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George Bournoutian

AZG DAILY 22-10-2011

Although I was invited to present a paper at the conference on the Armenians in Poland last year, the eruption of the volcano in Iceland postponed my visit. I was asked to come this year to examine the Armenian archives in Warsaw and to meet with the scholars who are currently working on Armenian topics. My knowledge of Polish and my mother's Polish origins opened numerous doors and I found a treasure trove of Armenian manuscripts, rare books, and paintings.

The Armenians of Poland were originally concentrated in Lvov, Kamenets-Podolsk, Zamosc and other cities and, as I have indicated in my writings, had converted to Catholicism in the 17th century.

Following WWI, Poland reemerged as a state and Lvov and Zamosc were included within its borders. Unlike the Armenian Catholics in Ukraine (under Soviet rule), Armenian Catholics fared well in Catholic Poland.

The Armenian cathedral in Lvov and the various Armenian Catholic churches housed manuscripts, rare books, paintings, vessels, and vestments, some of which had been rescued from the Armenian Catholic churches in Ukraine during and after the Russo-Polish War of 1920-21 and were sent to Gdansk and other Polish cities.

Some of the important manuscripts were kept in the University of Lvov.

The most important Armenian manuscript was MS no. 58, which contained the travelogue of Simon of Poland (Simeon Lehatsi). The manuscript was examined by Father Nerses Akinean of the Armenian Mkhitarist Congregation in Vienna, who copied it and printed it in the official Mkhitarist periodical Handes Amsorya (Fall 1932-Spring 1935). A year later, Akinean published the work in a separate volume with Armenian and German titles. The book contained additional data, colophons, glossary, index and an abstract in German. During WWII, at the time of the German occupation of Lvov, the original MS disappeared and was presumed lost. Thus, in 2006, when I decided to prepare the first English translation of the book, I had to rely on Akinean's volume. In 2007, just as my book The Travel Accounts of Simeon of Poland, went to press, I heard that the original had been found and was to be displayed, for a short time, in France. I made a note of this in my translation (p. 12).

During my recent visit to Poland, I discovered the secret of its survival. After WWII, when the borders of Poland in the east were absorbed by the USSR, Lvov became part of Ukraine. Realizing the danger, all important Armenian manuscripts, rare books, paintings, vessels and vestments were secretly sent by the Armenian Catholic clergy in Lvov to Wroslaw for safekeeping. Between 1946 and 1949, some of the most important items were sent to the National Library in Warsaw. Among them was the untitled MS. No. 58, bound in light red leather, composed of 198 two-sided neatly written and very legible folios-just as Father Akinean had described it. I was given special permission to examine it, spent some hours comparing parts of it with Akinean's copy and found it exactly the same.

The Armenian community in Poland is composed of two groups. The first group numbers some 2,000 Armenians who lived there prior to 1990. This group is totally assimilated and generally cannot speak or read Armenian. The second group arrived after 1990 and is estimated to be over 25,000. The results of the new census conducted in 2011 will be published at the end of this year. Ironically, it is the members of the first group, who are actively involved in maintaining the historical Armenian presence in Poland and to educate the Polish public about the role of the Armenians in Poland. In 2006 they received a grant from the Polish government and created The Foundation of Culture and Heritage of Polish Armenians. They collected some of the Armenian manuscripts, rare books and paintings from Gdansk and other parts of Poland and have housed them in a secure house-museum in Warsaw. Armenian church vessels and vestments are still in Wroslaw.

The Foundation issues an Armenian newspaper (Awedis), an Armenian calendar, various publications, sponsors conferences, and helps doctoral students interested in conducting research on the Armenians in Poland. Their funds are small and their staff is composed of just four individuals, Polish Catholic Armenians, whose families date back to the 17th century. In my humble opinion, they are performing a heroic task and are worthy of our support. Among the rare books and manuscripts I found an Armeno-Kipchak dictionary and the original 14th-century decree from King Jagiello confirming the order of King Casimir the Great granting special privileges to the Armenians of Poland.

