Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan ("Արտյոմ Հովհաննեսի Միկոյան" in Armenian; "Артё́м Ива́нович Микоя́н" in Russian) (August 5, 1905 – December 9, 1970) was an Armenian / Soviet aircraft designer, in partnership with Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich he designed many of the famous MiG military aircraft.
Born in Sanahin, Armenia. He completed his basic education and in 1923 took a job as a machine-tool operator in Rostov, Russia before being conscripted into the military. After military service he joined the Zukovsky Air Force Academy, graduating in 1937. His first plane "Oktyabrenok" Mikoyan created with his mates.
He worked with Polikarpov before being named head of a new aircraft design bureau in Moscow in December 1939. Together with Gurevich, Mikoyan formed the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau, to produce a series of fighter aircraft. In the war period, they designed fighters with high flight and technical data, including E-250.
In March 1942 the bureau was renamed OKB MiG (Osoboye Konstruktorskoye Büro), ANPK MiG (Aviatsionnyy nauchno-proizvodstvennyy kompleks) and OKO MiG. The MiG-1 was not a very good start, the MiG-3 was misused and the MiG-5, 7 and 8 were effectively research prototypes.
Early post-war designs were based on captured German jet fighters and information provided by Britain or the US. The first production model was the stop-gap MiG-9 of 1946. The I-270 prototype of German ideas and British engine became the MiG-15, which had variations such as educational-training fighters MIG-15 UTI and MI. Despite its mixed origins this had excellent performance and formed the basis for a number of future fighters with over 18,000 MiG-15s manufactured. Then in 1953 MiG-17 was created reaching the sound speed and later famous MiG-19 the first serial native supersonic fighter and MiG-21.
From 1952 Mikoyan also designed missile systems to particularly suit his aircraft. He continued to produce high performance fighters through the 1950s and 1960s. Among Mikoyan's inventions are such aircraft as airspace plane built late in 60s; MiG-25 the fastest and the highest flying titanic fighter. MiGs have been in the armament of the native and foreign air forces for decades. Mikoyan's fighters showed 55 world records. In particular the speed and the height demonstrated by MiG-15 and MiG-29 had been records for a long time.
After Mikoyan's death, the name of the design bureau was changed from Mikoyan-Gurevich to simply Mikoyan. However, the designator remained MiG.
According to Andrei Tarasov, Deputy Director of "MiG" corporation, the MiG planes are known throughout the world. Up to 2005 total, 60 thousand modifications of MiG planes have been produced. They are exploited in 52 countries of the world. It was mentioned that no airline has produced such a great number of planes.
Artem Mikoyan, academician, Laureate of Lenin and State Prizes, was twice awarded the highest civilian honour, the Hero of Socialist Labor and was a deputy in six Supreme Soviets. His elder brother Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan was a senior Soviet politician.
The 100th birth anniversary of Artem Mikoyan was marked on November 17 2005 at The National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (NASA). Armenian Defense Minister Serge Sargsyan opened the solemn sitting. In his speech, the minister called Artem Mikoyan a genius who brought glory to his country. In his turn, NASA President Fadey Sargsyan said that the whole world use the achievements based on the inventions of A. Mikoyan. "He was recognized a great aircraft designer no only in his Motherland, but also abroad," Sargsyan said. MiG Corporation has instituted a Artem Mikoyan Medal, which was awarded to Fadey Sargsyan.
On November 17 2005 in connection with the jubilee a ceremonial opening of a monument to A.Mikoyan took place at Yerevan south airport "Erebuni". Henceforward Yerevan secondary school N 166 and one of military units dislocated in Gyumri were named after Artem Mikoyan.
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- Centennial of aircraft designer Artem Mikoyan ceremonially marked in Yerevan, ARMINFO, Yerevan, Armenia, November 17, 2005
- Artem Mikoyan's 100th birth anniversary marked in Yerevan, Noyan Tapan, Yerevan, Armenia, November 17, 2005