Architecture of the Soviet Armenia: Historical Prerequisites

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the y.Istoricheskiye prerequisites

The history of Armenian people was added in the extensive territory of Armenian upland (from The kolkhidskoy lowland - on the north to the Mesopotamian - in the south). In II -.i thousand to n. 3. was here created one of the earliest public educations - Hayasa, in THE XI -.ikh of substances to n. 3. is formed the state of Nairis, and in THE IX of substances to n. 3. - - Van reign (Urartu of Assyrian cuneiforms). From the tribes of Armenian upland strongest proved to be armeny (branch of khayasov), which, gradually proniknuv into the pond of Lake Van, Assyria and Urartu, occupied the predominating position in the latter how is explained "... the equivalence of terms To urashtu also of Armin in the babylonian and Persian texts Of the nakshirustemskoy and Bisutunskoy inscriptions of Dariya" [ 3 ].

About the byloy power of Van reign testify the ruins of the numerous fortresses, located on the territory of historical Armenia. Only in the range of modern Yerevan they find two largest in the past of center urartov - Teyshebaini (on the hill Of karmir-blur) and Erebuni (on the hill Of Arinberd).

From the period of hellenism they were preserved in Harney fortress III v. to n. 3., temple and bath with the mosaic floor I v. to n. 3. The author of the contemporary reconstruction of the antique temple of Harney A. Sainyan correctly notes that ".. do adoption by the Christian of religion Armenian architecture, find in the contact with the architectural skill of Greece, Rome and the adjacent hellenistic countries (Iran, Syria, Asia Minor a number of others), receiving and processing separate architectural forms and details, in essence went along the independent way "[ 4].

The addition of the features of original Armenian culture considerably was activated with the adoption in 301 g. of Christianity in Armenia as established religion and the creation at the end OF THE IV - beginning V v. of Armenian alphabet.

Christian religion placed before the architects of Armenia the most complex tasks, solved by them during those following it was age-long at the highest creative level, which raised Armenian classical architecture, by the unanimous acknowledgement of its domestic and foreign researchers, to the heights of world skill.

Sculptural stely V - of substances and the reached us first models of book painting prove, that Armenia participated, together with Syria, by Egypt and Italy, in the addition of the new iconography, which became then required for entire Christian east.

Basilica occupied the ruling place in the initial period of the formation of the Christian architecture of Armenia, about which testify the monuments OF THE IV -.v substances in Kasakh, to Yereruyk Basilica, Tekor, Yeghvard, Shirvandzhuke, Parbi and other I if dated IV v. Kasakh basilica has characteristic for this type of the cult buildings of the structure of plan and volumes, then Yereruyk Basilica convincingly proves, that in THE IV -.v substances the Armenian architects reached not only high artistic level, but also uniqueness in the development of Christian cult architecture, after creating its rare on the expressiveness architectural-artistic language.

Together with the bazilikal'nym type of church buildings in Armenia appear the central- domelike compositions of the temples, first example of which is cathedral into Vagarshapat (Echmiadzin), built in the IV century the plan of cathedral it represents by itself the cross, between branches of which are located square accomodations. Temple, in spite of small sizes, it is monumental because of unity and clearness of its stereo composition, in which the dominant position occupies the cupola quiescent on four pylons. In the cathedral Of echmiadzina are clearly expressed those new architectural principles, which became the basis of further development of entire Armenian architecture. The horizontal extent of basilicas yielded the place for vertical directivity in the organization of volumes and internal space of temples. Gradually preodolena the dismemberment of the latter, is achieved the rare unity of the planning and stereo composition solutions of buildings.

As the first most important component in development and improvement of central- domelike composition systems rightfully is considered temple the VI century in Avan. The form of cross in the rectangular, only elongated in the direction the east - West, the plan of temple it is obtained by polukruzh'yami of apses. Those located in the angles four the circular cross-section of pridela are connected with the basic podkupol'nym space. Under restraint and solidity of the undifferentiated facades of temple hides itself literally the entire firework of the system of the rock constructions, which organize passage to the highly raised spherical cupola. The bazilichnaya strictness of external architecture is combined in The avan temple with the emphasized vertical aspiration of its elegantly developed internal space. The same period includes the temples in Sisiane, Taline, etc.

