Architecture of the Soviet Armenia: Postwar Period
Postwar period (1945 - 1955 yr.)
The first postwar years were noted by the unprecedented enthusiasm of the victory of the Soviet people above Fascist Germany. This had an enormous effect on all spheres of the cultural development of the country. The architecture not only of public, but also habitable buildings everywhere expressed the heroics of military years. The sculptural and plastic decoration of buildings, serviceman heraldry bore the clearly expressed triumphal nature. In the architecture of Armenia the middle of the 40th and beginning of the 50th it is annual as the entire country, this artistic- emotional beginning found its specific expression. If in the prewar period to not difficult it was note the many-faceted nature of creative orientation, then in the time in question ever more became noticeably conceptual unity. It became possible not only on the general ideological soil of the festivity of time. Here the idea of the unity of people found general formal platform in the Armenian national architecture, whose revival began in the previous decades. It seems that a similar contraction of the framework of creative search could limit the necessary freedom of architect- artist. In by something, possibly, this thus. But, as showed life, this was the realized need. Because of this rate setting of formal search the efforts of the large association of architects were fixed into the united creative river bed. The force of limitation was so great, that even with that occurred for creative dissociation, it in the nature ensured in the united medium nominal harmony and degree of correlation of separate buildings and construction. Normativnost' of architectural means logically escaped from the possibilities of the leading then traditional Armenian laying of system "midis".
Arches, cornices, navershiya of apertures and skul'pturnost' of the rock form, augmented by the selection of the unlimited color palette of Armenian stone, were synthesized by the concrete architectural composition, which escaped from internal technological functions and, most importantly, from the requirements of environment.
Figuratively speaking, this entire limited formal fund for means composed the united and indivisible language of architecture, which was able to materialize complex town-building concepts. It was akin to the entire national culture, based on the idea of expediency, organic nature, self-restriction and economy, similar to temple with the united building material, which penetrates all the structure outside and from within.
In this light, putting it mildly, become very doubtful the estimations of this period of the activity of Armenian architects from the side of individual critics as the expression of stylization. The architecture of Armenia of this time developed its own traditions, which have nothing in common with the straight adoption into its medium of strange achievements, those more - retrospective. This was the creative takeoff, based at the historical processes, experienced by people, and on the romantic of Soviet reality.
The problem of innovating also had national traditions. It was understood as tendency toward the improvement of existing, but not to the invention of new for the new and "on each Monday".
In that historical postwar period, the insufficient state of development of construction base yet could not ensure the condition of architectural innovative search. This will become evident through the pair of decades. However, we have realized its negative aspects only now. At the basis of innovating lay the tendency inherent in skill to rather cause the emotions of admiration - by perfection, than surprise new.
The perfection assumes something already existing, which is improved and is done to the corresponding new historical conditions. It cannot be created simultaneously. It they do create sometimes several generations, but perhaps each new step on this long way not innovating? This is confirmed by entire motion of the development of the Armenian architecture, when search in the united standardized river bed gave birth to, beginning from the primacy - basil, such types of construction as examined in the first chapter domelike basilica, central- domelike temple, domelike halls, round multistage temples and other they all they were connected with each other organically. None of these types can be pulled out from their general geneologicheskoy chain. One type escapes from another. It is difficult even to fix the moment of passing one in another.
The historical roots of the comprehension of the idea of innovating in the Armenian architecture are such. Principally on this basis occurred its development, also, in the period of Soviet Armenian architecture in question. Enormous work on measurements, scientific analysis and estimation of hundreds of monuments of national, cult, secular and people architecture was accomplished in a short time. This contributed to the extraordinary making more active of the exchange of information and to cultural mutual enrichment, as a whole raised the level of creative craftsmanship. However, were observed such phenomena, as formotvorchestvo, enthusiasm by archaisms and even mechanical copying of the forms of the distant past. Despite the fact that these phenomena historically of ob"yasnimy, they, naturally, compromised in the positive integer the creative directivity of the architecture of their time. Especially this relates to the region of the objects of mass building. Nevertheless they could not show essential action on the general process of revival and bloom of the Armenian architecture of these years.
The chief characteristic of this period - the formation of the architectural-artistic means of large Armenia it is municipal and, first of all, its capital. Only ideological and artistic unity could ensure this creative takeoff. Concept proved to be so consonant to spirit of the age that its influence exceeded the limits of republic.
