; some of them they are exiling, and others they are torturing with red hot irons to make them reveal the supposedly concealed weapons. Four weeks ago they exiled 15 men and their families, sending them to the desert city of ----------, three days' journey south of here.
The Gendarmerie Department seems to have full control of affairs and the Mutessarif upholds them. They are now holding about 100 of the best citizens of the city in prison, and to-day the gendarmerie chief called the Armenians Bishop and told him that unless the Armenians deliver their arms and the revolutionists among them, that he has orders to exile the entire Armenian population of --------- as they did the people-----We know how the latter were treated, for hundreds of them have been dragged through --- on their way to the desert whither they have been exiled. These poor exiles were mostly women, children and old men, and they were clubbed and beaten and lashed along as they had been wild animals, and their women and girls were daily criminally outraged, both by their guards and the ruffians of every village through which they passed, as the former allowed the latter to enter the camp of the exiles at night, and even distributed the girls among the villagers for the night. These poor victims of their oppressors' lust and hate might better have died by the bullet in their mountain home than be dragged about the country in this way. About 2,000 of them have passed through ---------, all more dead than alive; many hundred have died from starvation and abuse along the roadside, and nearly all are dying of starvation, thirst, or being kidnapped by the Anaza Arabs in the desert where they have been taken. We know how they are being treated because our -------- exiles are in the same place, and one young Armenian doctor, who was there making medical examinations of soldiers for the government, has returned and told us. . . .
The Young Turk government pursues unceasingly, and every day with added violence, the war to the finish that it has declared against its Armenian subjects. The provinces inhabited by Armenians, which were already under the reign of indescribable terror, have been evacuated by force. Thus the Armenian communities,-------------- and ------------ , have been brutally deported, deprived of all their possessions, to the deserts of Mesopotamia. A great number of families have embraced Mohammedanism to escape a certain death. . . . A Widow's Story
A week before anything was done to --------, the villages all around had been expired and their inhabitants had become victims of the gendarmes and marauding bands. Three days before the starting of the Armenians from -------------, after a week's imprisonment, Bishop ------------- had been hanged, with seven other notables. After these hangings, seven or eight other notables were killed in their own houses for refusing to go out of the city Seventy or eight other Armenians, after being beaten in prison, were taken to the woods and killed. The Armenian population of -------- was sent off in three batches; I was among the third batch. My husband died eight years ago, leaving me and my eight-year-old, daughter and my mother extensive possessions, so that we were living in comfort. Since mobilization began, the --------- commandant has been living in my house free of rent. He told me not to go, but I felt I must share the fate of my people. I took three horses with me, loaded with provisions. My daughter had some five-lira pieces around her neck, and I carried some twenty liras and four diamond rings on my person. All else that we had was left behind. Our party left June 1st (old style), fifteen gendarmes going with us. The party numbered four or five hundred persons. We had got only two hours away from home, when bands of villagers and brigands in large numbers, with rifles, guns, axes, etc., surrounded us on the road, and robbed us of all we had. The gendarmes took my three horses and sold them to Turkish mouhadjirs, pocketing the money. They took my money and that from my daughter's neck, also all our food. After this they separated the men, one by one, and shot them all within six or seven days-- every male over 15 years of age. By my side were killed two priests, one of them over 90 years of age. These bandsmen took all the god-looking women and carried them off on their horses. Very many women and girls were thus carried off to the mountains, among them my sister, whose one-year0old baby they threw away; Turk picked it up and carried it off, I know not where. My mother walked till she could walk no father, and dropt by the roadside on a mountain-top. We found on the road many of those who had been in the previous sections carried from ---------; some women were among the killed, with their husbands and sons. We also came across some old people and little infants still alive but in a pitiful condition, having shouted their voices away. We were not allowed to sleep at night in the villages, but lay down outside. Under cover of the night indescribable deeds were committed by the gendarmes, bandsmen, and villagers. Many of us died from hunger and strokes of apoplexy. Others were left by the roadside, too feeble to go on.