In Armenia in the VI century was created the especially local type of khramovogo architecture - domelike hall, whose earliest example - the temple of Ptghnavank. The drum of its cupola was supported by the arches, thrown between the pylons. Four powerful pylons, forming podkupol'nyy square, took to themselves the basic loads of overlap. The entirety of the interior of temple was reached by the fact that the pylons in it adjoined the longitudinal walls, but they did not stand freely. The triangular niches located beyond the altarnoy apse play not only decorative, but also constructive role. The decorative decoration of temple, especially sculptural compositions on the southern and northern walls, formulation of the edges of windows presents large artistic value.

In the VII century the special spread of cultural and civil building is observed. For the unity of internal space and external volumes strive the creators of the domelike basilicas, extended in Armenia even in the IV - V substances (temple Of Gayane in Echmiadzine). Central- domelike composition finds the one-piece and final embodiment in the Temple Of Hripsime, erected in 618 g.

If in the plan the temple Of Hripsime is differed from the Avan church insignificantly (angular rooms - pridely they are square), then in the three-dimensional organization - it is substantial. In it synthesized increasingly better, what the Armenian architecture reached at the beginning the VII century: here and harmonious unity with the surrounding landscape, and interdependence of the architectural-planning and stereo solutions, and the monumentality of forms, which is combined with the plasticity of the individual lines of facade, and the ingenious constructive solutions, which use possibilities of stone. Finally, the temple Of Hripsime is characteristic by the utmost clarity of architectural thought, by consistency and by vzaimo¬svyazannost'yu of architectural and design forms. Tectonics of this unique construction in many respects is achieved by the presence to all four facades of the trapeziform niches, which not only facilitate the mass of walls, but also serve as the expressive element of the decorative working of facade.

Important components in the development of central- domelike system are churches in Bagarane and Mastara.

Temple into Bagarane, built in 624 - 631 yr., has the square in the plan and overlapped by cupola basic volume, which adjoin from all sides four semicircular exedras, which have outside pentahedral outline. Stands cupola on the arches, which are rested on four self-supporting pylon- abutments. A. l. Jacobson counts: "as a whole the temple Of Bagarana gives the completely unique and new composition of the free space under the cupola, which is flowed together with the wide exedras of four branches of cross. This was a large step forward... and were undoubtedly the great artistic achievement of Armenian architects "[ 5].

In relating to the middle VII v. temple in Mastara, in contrast to the temple into Bagarane, internal the space is freed from the pylons and it is completely overlapped by cupola, the entirety of its perception is ensured thanks to which. Are one-piece entire architecture of temple, its stereo composition, which truthful reflects the design construction of building. The deprived of decorative decoration walls of temple concentrate attention in the very invoice of the plane of wall, in the game of various volumes.

On the presence of one additional independent theme in the Armenian architecture the VII century testify the church Of zoravor into Yegvarde, church in the village Of irind Of the talinskeyeo region and the temple Of zvartnots, whose majestic ruins are located not far from g. of echmiadzina. First two - vos'miabsidnye; their composition found expression in the three-dimensional solution: apses are outside emphasized by the alternation of the niches triangular in the plan (let us recall the temple Of ripsime), corresponds to each other internal and the external two-level volumetric articulation of the monuments, which are separated by tektonichnost'yu and strict rhythmicity in the organization of space.

The especially local, emergent in the territory of Armenia type of temples is Zvartnots. In contrast to the central- domelike (krestovo- domelike) temples of Armenia, in the plan Of zvartnotsa equilateral cross is inscribed not into the rectangle, but into the circle, which has outside many-sided form. Temple had the three-layer volume, which is completed by tent multi-sloping overlap. On the reconstruction of the ice-hummock Of toramanyana the internal space of temple was illuminated through the elongated on the facade windows, which have arched completions. However, the gallery of lower tier had circular window openings with the diversely decorated rock framing. The faces of the external walls of temple were richly decorated with decorative polukolonnami with the arches being rested on them, the plane of the walls above which was covered with high reliefs with the plant ornament. The rhythmical construction of temple, its aspiration were upwards clearly outlined both outside and in the interior building.

Researchers note that the architecture Of zvartnotsa showed action on the development of the khramovogo architecture not only of Armenia, but also other countries. The explicit influence Of zvartnotsa is felt in the churches Of Zoravor and Irind, noted above, in the large church in Artik, the church of the complex Of Khtskonk, some churches Of Ani.

Further development underwent into the VII century and the domelike basils, among which is separately separated The Odzun Church, dated by some researchers by earlier time. The well preserved temple, located in the village Of Odzun of Alaverdi region, is separated by the originality of planned and three-dimensional construction. Landed several proportion of the external galleries, inherent in the rannekhristianskomu period of Armenian architecture, are combined in it with the vertical directivity of the basic volumes of building, overlapped by ordered cupola. In the interior this aspiration even more is strengthened.