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Pan Armenian 31.10.2005 21:24 GMT+04:00

/PanARMENIAN.Net/ A liturgy was chanted in memory of the Armenian Genocide victims in the Polish town of Wraclaw yesterday. As PanARMENIAN.Net reporter in Poland informed, Archbishop Marian Golibiewski asked the flock to pray for the peace of the souls of the Genocide victims. In his speech the Archbishop reminded that the liturgy was dedicated to three dates, these being the 90th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, 60th anniversary of the arrival of Armenians in Selesia and 1600th anniversary of the creation of Armenian letters. After the liturgy a plate with an inscription saying "To the memory of 1.5 million Armenians slaughtered in Turkey in 1915, to Armenians who helped form Rzecz-Pospolita, to Armenians who were killed in the World War II for faith to Poland and Church." To note, Armenian Ambassador to Poland Ashot Hovakimian also attended the mass.

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| 15:09:55 | 04-11-2005 | Social |


The Polish Republic tries to prove by action that they want not cooperation but friendship with Armenia. After the recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the Seym on April 15 Poland made the next step.

Some days ago in the town of Elblong in the Gdansk region an Armenian 2-meter high khachkar was opened with the image of the Bible on it and with the inscription in Armenian and Polish, `Devoted to the memory of the victims of the Genocide and the Armenian-Polish friendship'. The khachkar was put in the yard of the Saint Yerzhi Church. By the way, during the ceremony, it was wrapped by the Armenian and Polish flags.

A delegation of four people from Armenia participated in the ceremony. Member of the delegation Aghasi Arshakyan claimed that the ceremony was a unique democratic initiative as everything was done free of charge, on charity basis. Only the NA spent money to pay for the visit to Poland.

It is noteworthy that the author of the khachkar, sculptor Robert Hovsepyan too did not take money for his work.

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AZG Armenian Daily #202 08/11/2005

An Armenian khachkar was erected in the Polish town of Elblong to the memory of the Armenian Genocide victims and as a token of the Armenian-Polish friendship, member of National Unity faction and the Armenian-Polish parliamentary friendship group Aghasy Arshakyan told journalists. The unveiling ceremony took place on October 30 with the participation of Armenians from different Polish regions and towns, Vice Mayor of Elblong and Armenian Consul in Poland. A liturgy in memory of Genocide victims was carried out before the unveiling ceremony. The message of Armenian Parliament Speaker Artur Baghdasarian was read during the ceremony. A.

Arshakyan also informed that it was proposed to make the Goris and Abovyan twin cities with Elblong.

Sculptor Robert Hovsepian from Yerevan settled on cutting the khachkar as soon as he heard about this intention on TV. Aghasy Arshakyan helped in finding the stone for the monument whereas the Armenian lawmakers supported in transporting the khachkar weighing 1.5 tones to Poland.

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http://noravank.am/eng/articles/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=6054 17.10.2011

Head of the Center for Armenian Studies, "Noravank" Foundation

Today the generations of Armenians, who have been converted to other confessions for centuries, live in the countries of Eastern Europe - Romania, Hungary, Poland. Most of the Armenians of other confessions living particularly in Poland have also lost their national identity, broken off the connections with Armenia and Armeniancy. Anyway, one should not think that this group of the Armenians of other confessions has fully lost their national identity; many of such Armenians still preserve the awareness of being of Armenian origin which has been descended by their families. The evidence is the fact that over the recent 30 years stirring up of the old Armenian Catholic community has been observed in Poland and this process was arranged on their own initiative. Today many Catholics of the Armenian descent in Poland look back at their origins and try to get in touch with everything Armenian.

Background; The Armenians established in Poland in the Middle Ages (11-17th centuries). This is the period (first stage) when rather big group of the Armenians had been gradually forcedly converted to Catholicism in consequence of a union initiated by Vatican; this process was a Polish reaction to the so-called "religious sects" and the result of the struggle of the Jesuits against other churches (Armenian Apostolic and Orthodox).

While speaking about the remote past of the Polish Armenians in his "One page from the spiritual life of the Polish Armenians" article, V.

Kirakosyan brings the words of F. Zakhariashevich about the disappearance of the Armenian language in Poland and conversion of the Armenians to the Catholicism: "Breaking of connections with Echmiadzin, the local priests had no need of being in correspondence with Armenia and they did not receive the decisions of the Catholicos.