During this period in essence was completed molding of the ensembles of the areas of the name Of v. i. Lenin in Yerevan and Leninakan, area im. S. M. Kirov into Kirovakane, building of the complex of Byurakan astrophysical observatory, buildings of the presidium of the academy of sciences of Armenian SSR, Matenadarana (depository of the ancient manuscripts), TSK KP of Armenia. Was formed ensemble in the bridge of "victory" with the building of the second stage of the complex of the wine plant of trust "ararat" and cognac plant. Were built the main housing of Yerevan meat combine, the central covered market, the building of the institute of Marxism-Leninism, polyclinic according to ul. Moskovyan in Yerevan, tank building in Arzni. The interesting models of the architecture of apartment house are created by architects G. agababyan, O. akopyan, L. babayan, 3. Bakhshinyanom, G, By isabekyan, g. mushegyanom, by 3. tigranyan et al.
Is such the basic, but incomplete enumeration of the architectural ensembles and separate buildings, many of which until now form the architectural means of medium, being the proof of a constant development of progressive thought in the Armenian Soviet architecture. The town-building intelligence of each of them, together with the artistic- stylistic unity and the standardized limitation of the shaping factors ensured accordion even in the amazingly large-scale articulations it was sectional urban space. Specifically, from these objectively the formed architectural "lighthouses" went further formation of the organized system of urban environment. The assigned in them architectural themes, proportional and rhythmical system and especially scale served as unique tuning fork for the development of city for long years.
In this general, creatively united and kontsentrirovanno the purposeful flow separate, sometimes it seemed essential deficiencies are compressed, decrease to the level of insignificant and the quotients. Even the composition errors, frequently connected with the enthusiasm with classical simmetrizmom, because of a strict observance of rate setting the parameters of building, to the unity of proportional system and color coloring did not disrupt the general accordion of medium.
Certainly, took in this case place serious errors and deviations from the ideas placed into the general architectural concept, about which it will be said. But in the complex time-spatial interlacement, preserving united town-building and architectural-artistic directivity they were placed the basis of the means of Soviet Armenian it was municipal and the populated places.
The general ideological accord of Soviet society, which conquered fascism and which combined all creative forces in the united conceptual river bed, ensured the new lift of Armenian architecture.
So again was filled up the historical gap of the "lost generations" of Armenian architecture in the ordered and series circuit of the development of ancient and original national culture. This became possible only under the conditions of the socialist reality of Armenian nation.
Specifically, by this time, in 1951, was completed the new general plan of Yerevan with the calculated population of 450,000.
By new general plan the development of city was planned in the northeastern (Sevan) direction also to the southwest, it was distributed along the bed of river, in this case the boundary of city passed to the right bank of river - into Achapnyak region.
In the new boundaries in urban feature were included the suburban settlings of Avan, Noragavit, Charbakh, Kharberd, Sebastiya, Malatiya and others, which with their life were tightly connected with Yerevan and entered into its agglomeration. This fact should be estimated positively. At the same time, the enormous areas of relict fruit gardens and vineyards on the western and southwestern coastal earth, which and until now, being located inside the city, are used only for agricultural purposes, were covered by urban territory.
This precedent not only destroyed the functional processes of the life of city, but also put its negative imprint on the system of settling and compactness of urban territory, and it also extended transport and engineering communications.
In any case, if in the process of the explosion of city it was necessary to leave to these directions, then city then, in the beginning of the 50th was annual, yet not it was ready for this. It suffices to say that the mastery of western and southwestern territories with mass building began only in 20 years, i.e., beyond the limits of calculated period, at the same time city already envelopped the northeastern (Nork, Avan) and northwestern territories, not provided by general plan.
Certainly, life introduced its correctives. But thus far because of the inaccuracy of town-building forecast and carelessness of the establishment of development stages city did not avoid the number of the serious deficiencies, characteristic for a similar case. Not at all stages of its development it was the harmonically final town-building organism. Furthermore, noncompactness and dispersiveness of the developed territories pulverized the capital investments and as a whole raised in price mass building.
The architectural-planning concept of general plan of 1951 was based on the principles of the Soviet town building of prewar period with the characteristic domination of the artistic aspects, based on the intuitive understanding of the processes, proceeding in the urban environment.
Increase in the population of city and formation of new residential areas required decisive measures for the development of the street- main network of city, which ensures the working and cultural-and-general services trips of inhabitants. The now acting network in essence was formed precisely during this period.
It is shallow, not on the scientific were developed questions of entire transport complex. It is natural that we give this estimation to the solution of problem from the contemporary positions. However, it is necessary to speak about this, since many erroneous, now and then incorrect positions of the general plan in question are today realized and bear the irreversible nature.