The association of the principles of the construction of the planned compositions of domelike basilicas and central- domelike temples can be traced based on the example of two immense for THE VII century construction: Large Talin Cathedral and Dvin cathedral. By special wealth of decorative formulation is separated temple in Talin, interior which was enriched by the frescoes, which reached to the present in the strongly injured form. Sections with the monumental painting the VII century were preserved also on the altar apse of temple in Aruch.

But in the territory of Armenia was preserved well the significant number of small cross-shaped temples, in which with the great brightness, by which in the large construction, appeared the high workmanship of Armenian architects. In this number stand the church Of stepanosa in Lmbatavank, the church of Kamsarakanov in Taline and Karmravor in Ashtarak, dated by the VII century the cross of their clear planned composition clearly it is read in the nekhitrostnykh volumes of these "miniature" buildings, which possess entirety and expressiveness of sculptural work. The accurately obtained and well received proportions are made their not only elegant, but also to a certain degree even filigree.

"entire Armenian architecture of early epoch is pierced by artistic unity and entirety, united architectural style. Its basic feature - laconicism and the clarity of architectural forms. Approaching the building, spectator immediately covers entire his composition as a whole, as it not was complex. External masses always rosary are expressive; they are crystalline clear and sufficiently fully transfer the internal volumes, so, so clear and manufactured. To this laconicism corresponds the monumentality of architecture "[ 6].

Historical Armenia Earth was the arena of the crossing of the interests of important states and it constantly underwent by invasions destruction, which caused interruptions in the cultural development of nation. Its following stage is fallen to the end OF THE IX -.khi of substances. In the architecture it is characterized by further development of domelike compositions and by formation of large architectural ensembles. The masterpieces of this time assert the high professional level of Armenian architects, their skill to develop plastic ideas, and also rare gift of the erection of buildings in the absolute accordion with the natural environment.

Simultaneously with the architecture and in the unique stylistic connection with it is developed sculpture in the form of decorative relief on the buildings and free-standing stel with the ornamented image of cross - "khachkarov", which are been the especially local unique architectural-artistic phenomenon, the history of appearance of which is connected with the assertion of Christianity in Armenia.

The earliest buildings of this period are located in the peninsula the earliest buildings of this period are located in the peninsula lake of Sevan - church, based in 874 g. cross-shaped in the plan two small central- domelike temples, whose walls are lined from the roughly processed stones, it is wonderfully planted on the relief. They it seems are poured with the severe landscape, moreover not only because of the accurately obtained scale, but also, which is not less important, the invoice expressiveness of building material and to color accord.

Central- domelike composition found creative development in the main church Of the tatevskeyeo monastery - temple Of pogosa-Petrosa. Instead of four pylons, which support the drum of cupola in the similar systems of construction, here only two; two of others are substituted with the angular walls of pridelov located from the western side.

To the forms of krestovo- domelike construction turned himself in the beginning X v. architect manuel, who built the palace temple of tsar gagik Artsruni on the island Of akhtamar Of the vanskyyo lake, find today on the territory of Turkey. In The akhtamarskom temple were abolished western pridely, and the form of cross found considerably clearer expression both in the planned composition and in the three-dimensional organization of building. But special popularity acquired Akhtamarskiy temple because of the unique reliefs, which decorate its facades and which testify about the emphasized tendency toward the plastic enrichment of the planes of walls.

The important circumstance of each new period in the development of Armenian architecture was the fact that it began from that how ended that preceding. And this principle, as it was noted, not was chance, since otherwise could be formed the break between the past and presently, but succession - one of the basic qualities of Armenian architecture in all stages of its history. Was manifested this both in questions of the creative development of the specific composition, design or architectural-artistic principles and in the formation of the architectural ensembles, which are folded during the life of several generations, and finally in the town-building approach to the solution even of separate architectural problems.

In the splendid capital of Armenia, Ani city one of the most important architects of the middle ages Trdatom, that restored in 989 g. the immense cupola SV of Sofia in Konstantinopole, was built famous Aniyskiy cathedral (989 - 1001). In this largest temple of city the architect, creatively pererabotav the general principle of domelike -bazilicnyx cult constructions BY THE VII century, created the widely opened internal space, supported by the architectural forms of building both as a whole, and in its separate details. This was because of the significant expansion of central nave and emphasized vertikalizmu of the interior of cathedral reached directed toward the podkupol'noye space.