One morning we saw fifty to sixty wagons with about thirty Turkish widows, whose husbands had been killed in the war; and these were going to Constantinople. These women wanted to take my daughter, too, but she would not be separated from me. Finally we were both taken into their wagons on our promising to become Moslems. As soon as we entered Erzrum, they began to teach us how to be Moslems, and changed our names, calling me -Sahlmmed and her Reyna
The Plight of the Exiles
If it were simply a matter of being obliged to leave here to go somewhere else, it would not be so bad, but everybody knows it is a case of going to one's death. If there was any doubt it, it has been removed by the arrival of a number of parties, aggregating several thousand people, from Erzerum and Erzinggan. I have visited their encampment a number of times and talked with some of the people. A more pitiable sight can not be imagined. They are, almost without exception, raggedy, filthy, hungry, and sick. That is not surprising, in view of the fact that they have been on the road for nearly two months, with no change of clothing, no chance to wash, no shelter, and little to eat. The government has been giving them some scanty rations here. I watched them one time when their food was brought. Wild animals could not be worse. They rushed upon the guards beat them back with clubs, hitting hard enough to kill them sometimes. To watch them one could hardly believe that these people were human beings.
As one walks through the camp, mothers offer their children and beg one to take them. In fact, the Turks have been taking their choice of these chidren and girls for slaves, or worse. In fact, they have even had their doctors there to examine the more likely girls and thus secure the best ones.
There are very few men among them, as most of them have been killed on the road. All tell the same story of having been attacked and robbed by the Kurds. Most of them were attacked over and over again, and a great number of them, especially the men, were killed. Women and children were also killed, many died, of course, from sickness and exhaustion on the way, and there have been here. Several different parties have arrived and, after remaining a day or two, have been pushed on with no apparent destination. Those who have reached here are only a small portion, however, of those who started. By continuing to drive these people on in this way it will be possible to dispose of all of them in a comparatively short time.
A Plea For Intervention
Viscount Bryce, formerly British Ambassador to the United States, has made, through the Associated Press, a powerful plea that America should try to stop the Armenian slaughter. Lord Bryce is not one to misstate or exaggerate facts. Among other things, he says: "In Trebizond City, where the Armenians numbered over ten thousand, orders came from Constantinople to seize all Armenians. troops hunted them, drove them to the shore, took them to sea threw them overboard, and drowned them all--men, women, and children. This was seen and described by the Italian Consul."
Lord Bryce's statements are confirmed by reports which come direct from those who have firsthand knowledge.
Of the Armenian people as a whole one third or more are gone, and this third includes the leaders in every walk of life, merchants, professional men, preachers, bishops, and Government officials. There is no certainly for those who are just now free. It is only temporary measures, such as bribes or special favors, that have secured postponement.
"It seems possible that something can be done to save those few who are left. Permission has recently been obtained through the German Embassy for those connected with the German Mission, teachers and their families, orphans and servants, a circle of several hundred, to remain. It is time that America take whatever steps are possible to secure permission through the American Ambassador for the remnant of the Armenians to remain in their homes or to escape unharmed to more hospitable territory.
American Missionary Interests*
America has more interest in Turkey than any other country, or possibly than all Europe together. This interest is not political, but humanitarian. In 1819 the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions began work in the Ottoman Empire, and has now for nearly a century prosecuted that work with vigor and statesman-like foresight and breadth. The missionaries have introduced into the country the printing-press and a periodical literature, modern medicine and sanitation, the Modern hospital, new industries and commercial enterprises, and western education, culminating in the well-organized colleges and graduate schools. Some of these institutions are: the Syrian Protestant Collage at Beirut, with its graduate schools; Robert College at Constantinople; and the Constantinople College for Girls, each one of these incorporated in the Unites States and possessing a plant worth more than a million dollars. Besides these institutions of international repute there are others, like the International College at Smyrna, Anatolia College at Marsovan, Teachers' College at Sivas, Euphrates College at Harput, Van College at Van, Aintab College at Aintab, Central Turkey College for Women at Marash, the American Collegiate Institute for Girls at Smyrna, St. Paul's College of Tarsus, and, in addition, three times and academies with their intermediate and preparatory schools dotting the country from the Black Sea to Arabia.
Among the many institutions to suffer is the American Mission College at Harput. One of the reliable informants writes: "Approximately two-thirds of the of the girl pupils, and six-seventeenth of the boys have been taken away to death, exile, or Moslem homes. Of our professors four are gone and three are left.
"Professor Tenekejian, who was the protestant representative of the Americans with the Government, was arrested on May 1st. No charge was made against him, but the hair of his head, mustache and beard was pulled out in a vain effort to secure damaging confessions. He was starved and hung by the arms for a day and a night and was severely beaten several times. About June 20th he was taken out toward Diaarbekir and murdered in a general massacre on the road.
"Professor Nahigian, who had studied at Ann Arbor, was arrested about June 5th and shared Professor Tenekejian's Fate of the road.