The structural construction of general plan emerged not of the synthesis of the architectural-planning organization of territory and solution of street- main network, but of the system of academic views to the organization of urban environment. The unity of this medium forms the network of main mains, in nodal points of which are formed the areas of different configuration. Their hierarchical quality was called ensure the harmonic integrity of entire urban territory.
Marshal Bagramyan Avenue, Tbilisi together with the streets of Tamantsineri, Kalinin, Sebastiya, Kievyan, Komitas and by others were those arteries, which connected industrial regions and center of city with the places of new settling. However, these streets and areas, whose part was realized by building, today proved to be the knots, which delay transport motion and which form the difficultly controlled focuies of the large masses of pedestrians and transportation means. Are such the areas im. Spandaryana and their other small sizes or large number of adjacent them streets make it necessary today to go to the construction of expensive artificial facilities (as this done, for example, in the knot of the intersection of Lenin Avenue with Karmir Banaki St. (Red Army Street) and intersection of Marshal Bagramyan Ave with Kievyan St.).
The width of mains accepted in the general plan also today does not satisfy the necessary capacity. The mains of townspeople value in the larger part did not possess the understudies, whose device today is extremely hindered.
One cannot fail to note that the supply mains, accepted by Alexander Tamanyan, ensures capacity with places greater than on the general weeping of 1951; therefore the absence of reserves for the expansion placed today in the difficult conditions such townspeople mains as the streets Of sebastiya, Kievyan (with the bridge across the river it was distributed), Komitas, Shiraki, etc.
The architectural-planning solution of building along these streets bore on itself the stamp of the concepts of its time. The blocks of the limited size, separated by habitable streets, adjoined the mains. Not soblyudalas' the strictness of the guarantee with school and pre-school establishments. Pedestrian ways were not provided for; therefore the problem of absence of conflict with the transport was complicated with the years. The shortage of the objects of the sphere of services forced population to the excess trips.
In the tendency toward the limitation of the dimensions of the snosimogo fund for the reconstructed regions predominantly was built only shallow edge of streets along the red lines. This led to the building with the plane front of facades with the absence at least of a certain of its scale plasticity.
The realization of the architectural ensembles of streets in the spirit of the classical perimetrically built-on spaces placed in the general plan coincided with the period of the revision of creative directivity. It came out so that the traditional town-building medium of streets and areas, planned by general plan, should have been built to those not determined, and that by the impersonal on the architectural expressiveness volumetric material.
Two contradictory beginnings encountered. Planned "to the on- old ways" town-building medium was built by the made the first steps new, and that by simply old houses with the stripped from them "excesses",
Unfortunately, thus proved to be build ot many even main streets of city. The exception in this number compose those, which were already begun by building and where the architectural-artistic concepts were adequate to the concepts of general plan. To them one should relate the streets Of kiyevyan, Tamanyana and Kalinin, whose authors attempted within the framework of local problems to solve ansamblevye tasks. In them, especially in the building Kievyan St., is located the expressed tendency toward the architectural-artistic unity, to which the authors dispatch by determining the silhouette, on the basis of the specific environmental conditions and the attraction of bright architectural theme with the dynamic development and the harmonic development. However, this tendency toward plastic wealth of building was stopped up into the vises between propped up from the rear of these houses old building and rigid red lines from the side "of street- corridor". Moreover the width of roadway, pavements and the possibilities of re-planting the street proved to be limited and forever fixed.
In another key was solved Marshal Bagramyan Avenue, almost continuously build ot by the low individual apartment houses, many of which were not deprived of the specific architectural interest. At the same time, even according to the estimations of its time this was extravagance with respect to the valuable earth, which directly adjoin to center cities. The late attempts to raise the expressiveness of architectural medium by the impregnation of separate public buildings did not solve a question.
To a certain degree fell out from the general planning structure of city public re-planting. It did not form the continuous system, which covers all residential territories. Not it was made the attempts to combine between themselves many existing parks and squares. The allowed violations of general plan of 1924 in the part of the re-planting also it was not late repair. But, apparently, this problem was not posed. New general plan weakly touched questions of proof-reading center, guarantee of its organic unity with the building of new territories.
Molding of the building of the area im. V. I. Lenin, which was being lasted about three decades, continued during this period. The building with the already built Government House supplemented the office building (trust "ararat" and Armpromsveta), the rekonstruirovannyy house of culture, and also new hotel "Armenia" and house of union together with the radically reconstructed house of connection. These buildings to the equal degree opravdanno caught the architectural theme of the Government House and reflected the specific individuality of their authors. If the office building, is briefly composition similar to the Government House, in the restrained laconic forms develops the clearness of volumetric construction and the architectonic beginnings of the latter, then in the hotel "Armenia" and the house of unions, on the contrary, architectural-artistic accent is transferred into the sphere of the decorative- applied possibilities of beautiful pink felsite stone.