In the solution of the interior Of aniyskogo cathedral, in the opinion of the well-known European scientists Of i. strzhigovskiy, Sh. dalya et al., Armenian architect for the first time used those principles, which more lately developed in the romance and Gothic architectural monuments.

Another creation Of trdata - the temple Of gagikashen is built according to the plan Of zvartnotsa. But architect not to mogdopustit' mechanical copying. And the matter here not in the number of external faces (them in Gagikashene 36 instead of 32 - in Zvartnotse), but in the continuation of the tendency to increase the central podkupol'noye space of cult construction, to give to entire architecture the elevated aspiration.

Akin To zvartnotsu and the volumetric solution of the shepherd church, which relates to THE XI century but as is original its planned composition, as the three-layer articulation of church is uniquely processed! Six-final star is inscribed in the outline of the plan of this pearl of medieval Armenian architecture comprised of the triangular niches. Six crossing themselves in the center arches support the second floor of building. However, the space of the third tier is united in the interior with the second. It is here present only the generality of architectural concept, connected tsentrichnost'yu composition and with the pyramidal principle of the construction of volumes. However, in other respects the active creative process of development, searches, findings continues. As the obvious cases of the aforesaid can serve also having their prototypes in the previous period of the history of Armenian architecture the multi-apsechurches Of abugamrents (X v.), rescuer (1036), the four-apsechurch SV of apostles (Arakelots).

Numerous cult and civil buildings and construction (church, palaces, fortress walls and tower, bridges, apartment houses, underground motions, water lines, bath, etc.), the developed system of the streets Of ani testify about the high level and the town-building culture of medieval Armenia.

Summing up its fundamental research, dedicated To ani city, N. 4. Marr it wrote: "for the most important element in each original architecture, precisely, creation, crucial point is the local source of the origin of artistic ideals. This, by the deeply gripping people layers cultural fermentation is explained wealth of the artistic forms of Armenia... "[" ].

In the monastery Of gndevank, located in the gorge of river Arpa, in 996 g. was elevated one of the first vestibules, which adjoins the krestovo- domelike church 936 g. vestibules, or "zhamatuny" they were by nature the buildings not only of cult, but also civil designation. Their sources lie at the Armenian people dwelling (glkhatune), from which the creators of vestibules adopted, creatively pererabotav in the stone- both the principles of the organization of space and the forms of overlaps with the central illumination (yerdikami). In the cloister complex Of oromos, not far from Ani, in THE XI century was for the first time used the system of the organization of zhamatuna with four columns on to center. In Hans oromos's zhamatune, as in other analogous buildings, one cannot fail to turn attention to the virtuosity of the design formation of ceiling light shades and the refinement of separate parts.

Further development and new features obtained in THE XI century domelike halls. Their composition was substantial pererabotana, in what it is possible easily to be convinced based on the example to the main church (cathedral) of the cloister complex Of marmashena, which is been located not far from Leninakan. Is built this salient work of the medieval architecture of Armenia in 986 - 1029. In it is separated by innovative approach to the solution creative of the problem confronting not only the plan, but also entire used in the cathedral principle of the organization of the three-dimensional composition, balanced by maximally harmonious both in the interior, and in the exterior forms. It is considerably more than in other domelike halls, expressed tsentrichnost' is achieved because of a shift in proportions of cross with setting of cupola in the center of hall. Ease and vertical aspiration give to interior the shaped beams of the thrusts, which covered the powerful pylons of cathedral.

The principles, which were discussed above, in particular ansamblevost' of building, harmony with the natural environment, the succession of architectural-artistic thinking appeared clearly and in the prevailing in X -.khiii of substances cloister complexes of Armenia - Akhpata, Sanaina, Gegarda, Agartsina, Kecharisa, Ovannavanka, Arichavanka, Goshavanka, Sagmosavanka, Gandzasara, Khorakerta, Makaravanka, only it is later - in the complexes Of noravanka, Spitakavora and many others.

The main church Of akhpatskogo ensemble - Nshana (X in) is imposing not only according to the absolute sizes, but main thing, on the architecture, domelike hall. The drum of cupola predominates above all remaining buildings, which adjoin the church and which grow it seems from earth itself. Amazingly harmoniously occurs the growth of the volumes of the buildings, which compose complex.

