Architecture of the Soviet Armenia: Searches for unity in the new approaches

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< - Architecture of the Soviet Armenia

4. Searches for unity on the new ways (1956 - 1970 yr.)

It is known that the specific character of architecture as the spheres of activity composes the synthesis of the art-like and utilitarian tasks, the relationship between which has broad band. Besides the content of object, it is added by the creative directivity, which is been the expression of specific social historic conditions.

We already saw how in the postwar years society, experiencing the sharp need for the objects of mass building, did not turn from spiritual aspiration to the architecture, caused by the triumph of victory. Being examined back, it is possible to see, by what complex, sometimes contradictory ways were overcome the nonconformities of the requirements of real life and by the obsolete creative concepts. Even in the prewar period in the country, together with the flows, which in their creative concept returned priority to aesthetical aspects or they were more and the less contemporary interpretation of the classical synthesis of the beginnings indicated, were conceived the bases of the new Soviet concept of the architecture of the mass home construction activity, which are predominantly rested on the industrial methods of construction production. If the works of the masters of architecture were characterized by the sequence of the realization of creative concepts in understanding of the formation of three-dimensional medium, interdependence of functional- technological and art-like requirements, logical intelligence of architectural form, then in these years appeared building- imitators, deprived of these qualities, whose essence composed the immoderate overload by the by hand completed rock decor. Later this will be correctly betrothed by the "architectural extravagances".

The country mobilized entire its potential to the solution of primary task - the restoration of those destroyed by war it was municipal and villages. It was necessary to ensure the growing population of the country with dwelling, to reconstruct the old living-space fund fallen into decay in the years of war. The scales of works were truly immense.

In the initial operating cycle these they conducted on the relatively moderate scales. Because of the application in the building of the four- five-storied rock houses of a standard series cost 1 m2 dwelling became doubly lower than in the directly postwar period.

Construction and material base yet they did not give the possibility completely to be reoriented to the progressive direction. The industrialization of mass building also could not occur immediately. It required large means, and the main thing - time, therefore, the searches, begun even before the war, were limited by field the carrying out of the new composite ferroconcrete constructions of overlaps, large wall blocks and other elements, which do not ensure an even more complete plant readiness. Just they found the first significant pulse. However, the limited power of construction base determined the appropriate volumes of home construction activity; therefore still for a while these conditions answered the customary structure of the organization of habitable medium either small blocks even in the free territories (Arabkirskoye plateau, burrows -Arew), or by the perimeter building of the reconstructed blocks of the center of city.

The absence of territorial space did not make it possible to complexly solve all problems of the rational organization of way of life. Out of the united structure of habitable formations were placed the schools, children's pre-school establishments and other elements of the sphere of maintenance. The small sizes of habitable formations crushed street- road network, causing thus of the inconvenience of transport and pedestrian motion. In this case occurred the rise in price of the cost of engineering equipment. A similar divisibility of the complex organization of habitable territories substantially was reflected also in the methods of organizing the building, the application of mechanisms and savings of productive forces.

Coarsening habitable formations in the free territories, industrialization and clear organization of construction production had to ensure the larger number of introduced within the shortest periods cheap dwelling. But already then began to disturb specialists the architectural- three-dimensional solutions of the building of habitable formations. In one case the small sizes of the blocks, in which they began to use standard projects of altogether only of one-two types, substantially limited the possibilities of three-dimensional methods for achievement of expressiveness. The monotony of houses in connection with this continued to come out as its not only primary manifestation in the architecture of buildings, but also as final form of the organization of entire architectural medium.

In other case, with an attempt at the recovery to the perimeter building, turning to which depended inertia in thinking, predominantly planar "ensemble" of individual houses, volumetric material composed all of the same one-two types of houses. Building, thus, formed the monotonic rock screen from the identical houses, placed on the boundary of street and narrow court.