"Professor Vorperian a Princeton man, was taken to see a man beaten almost to death. He started onto exile under guard with his family, about July 5th, and was murdered beyond Malatia.
"Professor Boojicanian, an Edinburgh Graduate, was arrested with Professor Tenekejian, suffered the same tortures, and in addition had three finger-nails pulled out by the roots, and was killed in the same massacre.
"Of the female instructors one is reported killed in Chunkoosh, one reported taken to a Turkish harem; three have not heard from; four others started out into exile, and ten are free.
The Armenians as a people have been the most responsive to the appeals of modern education . The majority of the 25,000 students in the schools north of Syria have been from this historic and virile race. Thousands have taken graduate courses in the United States. It can be said that America discovered the Armenian race and introduced it to the Western World. it is, therefore, eminently fitting that at this time of death-struggle America should be the first to lift its voice in protest, and the most ready to offer its help to save this nation from annihilation.
There are some four hundred Americans now in Turkey connected with the various boards and institutions. With those are associated fully ten times that number of trained natives, mostly Armenians, Greeks, and Syrians, all engaged in conducting a work that aims at bringing to that country the blessings of a Christian civilization. These Americans are remaining at their posts, endeavoring in every way in their power to relieve and save their people.
Upon the Armenians and the Greeks the blow is falling, but there have been intimations that the Jews' turn will soon come. There are many indications that the Turks as a whole entertain no hostile feelings toward the Armenians and the Greeks, and would not carry out these drastic measures of extermination were they not forced to do so. Some have declared that the measures are un-Mohammedan, and so contrary to the teaching of their religion.
In many places the local Turkish authorities have emphatically protested. The Governor of -------- was called to Constantinople to answer to the charge of not obeying orders in carrying out the drastic measures of the central government. Others have told the missionaries that the measures were most cruel and unnecessary and even disastrous to the country, but they were finally forced to obey. Lenient and unwilling governors were transferred, like the one at ---------, in whose place was installed the Governor of --------. who had already carried out with vigor the order of massacre and extermination.
So far as can be ascertained, the two Turkish officers, Enver Pasha and Talaat Bey, are the source of these measures. There are many who believe (and among these are the missionaries in large numbers, as well as others) that Enver Pasha is under the pay of the Kaiser.
Who are the Armenians?*
In the strict use of the term, there is no Armenia at the present day. The name is not used either politically or geographically with reference to a definite territory. When used the name refers in general to a region centering about Lake Van in Asiatic Turkey, and extending thence north and southwest. Ancient Armenia was a country whose bounds continually changed with the fortunes of war. The greater part of the region now lies within the Turkish Empire, and is also called Kurdistan. This region contains only a fraction of the Armenian race. It is inhabited by Turks, Armenians, Russians, Persians, Kurds Caucasians, Greeks, Nestorians, Yezidees, Syrians, and Jews.
The early history of the Armenians as so mixed with myth and legends that the truth is difficult to find. During the Assyrian and Median periods there was evidently a great organized monarchy, with a strong military power, in the lake Van basin. At times they were formidable enemies of the Medes. This country was well known to the Assyrian as early as the ninth century B. C. It was inhabited by four race--the Mairi, the Urarda, Minni, and the Hittites.
These races appear to have maintained their independence until the time of Assur-bani-pal, about 640 B. C., when the last king of this series succumbed to the Assyrian yoke. But, at the time of Herodotus, everything seems to indicate that a strange people had entered the land, bringing with them a new language, new names and customs, and a new religion. The source from which they came is doubtful. Herodotus and Stephen believe they came from Phrygia, while their language and religion would indicate Median. One thing is certain: the old Turanians had ceased to rule, and the Armenian race ceased to rule, and the Armenian race had been formed, which is undoubtedly a mixture of the ruling Aruan tribes with the primitive Turanian populations. (The word "Armenia," used in Isaiah 37:38 and 2 Kings 19:37, is an incorrect translation for "the lands of Ararat.") Armenian histories describe the events of some sixteen centuries respecting which contemporary evidence has not yet been found. According to them, the first ruler of Armenia was Haik, the son of Togarmah, the son of Gomar, the son of Japheth, the son of Noah. The Armenian histories also narrate that at the time of the captivity of Israel a certain number of the Hebrews escaped to the mountains of Armenia and intermarriages took place. Later the Armenian king, Kikran (Tigranes), was the friend and ally of Cyrus. His successor was Vahakn, celebrated in song and story for his great victories, and defied after death.