Torosovich allegedly gave instructions in Polish. And the Armenians were forced to join the Latin Kostel and people were visiting Catholic churches and learned the local language and forgot theirs... Thus, the Armenian was out of use and it was almost fully forgotten"1.

In spite of those realities the policy of forced conversion was not taken positively by the Armenians in Poland. For about 20 years the Apostolic Armenians had been struggling against that phenomenon but the capital of the wealthy Armenian merchants was build up on the Polish Catholic society and they did not support the community. Most of them migrated to Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova.

In the opinion of researcher V. Kirakosyan, the church union simply hastened the processes of break up and assimilation of the Armenian community: as a result of conversion to Catholicism and political and economic fall of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth formerly flourishing community had been thinning out and many Armenians adopting Catholicism estranged from their national roots and forgot their mother tongue. Gradually, the Armenian schools had been closed either, which also promoted assimilation of the Armenians. After adopting Catholicism the Armenian language, which had been used by a small number of people, had been almost fully forgotten and out of use; it was only used as language of church rites and ceremonies. In fact the process of the assimilation of the Armenians had been aggravated since the 1630s. In consequence the Armenians integrated into the Polish society fast and this was favoured by the fact that the Poles were Catholics. In its turn in 1664 Vatican undertook the educational issues of the newly converted Armenian Catholics. In the same year Italian monks were sent to Poland; they established schools for the Armenians, selected new priests from the members of the Armenian community.

Though, from time to time, the Armenian city communities in Poland stirred up but that activity declined very fast. In late 19th century and till World War II new flash of the national revival could be observed among the Catholic Armenians in some cities in Poland which was initiated by a number of religious figures. But this process was undermined by World War II which launched a massive blow to the Armenians in Poland.

During World War II many Armenians in Poland suffered the same fate as the Poles, thus being forcedly dislocated. During the dislocation many were either killed or lost all their belongings. In 1939 when the eastern part of Poland (Ukraine) went to the USSR, Catholic Armenians moved to the territory of present-day Poland and settled in Warsaw, Gliwice, Oborni Slonsk, Olava, Gdansk and Krakow.

When in 1940 the Armenian Catholic metropolis in Lvov appeared under the control of the Soviet army, almost a half of the adherents of the church - 2500 people - were exiled to Siberia. Their leader Father Dionysus Kaetanovich was arrested and died in exile in 1954. Most of the assets of the Armenian Catholic churches in Lvov, Ivano-Frankovsk, Tismenica, Lisetsi Snyatin, Berezhani, Gorodenka, Kout were nationalized. All this affected ethnic Armenians: most of them being landowners disguised their Armenian identity as many of them after being unmasked were exiled to Siberia (till 1950).

It can be concluded that political repressions had affected some segment of the Armeniancy thus estranging them from their roots and complicating further possible attempts to reclaim "historical memory".

Revival of the "Old Community" - After WW II the tendencies of assimilation among the Armenians in Poland became even more prominent.

Those processes slowed down in late 1950s when the Northern Diocese was established for the Catholic Armenians (with center in Gdansk) and in 1980s when the Southern Diocese (with center in Glivitsi) was established. They have turned into the centers of rallying Catholic Armenians in Poland. On the other hand this did not mean that Polish authorities accepted that there were national minorities in the country and till 1956 the notion of "national minority" had not been used in the political discourse. But in 1980s the theme of national minorities dominated in both academic and political circles.

Nevertheless, till 1990 the Polish government carried out policy of dual standards in regard to the ethnic minorities. It particular, it regarded the minorities which were considered native and established in Poland long ago. The Belarusians, Czechs, Lithuanians, Germans, Ukrainians and Lemkers (which are considered separate ethnic group, or sometimes sub-ethnic group of the Ukrainians) were recognized as national minorities, meanwhile Jews, Gypsies, as well as Armenians, Tatars and Karaites who had lived in Poland for centuries and who considered themselves mostly as Poles or people of dual ethnic identity (e.g. Pole and Armenian) were left beyond the legal status of the minority granted to other groups. All that was based on one general metaphoric formulation which was used in Poland in 1989: "I am what I consider myself"2.