All failures attempted to explain only by the fact, that- de the houses used were monotonous. But this was not entire reason. The simplified comprehension of tasks, the uncertainty of creative positions, and that and confusion were characteristic for that time. This was complex crisis for the town builders and the architects time. It was necessary to reexamine and to forego many usually prevailing views. It was necessary to manufacture new creative positions and to leave to another scale level of tasks. Important significance they had a decision by the CC CPSU and the Council of Ministers OF USSR 1957. "about the development of home construction activity into THE USSR" and the solutions taken place during June 1960 of All-Union Conference by the town building. At the conference was thoroughly considered the state of the matter of planning and building municipal. It revealed the serious deficiencies, which occurred in the practice of design and building, and it outlined the ways of further development of Soviet it was municipal. "to designers and to builders it is necessary to always provide for the balanced package of the confronting them tasks, more persistently to inject in the practice the progressive methods of planning and building, to create the final habitable complexes, it is reasonable to use area relief, reservoirs, green cultivations, to creatively use economical, contemporary standard projects, to create the new, convenient types of buildings and construction. Everything, which surrounds Soviet person, must be conveniently and it is beautiful ". In this compressed form collective thought and will of the party and people was expressed. This program until now preserves its urgency.

On the boundary of the end of the 50th - the beginning of the 60th in Yerevan it was annual begun the building of the new residential area Of achapnyak on by right to the bank Of razdan2 river. This was the first residential area in Armenia in the usual planning understanding of its structural and functional value in the system of urban settling. It consisted of the amalgamated blocks with the placed in them schools and the children's pre-school establishments. The system of torgovo- everyday maintenance was rganizovana by the establishments, build it the first floors of apartment houses. Here still was absent the expressed mikrorayonnaya structure.

The center of residential area adjoins the avenue, which go outs from the zone of leisure in the gorge of river it is distributed. On the periphery of region are laid townspeople highways, from which into the depths of the region are branched habitable streets. Loop or blind entrances to the houses adjoin the latter. The planning solution still insufficiently reflects intercommunication between the blocks. This connecting role, actually, belongs to the habitable streets, to which are carry ouied pedestrian and transport motion. The sensation of internal static character and closure of blocks is strengthened even and by the predominance of the continuous front line of perimeter building with the organization of the semiclosed courts, inverted inside the blocks.

To the rich landscape of the gorge of river it is distributed composition it reacts only by avenue on ul. However, Abelyana, the rod of composition construction proved to be axis secondary ul. Shinararneri. At the same time, in some places is here made the timid attempt to use the methods of this contemporary three-dimensional organization as the small or saw-tooth building, whose value does not exceed the scope of local tasks and does not influence the general insulative property of residential area from the environment.

However, the greatest role in general architectural malovyrazitel'nosti of new region played the monotonous volumetric material of apartment houses. Actually it consists of one type of the four-storied rock houses, which are characterized by only extent (due to the number of blocked sections).

The insulative property of residential area from The razdanskogo gorge could not be overcome, since at that time yet not there were even standard nine-story houses. It is later, when these houses appeared, the attempt at their arrangement inside the blocks, which contributed to overcoming the monotony of the appearance of residential area, was made to a certain degree. And nevertheless building did not acquire organic connections with the volumetrically- planning structure of region, but it only somewhat revived silhouette from the distant points.

As a central failure in this residential area should be recognized composition indifference to this natural- topographical dominant, as the gorge of river it is distributed. It seems that, if not this, then even with the limited volumetric material, given at the disposal of the authors, region could become more expressive.

On the same creative positions are build ot the city blocks of the 11th and 15th residential area Of achapnyak '. Their weak bonds with the neighbors, placed even in PDP, could not but affect negatively the composition unity of entire building. Being they are designed by other authors, they produce the impression of a certain architectural-artistic independence, although with the already appeared new qualities. Is here, for the first time in the mass building, made an attempt at overcoming monotonous four-storied building.