In 67 B. C. Armenia became an ally of Rome, But rebelling, their king, Ardavaz, was captured by Pompey and beheaded in Alexandria by Cleopatra, 30 B. C., and the country became tributary to Rome. The country was in turmoil for two and a half centuries thereafter.
It was the Constant effort of Persia to subvert Armenian Christianity and establish Magianism in its stead. To this end, cruel persecutions were undertaken, and frequent incursions were made. From 632 to 859 A. D. Armenia was the scene of almost incessant struggle between the Eastern Empire and the Mohammedans, and it became by turn subject to each. It maintained its independence until 1375, when the last Armenian king, Leo VI., was captured by the Egyptians and Banished.
From this time Armenia lost its separate national existence. The greater part of the country was annexed to Turkey, while the eastern section remained subject to Persia, and the northeast to Russia. Russia took another large section of Armenia in 1878.
In Moral traits the Armenian compares favorably with the other race of the East. The Armenians are cultivators of the soil, artisans, merchants, and bankers. They are persevering, and shrewd in financial dealings. In Asiatic Turkey the Greeks alone can compare with them in trades, professions, business ability, and general intelligence. In spite of the general increase of poverty throughout Turkey, the Armenians, up to the period of massacres of 1895-96, held their own better than the other race. The number of Armenians in the world is estimated at from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 two-thirds of whom reside in Turkey. The remainder are in Russia, Persia, India, China, Africa, Europe, North and South America, and other countries. Up to the present time the nation has preserved its individuality to a remarkable degree, resembling in this respect, as in others, the Jews. With their dispersal throughout the world, however, the Armenians intermarry with other race, and a distinct tendency to race disintegration has appeared.
The Armenian Church and Beliefs
Armenian writers claim that the Armenian Church goes back to the time of Christ. One Abgar or Abgarus, King of Edessa, as said by Meses of Khorene, the Armenian historian, to have been converted by hearing of the wonderful works of Jesus, and to have been baptized by Thaddeus, one of the seventy disciples first sent out as missionaries. This Abgar is held by the Armenians to have been their king, although Tacitus calls him King of the Arabs.
It was not, however, until the fourth century that the Armenian nation as a whole accepted Christianity. At the beginning of that century Gregory the Illuminator preached at the Court of Armenia with such effect that from that day to this Christianity has been the national religion of the Armenians. For this reason the Armenian Church is often called "The Gregorian Church." The Armenians themselves, however, call it "The Church of the Illuminator (Lusavorchagan)."
Persecution, as usual, only served to endear the Church to the people, and from that time it has been identified with their nationality. Under Turkish rule each religious body is also a political organism. The Armenian Church is little more than that at present. It is, therefore, inseparably identified with the race, and is pervaded by much of the corruption of Oriental Christianity.
[*A special American Committee of eminent Americans has investigated the reports, and while the sources of information must be withheld for the present, the committee vouches for the truth of the statements. This committee includes the Right Rev. David H. Greer, Protestant Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of New York; Oscar S. Straus, former Secretary of Commerce and Labor, and ex-Ambassador to Turkey; Cleveland H. Dodge, of Phelps Doldge & Co.; the Rev. Dr Stephen S. Wise, Rabbi of the Free Synagog, New York; Charles R. Crane, of Chicago, Vice-Charman of the Finance Committee of the Democratic National Committee during the last campaign; Arthur Curtis James, Director of many railroads and of the Hanover National Bank, the United States Trust Company, and of Phelps, Dodge & Co.; the Rev.Dr. Frank Mason North, of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church; John R. Mott, of the International Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association; William W. Rockhill former Ambassador to Turkey and former Ambassador to Russia; William Sloane, 575 Fifth Avenue; the Rev. Dr. Edward Lincoln Smith, of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; the Rev. Dr. Frederick Lynch, of the New York Peace Society; George A. Plimton, of Ginn & Co., a trustee of Constantinople College; the Rev. Dr. James L. Barton, for many years a missionary in Turkey, and now the Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; the Rev. Dr. William J. Haven, one of the founders of the Epworth League; Stanley White, Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions; Professor Samuel P. Dutton, an authority on Balkan affairs. Gifts for the relief of survivors may be sent to Chas. R. Crane, Treasurer, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York.]
A hard copy of this article or hundreds of others from the time of the Armenian Genocide can be found in The Armenian Genocide: News Accounts From The American Press: 1915-1922