Perhaps, this was the logic the Polish authorities were mastered by while giving special status to the groups which did not lose their national identity and were bigger than others. But the collapse of the socialist camp as well as social, cultural and other factors within the old Armenian community in Poland including discussions concerning the national minorities on different levels in Poland in 1980s boosted the revival of the community.

So the old Armenian community in Poland revived in the 1980s. The 1980s were marked for the Armenians in Poland by the plenary session in Krakow, after which at the informal meeting, it was proposed to become a member of the Polish Ethnographic Society and to establish the Society of Interested in the Armenian Culture. This society informally transformed into the union of the Armenians in Poland3. The first plenary session was a real "revolution" in the life of the Armenians in Poland and it marked the revival of the community life.

It is remarkable that after this event organizations, which united the Armenians of old generation, were established in Poland.

Today the members of the old Armenian community in Poland are the adherents of the Armenian Catholic Church and unofficially this community numbers 8-15 thousand people. Of course those who have not lost their national identity for centuries and are somehow connected with the Armenian identity consider themselves the adherents of the Armenian Catholic Church. Those Armenians mostly consider themselves either "Poles of the Armenian origin" or "Polish Armenians". Alongside rather big group of people despite the presence of the Armenian traces in their surnames (e.g. Torosovich, Bogosovich and etc.) in many cases do not accept their real origin and stay away from the Armenian community. This is the matter of principle: during the Nazi occupation many Jews living in Poland turning to the Armenian Catholic priests managed to take Armenian names and surnames and thus save their lives4. Even today many of them have Armenian surnames with Polish endings. This fact sometimes causes confusion and contradictions while studying the genealogy.

Unlike formerly imposed restrictions, today the process of reclaiming of the Armenian identity has acquired more liberal shades and the organizations dealing with this issue take the advantage of that. In particular, social, academic foundations and centers were established to study the past and the present problems of the Catholic Armenians in Poland; those organizations lead purposeful work among them, remind them their contribution to the social and state life of Poland. The Foundation of Culture and Heritage of Polish Armenians, which constantly keeps in the center of its attention all the events in the lives of the "old" and "new" communities, is worth mentioning. This Foundation is under the patronage of Cardinal Joseph Glemp. Due to his efforts directed to the revival of the historical and cultural heritage of the "old" Armenian community "Polish Armenian Families in the Pictures of the Past" calendar has been published in Warsaw for four years. The calendar is published in Armenian and Polish and distributed among those who are interested in their origins. With the help of this calendar today many Poles, to their surprise, find out that they have Armenian traces in their genealogy; they carry out independent researches to find out their descent, search Polish Armenian relatives, and study the history of their families5.

Relations between Old and New Communities - The relations between old Armenian community and Armenians who migrated from Armenia to Poland after the collapse of the USSR in 1990-1996 are of special interest.

The relations between old and new communities were initiated mainly after the aforementioned historical event.

Polish researcher Maciej Zonbek who studies the current relations between the old and new Armenian communities mentioned: "In Poland they tend to be recognized as a national minority (old community - A.S.). Their leaders have made a great contribution to spreading Armenian history and culture in Poland and set ties with the Armenians who arrived from Armenia over the recent period. This is manifested in the joint meetings, in business cooperation, as well as establishment of the Sunday schools for the children of newly arrived. Very often they grant legal aid to the emigrants from Armenia who had problems with legalizing their status in Poland"6.

In whole all this demonstrates that as for the issue of the status the stances of the Polish authorities and old community are far from each other - you should either be a national minority or stay Polish citizens of the Armenian descent. One can conclude that the fact of integration of the old community is taken by the official circles as granted, which is determined by smallness of that community, but on the other hand the old community cannot accept the status of the national minority. Due to this reason "Be Registered: Polish Armenians in the 2011 Census" initiative will provide the best insight into the number of the Armenians (from both old and new communities) living in Poland. This important initiative is carried out by various Armenian and Polish organizations and state institutions, which take census.