In the city blocks they found already a use of a house into 9 - 16 floors. This considerably increased the expressiveness of the silhouette of building. However, the absence of clear structuredness in the construction zoning in combination with the composition uncertainty did not make it possible to obtain architectural-artistic unity even with the presence of more diverse volumetric material.

One additional step was here made. Sharply increased the sizes of city blocks, which became possible because of relatively calm area relief. Thus, the city block of the 15th has already an area in 50 GA. Coarsening territory made it possible to organize the functional zones, structurally connected with the mikrorayonnym garden and between themselves.

The establishments of cultural and general services were projected in the separate buildings. Stores and other objects of the sphere of maintenance by their volumes began to guard intra-yard spaces from the streets, and in the block with the 11th were built underground parking garages for the individual motor vehicles, whose roofs at the level of topographic surface were returned to sport and play areas.

These city blocks nevertheless are not noted by the brightness of architectural-artistic means. Key for disclosing the natural or architectural supporting substances for the development of its own possibilities here is not found. These flaws, apparently, the consequence of composition deficiencies PDP and objective neglect to by the presented surrounding locality to requirements.

Mountain landscape - leading theme of the view of Armenia. There is here not plot of the earth of flat and not terminated, when it is more boundless, the all-absorbing sky requires artist to create gigantic artificial composition dominants so that they, in turn, predetermining the role of each volumetric component, would become the mediators between the infinitely large and the small, i.e. according to the principle: "there is no excellent out of the unity, there is no unity without the subordination" (D. Diderot).

Topographical medium in Armenia is everywhere three-dimensional organized. Even spacious Araratskaya valley, similar to gigantic arena, has its three-dimensional face, where prevails the duet of the large and small ararats, supported of the mansions of mountain ranges.

A countless variation in the mountains, valleys and gorges nowhere is repeated. Mountains organize natural environment, similar to the enormous accomodations, where there are their walls, different in the height, to incline and to outline, with the "ceiling" of the limited sizes in the form of dark-blue sky. Here there is no need in the artificial mediator between the scale of that be all-absorbinging of the firmament and architectural construction, since this mediator - created with nature protoplastic space.

Not therefore whether in the Armenian architecture in the establishment of scale as starting point was received man? Not therefore whether here was not encountered gigantomanii?

Each organized by nature space has a secret of its device. It, similar to music, assigns its, only its, unique "key", to architecture remains correctly it to grasp and the means of expressiveness, inherent in its abstract language, to allot construction the related to concrete place qualities, after making by its integral part of the medium.

In the painting this medium can be selected to the subject, the action in order to in the best way open the ideological content of picture. However, in the architecture it is assigned. And if here in contrast to the painting everything is understandable by science, then the skill to understand the special feature of each unique medium for its harmonic reincarnation into the architecture - this great skill, comprises object and concept of the secret of its skill. Not this whether skill does report the unfading fascination to such ensembles as the Parthenon and the Kremlin, Akhpat and Amberd?

In the century of industrial mass building it acquires new importance. Before due to the unlimited variety of buildings we could generate architectural- information interest, and other blemishes would step back to the second plan. The today incorrect town-building solution with its limited variety of houses in the mass building will mercilessly bare by its insolvency and will throw down the object of our creation into the peace, distant from the skill, into the peace of spiritual silence and boredom.

Similarly how nature for our unconsidered steps, which disturb ecological balance, it mstit to us, so also in the skill of architecture for the neglect of it or the composition errors, which lead to disruption of harmonic equilibrium, the same nature sternly and pitilessly depreciates that effected by us. But it occurs, that it reveals its secrets and suggests the way of overcoming the errors.

In the middle of the 60th it was annual begun mastery by the mass habitable building of the territories Of the yorkskyyo highland plateau in the northeastern part of Yerevan '. The concept of plateau in this case applicably very conditionally, since it, in turn, presents the locality, sufficiently crossed with the expressed hills and the dry valleys of natural drains.