Vestibule of the church Of nshana, completed by building in 1201 in the period of the bloom of Armenian architecture and active creative searches, - the unique monument of architecture. One of the key problems, at which worked the architectural thought of Armenia in THE XII -.khiii of substances, was the creation of the united internal space of building. Specifically, at this time is for the first time used the overlap of large halls with the aid of the mutually being crossed arches - very static design system. In the vestibule of the church Of nshana this idea found bright and original embodiment. In it the system of the being crossed arches is repeated in the vertical direction twice, which gave aspiration upwards and special expressiveness, caused by the maximum design justification of all lines, to interior.

The fundamental period of the formation Of akhpatskogo complex coincided with strengthening of secular ideology and increase in the scales of civil building in Armenia. Specifically, in THE XII -.khiii of substances the church architecture of Armenia experienced on itself the strong influence of people architecture. To trace this is possible and based on the example of refectory Akhpata, built in first half THE XIII century it is the elongated hall with size 9X21,4 of m, divided into two parts by two round columns. Formed thus halls of smaller sizes are overlapped by the system of the coupled mutually being intersected arches of lancet figure. Arisen from the intersection of arches squares, in turn, are overlapped by octahedral cupola with the central light opening according to the type of erdika. The problem of developing of the wide and well examined interior by refectory (examples Of akhpata and Agartsina) was placed not randomly, since being civil building, refectory served also for the meeting, or the contact. And simply it were not placed, but also were solved with luster and perfection of the true work of skill.

In medieval Armenia rare monastery did not have its library - library. The buildings of libraries, as a rule, were the square in the plan hall, overlapped by arch on the being crossed arches and which is illuminated through the located in the middle of arch circular opening. According to designation, in the walls of libraries were niches for the books. In the building the libraries Of the akhpatskeyeo monastery, in particular, niche complete by slightly lancet arches, which wonderfully connects them with the design construction and the architectural-artistic means of entire internal space.

There are many common features Akhpatom the ensemble of the monastery Of sanain has, located southeast the first and prevailing in the same period. The well-known researcher of Armenian medieval architecture O. khalpakhch'yan correctly considers that ".. arxitekturnye the complexes Of sanaina and Akhpata be among salient works of medieval Armenia, whose artistic merits rightfully exceed the scope of national culture "[ 8]. This estimation can be successfully carried also to many other medieval cloister complexes and separate architectural monuments of Armenia, whose integral part compose numerous khachkary (cross stones), which present unique phenomenon in the history of world skill.

The establishment of first khachkarov historians V v. of agafangeos and Fofstos Of buzand connect with the propagation of Christianity in Armenia. After arriving for the change to heathen ideals and to monuments, khachkary symbolized by themselves new faith. The circle of their application was considerably extended in the course of time. Without losing their religious designation, they were established apropos of different memorable events and as the sepulchral monuments [ 9 ]. Especially much them, proudly confronting the burning rays by gusty winds, on the old cemeteries.

Frequently in the epigraphical inscriptions, existing on khachkarakh, communicates historically important information. In connection with this they acquire the significance of the documents of the history of Armenia. Let us add that khachkary, together with the miniatures, proved to be by the most steadfast to the invasions of foreign aggressors, regions of national culture, which did not interrupt its development. And there are all foundations for considering that in spite of the compressed framework and the limited possibilities of khachkarov and miniatures precisely they became the means of retention in the heavy periods of the foreign dominion of heritage and large painting, and large architecture [ 10 ].

Most ancient of khachkarov (Nerkin Of talin - THE VIII -.ikh reached to the present of substances; Vardenis, Mets Of mazra - 881 g.; in the village Of martiros Of the azizbekovskeyeo region - THE IX century, Of noraduz - X in.) they are simple and laconic. Gradually khachkary became the truly highly artistic works of the skill of the masters of medieval Armenia - architects, the sculptors, engravers on the stone. Khachkar was covered with the finest ornament, into which skillfully intertwined not less elegant decorated image of cross (khachkary OF THE XI -.khiii of the substances Of agavnadzora, Ashtaraka, Qaxaq- penalty, Alayaza, Echmiadzina, etc.). By the special variety of the composition solutions and ornamental working are separated khachkary THE XIII century, of what it is easy to be convinced based on the example of the memorial monuments Of goshavanka, Sagmosavanka, Bdzhni, Agartsina, Akhpata, Sanaina and many other architectural ensembles of the middle ages. Wealth of the fantasy of masters gradually derives them from one plane of the treatment of the surface of khachkara. They go deeply into the thickness of stone, the open band of decor becomes multilayer, even more diverse and more intricate. In the unique composition solution of khachkara Of amenaprkich from The akhpatskeyeo monastery are used the numerous images of human figures. They be present, also, in khachkarakh of the cave church Of the gegardskeyeo monastery.