It must be noted that similar extreme treatments of the enumerated buildings objectively operated in favor of the Government House. At the same time, in view of a number of town-building refinements already then was outlined the dangerous tendency to make it ordinary in the building of area.
Area, according to A. tamanyan, treated in several versions, among which its disclosure to the side of the northern avenue of the theater of opera and ballet more all answered town-building the concept of center accepted.
From the attentive view cannot slip off placed By a. tamanyan in the compressed form all special features of natural urban environment in the limits of Yerevan amphitheatre. The artistic- ideal similarity of the model of city in the range of its time was here created. This area is similar to the sculptural signs, characteristic for the medieval Armenian architecture (Gagikashen - into Ani, Haghpat Monastery, etc.), or it is later in the architecture of the Italian revival, when donor (ktitor) held in the hands the sculptural model of the construction based with it. Only scales distinguish them.
The powerful walls of the Government House and office building similar To yorkskomu and Arabkirskomu slopes assign the organizing tone of entire area, as if directing motion through the openings between the short fronts of building from the southern and southwestern sides to the mountain ararat and ridge Armenian T-section. The general motion of the developing from the northern prospectus three-dimensional flow here short-term dies on the powerful, asymmetric set over the area drum of the hall of the Government House in order to then break into the rays, which are fixed to The araratskuyu valley. Rays - similar to the rays of tridents in Leningrad and Rome, but what distant from them by the uniqueness of place and time...
This entire complex system of dynamic equilibrium solved, except the architectural-artistic tasks of center, and the clear functional arrangement of buildings in terms of the value of their content. To the Government House was assigned the place of dominant not only in the space of area, but also in the entire system of northern prospectus, since it was placed on the salient point of the entire tetivoobraznoy three-dimensional structure, which consists of the areas and the avenues.
In the last decade, unfortunately, in the disturbance of this treatment it was is again rekonstruirovano and is considerably extended the existing old building of state historical museum with the picture gallery, which because of its position on the axis of area and with the sharply raised height of many-sided drum became main building area. This deeply erroneous step brought on no those rich, significant architectural- town-building ideas, which composed the quintessence of composition A. Tamanyan. One incorrect step precipitated entire extraordinarily dynamic three-dimensional composition into the discharge of that locked and static.
Not excess to recall that at the carried out in 1974 All-Union closed competition to the project of the center of Yerevan five author's groups consciously forewent the idea of northern prospectus, and two - did not completely overpower the difficulties, generated by the already committed error.
Certainly, the area of name B Of i. Lenin - one of the interesting and final ensembles in the Soviet architecture. But as much it won, if its connection with all architectural components of northern prospectus would be preserved and it would become thus the harmonic part scale even of larger system, which, in turn, would be the component part of the composition nucleus of center.
Harmonious general plan - this is the not simply guaranteeing the future beauty of city program, presented on the paper. Its beauty similar to flower vividly expresses the essence of biological form.
The errors perfect recently today mstyat to us hundredfold, persistently convincing of the fact that the discipline in the town building and the fundamental sequence of the implementation of promising programs are more effective in their return, than frequent deviations from them in the tendency to introduce "their new".
In this aspect, besides the given example with the building of the area im. V. i. Lenin, is very eloquent a number of others.
The opponents Of a. tamanyan, for example, considered the annular avenue programmed in the general plan the certain unjustified undertaking, which carries no real functions, except composition.
Actually, this gigantic continuous horseshoe of verdure with extent in 5 km - almost the main composition artery, which forms the nucleus of the center of city.
In 40 - the 50's by the efforts of its enemies, beginning from the zone of intersection with the northern prospectus, it in the literal sense was cut off by housing building and further it did not pass to the joining with the verdure along the gorge of river it was distributed and By kondskim hill. It seemed that besides the composition damage, substituted to the concentric system of re-planting, which emphasizes the horseshoe-shaped amphitheatre of center, nothing it happened. However, on this day of regret they have only this background,
However, as time showed, the price of town-building error was not limited only to losses in the sphere of aesthetics. Calculations showed that in the center of city the specific security with public verdure now several times lower than this is required. It turned out that this is that part of the annular avenue, which went under the housing building. The matter to this is not also limited.
With resolution of questions of the structural construction of the general plan of city on the basis of the contemporary requirements many efforts were applied for organizing the three-dimensional corridor on the device of the required annular high-speed urban road (SGD), on which for the exception of transit through the center is dissipated the strained centripetal traffic from the mains of townspeople value. Taking into account mountain relief, construction development of the territory of center and many other difficulties, selected today ring SGD it is laid along in many respects the doubtful on the reality routes.