Medium altitude above sea level here reaches 1300 m, i.e. to 300 - 350 m higher than the marks of the center of city. Drops in the locality koleblyutsya to 100 m.

Under these complex conditions with the composition of the detailed planning of residential area over the area of approximately 350 GA because of the thorough calculation of relief and geological engineering factors the authors reached the optimal planning- structural solution of region. Street- main network ensures convenient shortest connection with the center of city. The continuation of the main main) (ul Gaius region constructed recently, passing the center of city, connects region with the basic place of the application of labor - by southern industrial region.

Here also, as in Achapnyake, were sharply limited the types of houses. Building began from the four- five-storied houses. On the motion of the erections they were supplemented with 9 - 16- storeyed, which were mastered by production.

As the basis of the composition of the building of region is assumed the principle of the arrangement of buildings in a strict movement to area relief, also, in accordance with the mikrorayonnym structural construction as primary and only habitable formation. Hence common figure is indifferent to the surrounding region rich mountain view, and the objective assertion of the idea of insulative property from the environment.

Thus, the large sizes of mikrorayonov('0 and more than ga)bez of internal articulations to the smaller formations of snivelirovali the rich composition possibilities of residential area. From other side, is not read the internal structural construction, based on the lowest forms of three-dimensional organization (courts, etc.) typical for the southern city. The absence of the clearness of the construction of maintenance system deprived the region of characteristic for the mountain locality specific character, connected with the reduction of the ways of pedestrian movement. Entire system of torgovo- everyday maintenance is placed in the first floors of apartment houses and is atomized throughout the entire territory of city blocks.

It is seemed that upon thorough consideration of the special features of microrelief the composition of building had to be constructed on the formation of primary cells - the groups of houses and objects of first stage of torgovo- everyday maintenance. A similar construction would afford the possibility to create the continuous system of re-planting with the placed in it schools and the children's pre-school establishments. Furthermore, along these zones would be passed the basic pedestrian ways, which are now in the residential area discontinuous or combined with the transport ways. But the main thing, this approach could report to region the necessary composition unity, which so to it it does not be sufficient.

The nonutilization of all given by natural medium possibilities, together with the monotony of volumetric material, in spite of accumulated experience on the residential area Of achapnyak, it did not allow Norkskomu residential area to make the expected decisive step on the road to improving the architectural- three-dimensional solution of large habitable formation.

For the sake of fairness it should be noted that the appearance in the region of the apartment houses of the increased height, built with the method of lifting the overlaps, significantly influenced the enrichment of the silhouette of building. Furthermore, the re-planting along the streets arrived in time in the course of time, in the squares and the parks, that covered slopes, created active tone cover and background, which emphasized the figure of planning and building. Thus to the certain degree was preodolena the overall colorful poverty of coloring.

With the same characteristic for the period in question special features were build ot residential areas Verin zeytun and It shengavit in Yerevan. Building by new dwelling here went predominantly in the free territories. Under the design centers of maintenance there was a low building, which during the first stage did not be subject to removal. However, they also began selectively to be built in the course of time, as a result of which the design system of cultural and general services failed.

Mass building was conducted also in other cities of republic.

In Leninakan was built the residential area Of antarain, in Kirovakane - Dimats, in Alaverdi - in The sanainskyy plateau. Actively were built The kafan cities, was distributed others.

The special features of contemporary mass habitable building were added during this period. With resolution of questions of the guarantee of population with dwelling space, apartments and steady increase in the conditions of way of life was solved the series of problems in the problem as a whole. At the same time, building began from the apartment houses without the proper engineering training of territories. Street- road network was constructed more lately. The building of schools, pre-school children's establishments and units of the torgovo- everyday and cultural maintenance of population sharply lagged. The complex improvement of habitable territories with the sport areas, the places of leisure and the re-planting is not everywhere completed after a lapse of already many years.