In the inter-Armenian relations definite positive tendencies are manifested within the framework of organization of national and religious events, whether it is the issue of the Armenian Genocide, any cultural or social initiative which promotes the communal life of two groups. E.g. the head of the Union of the Armenian Organizations in Poland Maciej Bogosevich who is from the "old" Armenians, stated in one of his interviews that they managed to spread lobbyist activity in Poland connected with the Armenian Genocide: "In connection with the 90th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide we had demonstrated in Polish Seim for 5 days documentaries about the 1915 events, as well as carried out some kind of propaganda. This was a big event due to which all the Armenians in Poland form both "old" and "new" communities, came forward united and realized that in this regard our stances are the same. Most of the "old" Armenians did not suffer the aftermaths of the Genocide but in my opinion it concerns us all"7.

Rather interesting observations about the relations between old and new Armenian communities has also been made by Yvonne Kalishevska; it described the meeting of the Armenians in the 1990s and how their relations developed later. According to the author the representatives of the old community who are mostly people with higher education and who do not speak Armenian (that is difference between them and their compatriots living in other countries, most of whom has a good command of Armenian) and they very often call themselves Poles of the Armenian descent. In the eyes of the newly emigrated Armenians they look "less" Armenian. In its turn the old Armenians consider newly arrived emigrants too common who do not correspond to their ideas of the Armenian. On the other hand newly arrived Armenians aroused interest among the Polish Armenians. The later have learnt about the real situation in today's Armenia, about the problems of the country. The members of the old community helped newly arrived Armenians in the issues connected with the documents, job and business8.

Per se, the relations between two communities has initially had positive course, but those relations has been partially undermined as a result of criminal situation which has been mentioned by the representative of the "old" community for many times.

Thus, the meeting of those two worlds - Armenians who arrived from Armenia and Poles of the Armenian descent, who wanted to help their compatriots - very often caused disappointment. The old community was concerned by the behavior of those who arrived in the 1990s which was connected with the activity of the Russian mafia. They used to say the following in this regard: "They spoil our relations with the Poles"9.

It is remarkable that the representatives of the old community did their best to help Armenians who came to Poland in the issues connected with documents, education and etc. Some of them rendered direct assistance. Others treated them as Poles who are interested in Armenia, thinking that the center would take some decision, or some organizations would meet their needs. In some measure they introduced some "secrets" of the Polish society to the "new" Armenians10.

It is obvious that such relations would promote to some extent taking further relations to a new level, as the Armenians who arrived to Poland were considered by the members of the old community as a factor, which could revive the Armenian identity and stir up the community11. It is not a mere chance that in order to be accustomed to the inter-community issues and cultural and other spheres in Armenia on October 17, 2009 "Awetis" newspaper (editor-in-chief - Armen Artwich) was published; this was the first social and political Armenian periodical in post-war Poland.

Spiritual and church life - After WW II when a part of the Polish territories was passed to the Soviet Union, the Armenian Catholics did not accept the repressions against the clergy and the community and left for Poland where they settled in the villages and small towns in the west and south. The rest saw their future in big cities such as Warsaw, Gdansk, Poznan, Lodz, Gliwice and etc. The Armenians who settled in the big cities do not have a church life. The absence of common spiritual center has its negative effect on the life of the community, because the Armenian Catholic Church was considered as the main center, which united people. The political situation in Poland did not allow restoring the rights of the church which would give an opportunity to revive the community. The tendency to assimilation among the Armenians living in big cities even more deteriorated that deplorable situation.

Later, in the 1950s, the issue received positive development when Armenian Catholic Dioceses were established. According to researcher Boris Serov, in the course of time the Armenian Catholic Church turned into a "property" of the Polish Armenians12. It is not a mere chance that the first national organizations and national revival in general were connected with the eager activity of the church.

Back in our times, it should be mentioned that priests of parishes in different cities make considerable contribution to the consolidation of the Armenian Catholics. In particular, the leader of the Armenian Catholics Cardinal Josef Glemp is one of those people round whom the Armenian Catholics and their pastors from Warsaw, Krakow and Gdansk rallied. Thanks to him many Armenian manuscripts were saved, he made great contribution to the preservation of the old Armenian culture in Poland. Among priests serving Armenian Catholics there are Armenians, Poles of the Armenian descent and foreigners.

The church ties of the Polish priests serving Armenian Catholics are not restricted exclusively to Poland but they go beyond its territory.