As not to regret now, that 60 years ago the selected zone of annular avenue, if it not was interrupted, would solve and this problem! By the way, the forced sharp increase in the ring SGD hypertrophied the dimensions of the center of the cities, which it limits. Its territory is equal to 1616 GA, which a little is less than the center of Moscow in the limits of the Sadovoye Kol'tso [Moscow ringroad]. The given example shows as the high price of town-building error.
From other side, if town-building idea showed its stability and mastered the consciousness of people, it means in it, because of the gift of objective foresight, the entire system of long-term measures is placed. Therefore even small deviation from the idea leads to the irreplaceable losses.
Under the contemporary conditions architectural science is differentiated, or faster, perhaps, it is prepared. Narrow scientific specialization gives irrefragable answers or recommendations. It seems, to synthesize them - matter not the most complex. But precisely here to the foreground appears the master, to whom is given this skill. Enormous cultural potential together with the talent and by creative charge can convert scientific energy into the energy of skill, connect intellect with the intuition. This knows how to make no one, except master, architect.
The main things on the significance of building and construction in Armenia were always placed in the places most interesting on the landscape. Is natural therefore special relation to the construction of monumental genre, in which art-like tasks are called brighter than all to reflect heroics and holiday celebration of their time. Among these construction the monument of victory in Yerevan occupies visible place. It is placed on the edge Of the arabkirskyyo plateau, locking the axis of Lenin's prospectus.
Its silhouette is projected for the sky without any three-dimensional mediators. The task of determining the scale of construction was one of the complex. It was permitted by the accurate selection of the massive pedestal, in volume of which was placed memorial museum. Stepped passage to the symbolic sculpture of the Mother- native land overcame the possible detachment of the prevailing pedestal from the sculpture and reported unusual harmonic unity and ease to entire construction.
Armenia is rich in the wide variety of the stone of all it is color and nuances. The dazzling illumination density of quartz lamp by almost black shadows graphically outlines even the least small scratch on the bright material. This is caused by the rarefaction of the atmosphere, which weakens the force of reflected light,; therefore in spite of the wide variety of stone, in the architecture preference was traditionally given to the tone saturated nuances, with which nature supplied the country with the special generosity.
The selection of black Yerevan tuff on the monument of victory is not by chance. To the picturesque rock smoothnesses of walls contrast the carved decorative reliefs and portal with the copper chased door, which compose independent artistic value. Even with the strongest illumination shadows on them remain soft, not destructive the unity of entire monument. Furthermore, dark stone ensured the tone unity of monument with the green slope of highland park, after making by its its gigantic stylobate. R. israyelyan, preserving faithfulness to the requirements of concrete medium and to construction traditions, solved complex problem. The force of expressiveness, the craftsmanship, with which it is here achieved, and to this day are model for the creative imitation.
On Lenin's prospectus, along axis of whom stands the monument of victory, on the slope of mountain was built the building Of matenadarana, world famous depository of the ancient manuscripts. In the formation of the means of prospectus, yes even entire center of city it played large role. The town-building thinking, characteristic for the directivity of the period in question, is expressed sufficiently vividly, also, in this building. Elevated from gray-blue basalt, it is very expressive against the background of the green slope Of the arabkirskyyo plateau.
The architectural theme of the building Of matenadarana composes the motive of the rectangular portal, which by a classical variation in the forms of different proportions collects entire musical system pocti of deaf rock wall. To wall with the thin plastic of portal theme are contrastingly contradicted seven sculptures of the outstanding workers of Armenian culture, in chapter with the sculptural legend about Mesrope To mashtotse. Is somewhat unconvincing here the deliberate archaism of the forms of interior and causes vexation the unsuccessful harmonization of the volume of building with the slope (it in the diagonal direction seemingly it vgryzayetsya into the natural medium).
The discharge of the town-building intelligent construction includes the complex of the wine plant of trust "ararat", on which we already stopped in chapter II. However, we returned for this example, since complex continued to be formed also into the postwar years, moreover it is maximally harmonious, in the pass key of the initial solution. Speaking about it, it is difficult to avoid associations with the inimitable description of cathedral Notre Dame by Victor Hugo, the force of the word of the strengthened spirituality unique construction. And in our case the authors introduce into the building the language of symbols and legends, which the mysteriousness and poetic nature report to construction.