The developed standard series of the apartment houses, in composition of which they were provided for to ten of types of houses and blocks, made it possible to raise their town-building combinatorial analysis. Because of this, and also calculation of the requirements of concrete three-dimensional medium it was possible to dostich' the composition solution of habitable formations. Relief had to give birth to the characteristic terraced and cascade houses, which not only were beautiful by their descending along the slopes rhythm, but also make it possible considerably to economize the missing for the agriculture plains earth. Running in forward, let us say that several experimental cascade apartment houses, erected in the 70's in Kafane, in the root changed the appearance of its center, after preserving in this case rich natural landscape.

The architectural expressiveness of the building of many habitable formations could be enriched by the application of construction articles made of different stones, by which is so rich the republic, and also in the introduction of a strict limit of the circulation of the acting standard series of houses. Indeed their some types adapt by decades. But the matter, unfortunately, did not go along this way. The narrowly economic interest of construction organizations led to the fact that in the production were mastered one - three types of the houses, which are differed only in the extent, and the revetment of buildings was performed by exceptionally artikskim tuff and its articles. Then they began to talk about the "pink boredom" in the mass home construction activity.

Are such the special features of industrial habitable building in the initial period of their development some of its deficiencies they are tenacious and until now, but special anxiety causes monotony and monotony of building, which, to acknowledge, we could not solve on mass scales. Certainly, having in the briefcase two or three types few apartment houses of one series outstanding in the appearance, difficult it was to attain the architectural-artistic expressiveness, similar to building ul. Kiyevyan, based on the "obsolete" concepts, where each house - this the final architectural self-worth and simultaneously the harmonic part of the entire building.

Under these merciless terms were possible two directions. The first - use of volumetric material with the deep joint comprehension of the natural- artistic special features of concrete medium and composition possibilities of the contemporary structure of habitable formations scant on the selection. Second direction - formation of building only on the basis of the internal structural organization with its impassive reflection in the extrinsic ethos. Is here obvious rate for the solution of aesthetical problems by the moral means: "it is truthful - it means beautifully".

These ways reflect the bases of the shaping concepts, which escape from different interpretation of the concepts about the function. It is known that into the latter several decades by the efforts of orthodox funktsionalistov step by step in the architecture were asserted the celebration of principle "the function determines form". Only internal technology and three-dimensional organization were implied by function, and external topographical and architectural- environmental special features, age long inherent in architecture shaping factors, were excluded from the concept about the function.

Now, giving estimation to a similar nihilism, it is possible to establish that so called "environmental kontekstual'nost'", which many placed in the categories of the old classical architecture eliminated itself, with its realization required of the architect of large talent and high artistic culture. But in the specific personal aspect this kontekstual'nost' by its normativnost'yu limited the freedom of "innovative", bessredovogo search.

But the high achievements of contemporary world architecture by their success, first of all, are obliged to faithfulness to the environmental understanding of the architecture (let us recall the house above the waterfall of Wright or De lya le korbyuz'e's Turett). With this faithfulness are connected the best achievements of Soviet architecture. Instead of such balanced package of the questions, which compose the essence of architecture as the spheres of activity, was asserted the certain one-sided ethical interpretation of beauty as the manifestation of "truthfulness". Thus to Pushkin's truth ".. nad by invention by tears I will be drenched "it is contradicted the inadequate by it moral criterion of artist. What created this concept and where it now visited - known. Already much is said on this. it here us was desirable to show the effective range of united concept on all spheres of the activity of architect - from the door knob to the building and further to the town building and vice versa.

Calculation of the special features of medium - not the panacea, which frees architecture from its failures. This altogether only hierarchical step from the usual materialist rational tying of building to the locality and from the calculation of regional natural climatic requirements to the higher spiritual categories as ethnic, nation- cultural uniqueness. And nevertheless, undoubtedly, in the epoch, when industrial housebuilding survives the period of its generation (while to rock architecture many millenia!), architecture must lean on the valuable experience of past generations with the harmonization of buildings in the environment. "new architecture" to the equal degree used both the major principles of three-dimensional organization - and by free and regular.