In the territory of Armenia are many khachkarov not only XII -.khiii of substances, but also later period. Their abundance and variety strike eyewitnesses. They are monumental and picturesque, strict and timid as nature of the earth of Armenian, integral part of which they became.

With the last development period of the skill of khachkarov should be considered it THE XVI -.khviii of substances. "the destruction of the country by Turks caused even in XV -.khvi of substances the wide wave of Armenian emigration to the side of West Europe, to the east and to the south, where began to be created the new centers of national Armenian culture... this economic development it caused to the life a whole series it was municipal and the places, whose bloom falls on THE XVI -.khvii of substances especially this relates to the there is no time large cultural and the commercial to center Armenia g. of Jouguet (Dzhul'fa) on Arakse; artistic evidence of this are dzhuginskiye cross stones excellent according to their thread, whose complex dekorirovka is deeply traditional, but it is at the same time and very unique "[ 11].

The attempt at the familiarizing of khachkarov with other national cultures, which occurred recently, is unsubstantiated and devised '. It is based on the distortion of the value of the depictive symbolism of Christian subjects, the conjectures about their "mitraizskikh" roots, and also about allegedly the nearmyanskikh ornamental adornments. This attempt ".. kra1ne is tendentious on the sense and spirit its and can only disorient the reader "[ 12].

We not randomly stopped at khachkarakh. Their artistic culture, as the culture of the use of decor in the monuments of medieval architecture (from the modest decorative decoration Of ererukskoy basilica to the picturesque reliefs of the portals of church and vestibule of the monastery Of noravanka and chapel of the apostles of Peter and Pavel the monastery SV of stefanosa), and today has an effect on the formation of architectural-artistic principles, proving the indissolubility of the general chain of the development of entire Armenian architecture.

Beginning from the invasion of Mongolians in first half THE XIII century, Armenia again became the arena of continuous wars. Destruction and death bore to Armenian people Persians and Turkmen tribes, Timur and Turk- Osmanlis. The latter especially committed atrocities, converting the efflorescent there is no time cities and villages into the heaps of ruins and pursuing the purpose of the physical destruction of Armenian nation and its culture. The exception the eastern regions of radical Armenia, which entered later (in 1828 g.) was only in the composition of Russia. In them the specific economic and economic activity was observed, building was conducted, but, of course, not on scales of the previous period. In the church and civil building (in Yerevan, Tateve, Echmiadzine, Mugni, Ashtarake and other places) we again see the revival of traditional architectural forms, planned and design constructions.

The period of the bloom of Armenian architecture began with the formation after the centuries-old interruption of new statehood of Armenian people - Armenian Soviet socialist republic.

Before to pass to the account of the material of the following chapters, was desirable in the generalized form to again present the architectural-artistic special features of the monuments examined, the composing basis national uniqueness of Armenian architecture. This is - organic three-dimensional and coloristic connection with the natural environment; tendency toward the crystal structure of construction as to the maximum expression of equilibrium (symmetry); the unity of architectural idea and engineering logic; the laconicism of architectural language; the uniformity of building material; the hierarchical quality of the construction of the elements of building or complex on their significance from whole to the details as the guarantee of the harmony of architectural organism; the dynamics of the growth of architectural theme from the periphery to to center; the harmonious development of theme from tectonics to the decor with the high culture of working the plane of wall. Let us recall O. shuazi, who considered that ".. cisto the Armenian method of adornment, completely alien to byzantine skill, consists of coating of cavity wall with a number of arcatures first of semicircular, then of horseshoe-shaped form "[ 13].

The time, which is outstanding before the architecture the definite requirements, connected with the level of social development, plays important role in the formation of national uniqueness. Time is the strictest judge. Indeed many ensembles, separate temples or civil construction, which are considered as the today best models of the architectural and construction genius of Armenian people and they are received by specialists as the especially national manifestation, in their time sounded innovative, vozmozhn.o, sometimes even it is unusual and by no means immediately they arose in an ordered historical number.

For the course of the entire history of the development of architecture the problem of its uniqueness invariably remained one of the important, and Armenian architects solved it in all stages of the formation of national culture with the inherent in them depth and the creative luster.

We did not consider it necessary in more detail to stop on the historical material, which is concerned the Armenian architecture of the pre-Soviet period of its development. It is illuminated in the numerous scientific works.

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