It would seem, a similar treatment was inappropriate for the production building. Meanwhile this property is generally inherent in national architecture, and we will be convinced of this based on many other examples. It characteristically also for the the arched of akvedukay of that moved across the river is distributed not far from the bridge of victory. The same understanding of material and its invoice, that is combined with the rational construction. Generally ensemble in the bridge of victory personifies the accordion of architecture and nature. Set on one of the serpentine bends of the canyon of river, it scale organizes the enormous space, with which none of these construction passes within the limits of gigantic and remains amazingly to the humane (property, inherent in Armenian architecture, emphasized by us in the beginning of the book).
In the organization of the three-dimensional medium of the center of city the great town-building value buildings of new railroad station, Yerevan State University and polytechnic institute had. Their role was fixed, first of all, by the critical position.
The building of Sasuntsi Davit Train Station, marked the beginning of creation of the ensemble of new area. It is located in the plains part of the city. The multistage tower construction of the center section of the building with the gable, emphasizes the range of the prospectus Of Oktemberyan, which goes from the area of name into, I. Lenin to the south, to the side of mountain ararat. Terminal area, in spite of the incompletness of entire building, as early as these years found architectural organization, when in front of the monumental building of station was built monument to the hero of the national epos Of sasuntsi to David. Splendid on the expression and dynamically balanced horse sculpture wonderfully will be agree ond by the stylistics of its art-like treatment with the calm and balanced monumental building of station. Running in forward, let us say that placed then the idea of area now entered the completing stage of its realization. The project of the ensemble of area as a whole (new hotel and the reconstruction of the house of the culture of railroad workers), that is comprised taking into account harmonic architectural unity with the prevailing building, promises the successful completion of entire ensemble.
Under somewhat different conditions was built the new building of Yerevan State University. Wide annular avenue dictated the longitudinal composition construction of the complex of the buildings, which form kurdoner elongated along the front. Composition accurate construction reported to it the force, capable to the generalization of the extensive building along the avenue strip, which was established of the separate short buildings, as if spontaneously filled place this rich according to landscape and critical on the town-building qualities.
The limited height of the building of university does not shield the planted greenery slopes of the amphitheatre of the center of city how is emphasized the correctness of the scale accepted. Thus in this zone visibly you oshchushchayesh' the proximity of two horseshoe-shaped green belts: large on the slopes, and small - along the annular avenue.
Unfortunately, the completion of the building of university coincided with the period of perestroika of the creative directivity of our architecture. The excessively appeared zeal in this process led to the distortion of the initial concept of a number of the critical buildings begun by building. Simplification, in particular, underwent the center section of the building of university, which fell from the general idea of architectural theme. As a result, in the final form the building reflects the different concepts, which disrupt architectonic unity and objectively which lead to the disintegration of the integrity of the construction of architectural-artistic means.
The tracks of a similar orthodoxy were preserved even in many places of the center of city. The new building of polytechnic institute stands on that determined even in the first general plan of the city of territory. Powerful on the scale and laconic on the architectural theme volume locks the square, crossed by highway. The three-dimensional development of system is oriented to the highland region (old Nork), uniquely planted greenery by the fruit gardens of the foothill fauna Of Ararat valley. In the prevailing ensemble is necessary the number of small town-building reconstructions, because of which the city will have to obtain new the three-dimensional formed medium.
The buildings of higher educational institutions we examine in the plan of their gradoformiruyushchego value. Together with other erected in the prewar time similar buildings, they three-dimensional the northeastern part of the center, where the building of Akademgorodok even according to the first general plan of city was planned. Later this functional system was failed by the impregnation into it of alien in the content of buildings, as a result of which and the university, and polytechnic, and medical, and veterinarian, and agricultural institutes experience large inconveniences because of the sharp shortage of territories. Beginning from the 60th it is annual part them forced it was its separate subdivisions to leave to the new territories beyond the limits of the center of city.
Certainly, their compact arrangement in the united or close to each other territories has its advantages in the cooperation of many functional it is sectional (transport, the technology of instruction, culture, sport, leisure, etc.). However, their rapid growth forces to the prohibited overpacking of building by new housings, together with the redislocation of individual departments, which causes large difficulties in the communicability of institute subdivisions. Ripened the need for the conclusion of higher educational institutions into the suburban zone by organizing new Akademgorodok. The permission of this problem will have enormous value, also, for the subsequent development of the center of city.
Besides the public objects, which in view of their critical position played the active gradoformiruyushchuyu role, in the city frequently in the ordinary sections were constructed many other buildings. Because of the craftsmanship of architects many of them not only successfully solved local ansamblevye problems, but also left into the sphere of higher town-building functions.
