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Map showing Tigran the greats empire and Cappadocia as a province of the Armenian empire.

Tigranocerta was built by a descendant of Artaxias, Tigranes II the Great, who had been able to reunite Armenia but was defeated by the Roman general Pompey in 66 BCE. The western part of Armenia became part of the Roman world and was included in the province of Cappadocia. Greater Armenia remained independent. Later, the country was briefly occupied by the Romans between 114 and 117 CE.

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