Particularly, they spread their activity among the Armenian Catholics in Georgia not only in spiritual, but also in social and cultural spheres. Due to those ties the Armenian from Georgia Arthur Avdalyan became the pastor of the Armenian Catholics in Gdansk and Shecina.

This looks like a kind of complimentarity - on the one hand Polish priests settle in the Armenian Catholic villages in Samtskhe-Javakhq, and on the other hand the Armenian Catholic priests, after receiving theological education, try to consolidate the members of the old and new communities and particularly the representatives of the first group who do not know Armenian.

The Armenian Catholic church in Poland, nevertheless, has no status of a general Diocese - it is divided into Dioceses and does not constitute part of the Armenian Catholic Church. It is directly subordinate to Vatican and any point at issue is considered either by Vatican or the Polish Catholic Church. The Armenian Catholics are centered mainly in three cities - Gliwice, Gdansk and Krakow.

Despite positive tendencies, in 2006 the Armenians in Poland reconsidered their viewpoints and prepared to leave Catholic fold.

Such a measure was connected with the decision of the vestry (Polish) to dismiss the pastor of the Polish Armenian Catholic community Thaddeus Isaakovich-Jaleski. Father Thaddeus who ministered in both Armenian and Latin and was a member of the old Armenian community was accused of collaborating with the security services under the communists. In the opinion of the representative of the Armenian Cultural Society in Poland Adam Terlicki, the Catholic Church can stop the aforementioned process by reinstating father Thaddeus in his former position. As it was expected the pressure of the Armenians changed the decision of the Catholic Church.

The religion plays different roles in the lives of old and new communities. "Old" Armenians are more traditional in the religious aspect; they are more attached to the church. There are two polarizations among the new Armenians concerning the religious issue.

First, the absence of the Armenian Apostolic churches greatly affects this segment of the Armeniancy, i.e. they visit Polish or Armenian Catholic churches or they are even involved in the sects. The majority of those who are involved in the sects are people who have no legal status. Most of them have social problems either and thus they try to solve some problems they face in their everyday live13.

Second, the considerable part of the "new" community, for which visiting church is not part of their everyday life, is to some extent connected with the atheist stereotypes coming from the Soviet times14.

To some extent religious problems which are faced by the "new" community, are being solved. For the recent 200 years the activity of the Armenian Apostolic Church in Poland had been prohibited. In this aspect 2007 was a turning point because at last Polish authorities took a decision to register the Armenian Apostolic Church in Poland.

Such developments allow us stating that the close ties between two Armenian groups are prospective and useful for the revival of the "historical memory". This will even more boost the Armenian-Polish relations. May be the visits of the Polish Armenians to Armenia (and it is necessary to come forward with such initiatives) will promote the process of reclaiming Armenian identity among them. The other important fact should also be mentioned - the Polish authorities do not hamper this process of reclaiming; besides the majority of the Armenian Catholics has higher education and there are many state officials and cultural figures among them.

1 Õ~N.Ô¿Õ"O~@Õ¡Õ¯Õ¸Õ½ÕµÕ¡Õ¶, Õ~DÕ" Õ§Õ" Õ¬Õ¥Õ°Õ¡Õ°Õ¡ÕµÕ¸O~A Õ°Õ¸Õ£O~GÕ¸O~@ Õ¯ÕµÕ¡Õ¶O~DÕ" ÕºÕ¡Õ¿Õ´Õ¸O~BÕ©ÕµÕ¸O~BÕ¶Õ"O~A, http://www.lusamut.net/level2_.php?id=35&id_2=663&cat_=2&s=19.

2 Ð~\иÑ...аÐ" ЯгеÐ"Ð"о, Ð~]аÑ~FионаÐ"Ñ~LнÑ~Ke менÑ~LÑ~HинÑ~AÑ~Bва в Ð~_оÐ"Ñ~LÑ~Hе,"Ð~]оваÑ~O Ð~_оÐ"Ñ~LÑ~Hа", â~D- 6, 2001, Ñ~A. 35:

3 Õ~NÕ¡O~@Õ·Õ¡O~BÕ¡ÕµÕ¸O~BÕ´ Õ¬Õ¸ÕµÕ½ Õ§ Õ¿Õ¥Õ½Õ¥Õ¬ Â"Ô¼Õ¥Õ°Õ¡Õ°Õ¡ÕµÕ¸O~A Õ¨Õ¶Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ"O~DÕ¶Õ¥O~@Õ¨ Õ¡Õ¶O~AÕ¥Õ¡Õ¬Õ" Õ¶Õ¯Õ¡O~@Õ¶Õ¥O~@Õ¸O~BÕ´ 2010Â" O...O~@Õ¡O~AÕ¸ÕµO~AÕ¨, http://ha.nt.am/news.php?p=11&h=4&l=l1&?p=11&c=0&t=0&r=0&year=2010&month=04&day=08&shownews=8946&LangID=9#8946

4 Ð~PÑ~@мен ХеÑ~GоÑ~Oн, Ð~]аÑ~H Ñ~GеÐ"овек в Ð'аÑ~@Ñ~Hаве, Ð~Pнив â~D-14, 2007, http://aniv.ru/view.php?numer=14&st=13.

5 Õ~NÕ¡O~@Õ·Õ¡O~BÕ¡ÕµÕ¸O~BÕ´ Õ¬Õ¸ÕµÕ½ Õ§ Õ¿Õ¥Õ½Õ¥Õ¬ Â"Ô¼Õ¥Õ°Õ¡Õ°Õ¡ÕµÕ¸O~A Õ¨Õ¶Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ"O~DÕ¶Õ¥O~@Õ¨ Õ¡Õ¶O~AÕ¥Õ¡Õ¬Õ" Õ¶Õ¯Õ¡O~@Õ¶Õ¥O~@Õ¸O~BÕ´ 2010Â" O...O~@Õ¡O~AÕ¸ÕµO~AÕ¨, http://ha.nt.am/news.php?p=11&h=4&l=l1&?p=11&c=0&t=0&r=0&year=2010&month=04&day=08&shownews=8946&LangID=9#8946

6 Õ~DÕ¡Õ¹Õ¥Õµ Ô¶Õ¸Õ¶Õ¢Õ¥Õ¯, Õ~@Õ¡ÕµÕ¥O~@Õ¨ Ô¼Õ¥Õ°Õ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ¸O~BÕ´. Õ¶Õ¸O~@ Õ°Õ¡Õ´Õ¡ÕµÕ¶O~D (1990-2007Õ©Õ©.), Ô²Õ¡Õ¶Õ¢Õ¥O~@ ÔµO~@O~GÕ¡Õ¶Õ" Õ°Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¬Õ½Õ¡O~@Õ¡Õ¶Õ", Õ~@Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ£Õ"Õ¿Õ¸O~BÕ©ÕµÕ¸O~BÕ¶, 130.1, ÔµO~@O~GÕ¡Õ¶, 2010, Õ§Õ" 71O~I

7 Ð~PÑ~@мен ХеÑ~GоÑ~Oн, Ð~]аÑ~H Ñ~GеÐ"овек в Ð'аÑ~@Ñ~Hаве, Ð~Pнив â~D-14, 2007, http://aniv.ru/view.php?numer=14&st=13.

8 Ô"Õ¾Õ¸Õ¶Õ¡ Ô¿Õ¡Õ¬Õ"Õ·O~GÕ½Õ¯Õ¡, Ô¼Õ¥Õ°Õ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ¸O~BÕ´ Õ°Õ¡ÕµÕ¥O~@Õ" Õ¡Õ¤Õ¡ÕºÕ¿Õ¡O~AÕ"Õ¡ÕµÕ" Õ¼Õ¡Õ¦Õ´Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡O~@Õ¸O~BÕ©ÕµÕ¸O~BÕ¶Õ¶Õ¥O~@Õ¨, Ô²Õ¡Õ¶Õ¢Õ¥O~@ ÔµO~@O~GÕ¡Õ¶Õ" Õ°Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¬Õ½Õ¡O~@Õ¡Õ¶Õ", ÔµO~@O~GÕ¡Õ¶, 2009, Õ§Õ" 197O~I