Principles of three-dimensional organization - the essence of interrelationship of man and nature - eternal and constant starting points. Therefore many of them until now compose the cultural gene pool of architecture. Mass industrial home construction activity, collecting rates, became the leading form of architectural and construction activity. The creative directivity of architects under the action of its concepts steeply changed. It is difficult to say, as continued the process of the development of the content and form, as were added the relationships between them in the specific periods of these 15 years. One is undoubted, that if in the initial period, because of neoformlennosti of aesthetical views under the new conditions, the form remained on the old positions or it made the timid attempts "to overtake" the changed construction- technological content of architecture, then it is nearer to our time, after mastering the contemporary technology of buildings and the methods of their realization, she tries their narrative after itself.

Formation and mastery of the concepts of new architecture begin from the design of the improvement of separate urban regions and number of individual small and scale buildings.

In the capital of republic there is greatest interest in this plan in the rekonstruirovannyy section of the street Of abovyana between the annular avenue and the street Of tumanyana, on which is realized the idea of creation by the contemporary of street- avenue.

Extended, well planted greenery and well-organized pavements ul. Abovyana are converted (for the elongation about the kilometer) into the avenues. Developed pavements here serve not only for the pedestrian traffic, but also for leisure, so important under the conditions of hot Yerevan summer. Small ponds in combination with the verdure, the freely lined strolling paths, the decorative sculpture, the drinkable small fountains and the rock benches give comfortable and interior appearance to street. Are substantiated stricter, by places geometric, forms of ponds, which escape from the planning and stereo idea of street- avenue. On the basis of the common idea, is produced the loose fit of tree-shrub species, which created natural natural conditions on one of the central mains of city '. Basic shady effect creates here oak petiolate and platan. In some places are landed also the coniferous groups, which by their evergreen detail enrich decorativeness, especially in the winter months, when only the graphic expression of other trees and bushes is received. In re-planting of the massif of street participate the ordered pyramidal of poplar, which contrast with the horizontal articulation of bright buildings.

In a similar key it was build ot also by ul. Aragatsi in Leninakan. The relief, which logically formed the architectural composition of the street, here is skillfully used: to the long houses, which stand along the relief along one side of street, contrast the interlocked by means of the stairs block- sectional houses - from other side of street. All this is favorable for the dwelling - on the orientation. Arrangement in the first floors of stores and other objects of maintenance in combination with the developed pedestrian zone converted street into the lively zone of contact and maintenance of population, although the level of improvement would desire the best.

At this time are formed the area Of shaumyana in Kirovakane and central area in Kafane, where numerous efforts are applied for the harmonization of their building with the surrounding mountain landscape.

Let us pause at one important circumstance. When it was revealed that the mass home construction activity on the free earth predominantly develops outlying regions, and in the center sections, where the untouched zones of the low obsolete and decrepit building still remained large groups, it was decided to approach their reconstruction with the replacement by many-storeyed houses. By this time (the 60's) building industry mastered the erection of the buildings of the increased height (9 - 14 floors). Without the development of the town-building regulating design their arrangement in the zone of the historically prevailing center was begun. For this together with the decrepit and emergency buildings frequently were carried the historically valuable buildings OF THE XVIII - beginning OF THE XX of substances, the been models people architectures. There were, of course, and the successfully placed houses, whose places were specified on the general composition of the center of city. But there are few of them. For several years, at the end of the 60th it is annual, normirovanno the prevailing classical architectural morphology of the center of Yerevan began to change on the eyes.

The incorrectly set high-rise buildings caused big enough loss to the building of streets and areas of city, and some of them and to the buildings, which form its architectural means. Is such, in particular, building on ul. Kirov, that shielded the panorama of mountain ararat from the terrace Of matenadarana and together with the building of the ministry of rural Construction, elevated on the spot of the colonnade of the palace of the book, that introduced discordance and discord into the building of street itself.