The composition of the building OF TSK of the communist party of Armenia is planned in the spirit of classical triaxial construction with the build-up to the developed center section. The expressive silhouette of the building, situated among the verdure of park, the theme of large warrant and the light-orange color of stone give to it imposing and sufficiently major painting. The stylistics of building somewhat falls out from the general artistic directivity of the architecture of Armenia that period and seemingly renders the specific tribute to buildings of Yerevan of the 20th it is annual in the spirit of classicism and general enthusiasm in the country by the models of Italian revival in the postwar period. Even in this significant building the inertia of perimeter building put its imprint. It, mainly, is inverted to the side of prospectus, to the north, to the nearest slope Of the arabkir plateau. Meanwhile the place, on which is located the building, is the natural dominant, which has excellent exposure in the center of city and, further, to The araratskuyu valley. If these qualities would be takeed into account with the design, then building would obtain really sculptural expression, and the main thing, would become string for the formation in the future of more scale architectural ensemble, then, the tendency to subordinate building street did not only allow to develop wider town-building possibilities and led to the building of the territories, oriented in the center, by secondary buildings.
One additional significant building was built on marshal Bagramyan's prospectus: this is - the Academy of Sciences of Armenian SSR. Principally on the composition method it is similar to previous. At the same time, its two circumstances profitably distinguish: first, appeal to the south, to to center cities and to Ararat Valley; in the second place, progaly, left between the central and lateral housings, successfully were examined from the prospectus and connected entire complex with the verdure of the slopes Of the arabkirskyyo plateau. Building is characterized by skillful volumetrically- planned layout and artistic traced architectural details. The certain fraction of their dryness does not descend the general high architectural-planning quality of building.
The buildings, whose role was also limited to position, should be considered the central covered market and meat combine in Yerevan. Creative potential and culture of architect made it possible in the ordinary medium to find such means, which considerably raised their role in the formation of the architectural-artistic means of city.
Market with its enormous internal space, overlapped by contemporary ferroconcrete construction, has an interior, allotted by truly Roman scale. However, this gigantic volume, after leaving by its main facade to Lenin's prospectus, unexpectedly merges with its humane and warm medium. By this surprising conversion building became the inherent organic part of the building of prospectus. The correctly undertaken key is intensified by the well traced stained-glass panel, which rightfully can be considered as the really artistic work, in which is skillfully used historical heritage. The thin scent of medium made it possible correctly to place and to solve very difficult town-building task with artist.
If the building of the wine plant of trust "ararat placed in the rich natural medium" by its deaf rock planes was entered in the landscape in many respects because of the fact that the construction stone and rock baring were one and the same basalt, then the building of meat combine on the prospectus of Ordzhonikidze with the same deaf on the technological requirements walls difficultly was to reconcile with the urban regular architectural medium. And nevertheless such means in architect was located. Them became the accurately ugadannyy scale and the building material, identical with the adjacent houses. The color coloring, augmented by drawn details few with the taste, reported artistic significance to industrial building.
Substantially they changed into the postwar period and other cities of Armenia. In Leninakan are rekonstruirovany main mains - street Of leninakani and Gorky. Shaping of center here occurred in the same concept, as in Yerevan, i.e. in the system of the interconnected streets and areas (area Lenin and Mayskiy uprising). Were built office buildings, house of the culture of textile-workers, department store and other systematic reconstruction of Leninakan continues also during our days.
In Kirovakan, which even before the war began to be developed as industrial city; also was formed its center. Here central area is moved nearer to the industrial region and is build ot by the administrative- public buildings, which formed the specific architectural- integral medium. Kirovakan always experienced territorial difficulties. Surrounded by the picturesque slopes of wooded mountains, it could be developed only along the gorges and the narrow river valleys. It is obvious that as early as those years the there is no time health resort city needed the adoption of measures for the limitation of its territorial spreading, about which town builders they thought now.
However, under similar conditions were built the cities of Alaverdi and Kapan - centers of the mining industry, whose development, as Kirovakan, it affected negatively the ecological equilibrium of environment.
The goal-directed development of the system of settling, characteristic for this period, noted by the composition of the general plans of many it is municipal and district it is center republic. In the beginning of the 50th they were annual comprised the projects of the district planning Of zangezur and territorial zones between Kirovakan and Alaverdi, and also by Yerevan and by Sevan. The systematic development of unique health resort and recreational zones required their regulations by the leading promising documents. Were rapidly built by Arzni, Dilijan. Was planned the development of Tsakhkadzor and Jermuk.