9 Ibid, p. 197O~I

10 Ibid, p. 196O~I

11 Õ~DÕ¡Õ¹Õ¥Õµ Ô¶Õ¸Õ¶Õ¢Õ¥Õ¯, Õ~@Õ¡ÕµÕ¥O~@Õ¨ Ô¼Õ¥Õ°Õ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ¸O~BÕ´. Õ¶Õ¸O~@ Õ°Õ¡Õ´Õ¡ÕµÕ¶O~D (1990-2007Õ©Õ©.), Ô²Õ¡Õ¶Õ¢Õ¥O~@ ÔµO~@O~GÕ¡Õ¶Õ" Õ°Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¬Õ½Õ¡O~@Õ¡Õ¶Õ", Õ~@Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ£Õ"Õ¿Õ¸O~BÕ©ÕµÕ¸O~BÕ¶, 130.1, ÔµO~@O~GÕ¡Õ¶, 2010, Õ§Õ" 71O~I

12 Ð'оÑ~@иÑ~A СеÑ~@ов, Ð~_оÐ"Ñ~LÑ~Aкие аÑ~@мÑ~Oне, Ð~PÑ~@мениÑ~O Ð-авÑ~BÑ~@а, 2007,http://www.armeniazavtra.ru/print.aspx?id=215

13 Ð~_оÐ"Ñ~LÑ~Aкие аÑ~@мÑ~Oне намеÑ~@енÑ~K покинÑ~CÑ~BÑ~L Ð"оно Ð~ZаÑ~BоÐ"иÑ~GеÑ~Aкой ЦеÑ~@кви, 26.10.2006, http://www.pcseba.org/news/index.php?id=29410.

14 Krystyna Iglicka, Active Civic Participation of Third Country Immigrants - Poland, Centrum Stosunków MiÄ~Ydzynarodowych Center for International Relations, Reports&Analyses, 4/05, Warszawa, 2004, p.23:

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Armenian Youth Survives Stabbing Attack in Poland

Heghine Buniatian 28.03.2012 A young ethnic Armenian is being treated for multiple stab wounds after surviving a suspected racially motivated attack by a neo-Nazi group in Poland.

The incident took place in eastern Poland’s largest city of Bialystok on Sunday, with the local media identifying the victim as a 21-year-old Armenian by the first name of Ogsen, who is, presumably, a local resident.

Bialystok’s newspapers, Kurier Poranny, quoted eyewitnesses as saying that two dozen masked nationalists broke into a local nightclub and went specifically for the Armenian, who is said to have been brutally beaten before being repeatedly stabbed and left bleeding.

“They were very confident in their actions, and the impression was that they had come for a particular person, perhaps they were taking revenge on him,” the club’s manager said, according to the paper.

Local media say it is the second attack targeting the young Armenian. Last April a group of knife-wielding youngsters assaulted Ogsen and his friends in broad daylight, reportedly hurling racist insults and making other offensive remarks against the Armenian and his companions. A braw ensued and Ogsen and his friend managed to repulse the attackers, inflicting serious injuries on one of them. After the investigation that lasted for months the court found Ogsen guilty and sentenced him to two years in prison. “Apparently, that punishment did not seem severe enough for the skinheads and they decided to wage a vendetta against him,” writes one of the Polish bloggers.

The local police stop short of calling it a crime committed on ethnic grounds. According to official sources, the investigation into the attack is ongoing and two suspects have already been arrested. “We cannot say anything yet, the police are investigating the case and we hope that much will become clear in the coming days,” the Kurier Poranny newspaper quoted Bialystok’s public prosecutor Marek Winnicki as saying.

“One thing is clear: problems with neo-Nazism are not new to our country,” a Gazeta Bialystok commentator wrote on Tuesday, adding that the weekend incident revealed just how vulnerable the Polish system of justice was. “Even though Ogsen suffered an attack a year ago, his attackers have not been brought to justice until today, because the prosecution did not provide grounds for bringing a case against them. The Sunday incident perhaps would not have happened, had the law-enforcement taken the opposite course of action and investigated the case of the attackers first,” the Polish analyst suggested.

The Armenian embassy in Poland says it continues to follow the developments in the case and has already sent an official inquiry to Bialystok’s prosecutors and police officials. According to the information possessed by Armenian diplomats in Warsaw, the current condition of the attacked Armenian is satisfactory, he remains in hospital and is under constant medical supervision.

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