High-rise apartment houses inadmissibly raised the density of building and population in the characteristic small blocks of center, after giving birth to the insoluble problem of their guarantee with school and pre-school establishments and by other forms of maintenance.

On somewhat different scales, but on the damage to not being inferior (but possibly, and more influential) to the given examples, it is possible to estimate the arrangement of the group of many-storeyed apartment houses in the zone of in every possible way known architectural monuments To ripsime in Echmiadzine, Marine in Ashtarake, Kecharis in Tsakhkadzor. Similar actions, permitted in the favor of immediate consumer benefits or impelled by architectural extremism, besides the straight damage contributed to the formation of ideology in a certain part of the architects about the primacy of "new" above the "old", to the detriment of the latter.

In some apartment houses of the increased height, built during this period, it is not difficult to see the elements of craftsmanship, and the amorous study of the planning solution, and the sharpness of formal thinking. However, the relaxation of town-building exactingness could not but put imprint as a whole on the solution of series of problems. Thus, the interestingly solved apartments, with the fabrication the traced forms, the expressive volumetric solution cannot justify the unexpected contingency of high-altitude composition at the series place and setting at angle to the red line of apartment house on ul. Sa4t- they are new (with the theater of dolls in the ground floors) ', or the arrangement of the extensive with the extremely inexpressive facade building on ul im. 26 Baku commissioners, not connected with existing surrounding four- five-storied building 2. It is numerous examples. Not less significant that in these buildings all hints to their regional belonging, even traditional stone are principally rejected.

It is not-without-interest to note that after a lapse of 15 - 20 years many architects by their creation try to overcome this deficiency.

The limited selection of series standard apartment houses, which gave birth to the first signs of monotonic building in the regions of mass habitable building, caused serious preoccupation. Relation to the first large-panel houses of plant production now cannot but cause smile. Nonacceptance led them in the urban outskirts. Concrete ornament appeared on them. Later was understood the absurdity of this, similar how still somewhere from anodized aluminum under the bronze are stamped empire distributions.

For overcoming the monotony of building, it seemed, one ought to have mastered the production of all types of houses and block- sections in the series used, even if this would require much time. However, the matter did not go along this principally accurate way.

In the circles of specialists, who form large construction program, the idea was formed, that for the variety of building is necessary the mastery of many and different types of houses on the different from each other design systems. However, the first attempts to attain expressiveness and variety did not give result. Not there were necessary common design and architectural parameters, which ensure at least some unity of these houses under the conditions of the architectural medium, in which they adapted. Meanwhile were increased the power on the production of two-three types of the large-panel houses of a series KP -1p and frame-and-panel of series 111. It cannot be said that the period of searches and experiments passed without the benefit. Very successfully, in particular, recommended itself a number of the frame-and-panel systems, on the basis of which were designed and built many 9 - 12- storeyed houses. Special attention are worthy composite monolithic frame- skeleton system ' and method of lifting of overlaps and floors.

The three-dimensional system of frame body, based on the "netting" of the composite closed frames and on their monolithization on the place, proved in reality wide variability in the stereo solutions. The apartment houses, built on this system, were original, and the main thing - they were diverse. Unfortunately, in the 70's their production was ended for organizational-management reasons of builders.

Considerable development found building by the method of lifting the overlaps, initiated in the republic almost 30 years ago. Constant improvement of production process, its organization, and also purposeful search for the new architectural-planning solutions, led to the wide acknowledgement of this system not only in our union, but also abroad. If in houses erected during this period, in particular, in The norkskom residential area, still is felt a certain shyness or intentional nature in the use of the unlimited stereo possibilities of method, then in later examples (residential area Of norashen) it is present confidence in their realization. It seems that with its further development it is necessary to overcome some losses of areas, caused by the cylindrical form of main support - stairs knot. It is interesting to note that in this system, as shows experience, it is possible to construct all forms of the operating establishments almost: school, children's kindergarten day nurseries, etc., up to the garages of the individual motor vehicles, in which, by the way, the possibilities of method are used more completely. The building of mass dwelling by large formations was supported by new relation to the objects of maintenance.