It is interesting that in the development of the Soviet architecture of Armenia the requirements for its the fields on the genre and the functional sign never were demarcated. This grateful tradition, based on the respect of the native earth, was placed even at the sources of the Soviet regime. Let us recall the newly tamanyans buildings of Yerevan Gus -1 or pumping plant in Aygerlich lake. With a strict observance of entire complex of the industrial-technological requirements of industrial buildings in them not there was shadow of reduction in the architectural- descriptive tasks, which, unfortunately, will occur more lately. As a result they entered into the architecture of Soviet Armenia as its bright models. We already noted the complex of the wine plant of trust "ararat", the buildings of cognac plant and meat combine in Yerevan. Many industrial enterprises were built on the same traditions according to the entire republic. The brightness of architectural expressiveness allotted water-engineering constructions throughout the entire route of the Sevan cascade of hydroelectric power plants (Kanaker, Gyumush, Sevan and Arzni). High art-like qualities placed them in one row with the best public buildings of their time, not lost their beauty and until now.
Summing up architectural and construction activity in the postwar decade, let us note its characteristic properties.
Stereo wealth, the ansamblevuyu saturation of the general plan of 1924 of relatively small Yerevan in comparison with the almost triply increased city (according to the general plan 1951 g.) one ought not to explain only by architectural-artistic primacy, determined by the concepts of its time. These concepts, based on the intuitive- aesthetical creative method, characteristic generally for the skill, in many respects were connected with the personality of artist. Therefore architect on the basis of the personal high artistic culture, crossed with the deep information in all necessary field of knowledges, as a rule, appeared as the generator of powerful creative potential in the permission of the most different problems. Was such the personality of academician A, Tamanyana. Its concepts so entered into blood and flesh of all subsequent generations, that they to this day yet not of ischerpali themselves continue to be realized. Moreover, the errors and the deviations from its town-building ideas, allowed in the past, have a tendency toward the correction.
It is not-without-interest, that the heroic scale, assigned to the most important architectural ensembles of Yerevan, and until now remains unsurpassed, and indeed according to the general plan of 1924 it was calculated in all on 150 thous. pers. and since then are comprised the three additional general plans of city. One should recognize that these successes were caused by the priority of composition town-building thinking. The value of effect of the environment on shaping of the means of separate building was leading.
In spite of the insufficient present of some aspects of the structural- planning concept, which had to for long years foresee the harmonic development of city, was created a number of the interesting ensembles of areas and streets.
Normativnost' of architectural forms served as the means of the harmonization of the built medium and together with sufficiently high town-building discipline contributed to the formation of integral architectural means Armenia it was municipal.
The succession of the traditions of rich national architecture objectively helped deepening and enrichment of the formal craftsmanship of architects and understanding of the creative method of the previous generations. True, in recent years of period became obvious the relapses of the mechanical transfer during our days of archaic methods and forms of the past.
There is an opinion that this entire period should be qualified in its directivity as the stylist's. With this cannot be agree. The predominant majority of buildings was raised in usovershenstvovannykh on their time traditional Armenian wall constructions. The architecture of these buildings was based on the organic nature of the constructions used and forms corresponding to them. Contemporary internal technology distinguished the created best models of this time. The unity of these basic qualities gave birth to the set of the new types of civil and other buildings and construction, which earlier did not know Armenia.
But the chief characteristic of the architecture of postwar decade lies in the fact that in the social historic plan it signifies the successful completion of the first period of the formation of Armenian socialist culture.
Pathos the victories above the fascism and the lift of moral- patriotic spirit so strengthened in the postwar period the leading part of the art-like concepts of prewar period, that the vital consumer aspects of architecture was inferior long time to them in the priority. The fight went on between them. It is slow, but the clearly realistic requirements of life took precedence.
Sharp need in the dwelling could be liquidated only by sharp reduction it was timetable building and increase in the volumes of the introduced dwelling. This mission before the country assigned the party and government at the All-Union Conference on the building (1954 g.) after frank discussion of the question about reconstruction of entire matter and about bringing of creative directivity into the correspondence concerning the practical tasks of architecture and building. Together with the contemporary progressive ideas of these developments in Armenia one cannot fail to note that in them the echoes of the general creative directivity of their time still occurred. Formal, art-like craftsmanship nevertheless bore retrospective, and that archaic nature. Here entirely were not reflected the requirements of the structural organization of planning, the increased tasks of municipal transport, yes even entire engineering complex. However, building was based on the volumetric material, which does not consider the contemporary demands of mass building - dwelling, schools, children's pre-school establishments, enterprises of the sphere of services and so forth it is understandable that in the implementation of these town-building projects subsequently the life corrected them in accordance with its requirements.