In this number attract attention completely tipizirovannye, to different capacity the school buildings and the children's pre-school establishments, developed in 1960 - 1962 by the institute Of armgosproyekt. At the basis of their solution is assumed the necessary universality of application under different relief conditions, which is combined with the successful technological and architectural- three-dimensional possibilities. Large spread obtained also the building of the establishments of public health. Together with their building on the standard projects, were erected original buildings and complexes on the individual projects. Among them on the edge of the canyon of river it is distributed - the building of therapeutic association on 250 cots, coated by light yellow felsite. The continuous front line of lodzhiy, small height and bent plane of facade harmoniously enter into the picturesque medium of canyon and green garden. Building is characterized by unity and clearness of the solution of planning and technological complex.

By this time relates building in the territory by the area in 22 GA, north of the residential area Of achapnyak, hospital to 1000 cots largest in the republic. Its ensemble is comprised of several housings - main and specialized departments, and also polyclinic, conference hall and table.

The main housing extensive along the front has two fractures, which actually compose basic architectural means, scale chlenyashcheye building in the free space. This method, preserving the integrity of building, at the same time plastically emphasizes its capacity, and the main thing, frees from the additional need for the attraction of other architectural means. The complex of therapeutic- technological and design questions is here attentively studied and solved.

Wide acceptance with the mass building found in Armenia the arrangement of the establishments of the sphere of services in the first floors of apartment houses. Under the conditions of complex relief these establishments successfully fill the unavoidably formable volumes in the socle and first floors of the tied apartment houses. But they, as a rule, are completed from the services to the first degree of the maintenance, whose content does not always answer design designation. As far as the objects of district or townspeople value are concerned, their building strongly lagged and they were raised simple.

It is necessary in this connection to note with the regret that the commercial and cultural centers provided in the town-building projects continue to be built, until now, by separate, by the not connected with each other, separate standard buildings, and not in the form of the single multifunctional complexes, built according to the individual projects. From other side, intended for it is center the regions of territory frequently they were removed under the building of the units, which do not refer to the maintenance of the population of new residential areas (office buildings, NII - SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE, etc.).

Thus were added the centers of the residential areas Of achapnyak, Nork-y, Zeytun, Arabkir and other this is result of errors in planning mass building and reduction in town-building discipline. In the 60's are built many public buildings of different designation, which substantially influenced shaping of new appearance it is municipal republic.

Depending on their functional designation the accents in the creative plan were placed on the determining components of architecture. Thus, if in the pavilion "Promyshlennost'"y the laconic design composite shell, inscribed into the 50- meter square, composes the descriptive essence of building, then in the pavilion "culture and nauka"2 the means of building forms the unique collaboration of stand- girder system and traditional Armenian wall, that gave the interesting solution.

Many hotels, tourist bases and other establishments are built in these years in the republic. Among them tourist center in Yerevan and Kirovakane, the international youth base Of "tsitsernak" and small boarding house on The norkskikh slopes in Yerevan, hotel in Idzhevane, Dilizhane, the large hotel Of "ani" in Yerevan, etc.

With different sizes, place and designation individual architectural means distinguishes all these buildings - in each of them their own artistically expressive special features, which are been the consequence of the synthesis of architecture with the adjacent skills, are found.

The skillful use of a relief in the base Of "tsitsernak" reports to it the special atmosphere of heat and cosiness. In the boarding house on The norkskikh slopes the laconicism of the composition, opened to the amphitheatre of the center of city in combination with the skillful layout of stereo it is sectional, created the building, in which necessary impressiveness and affability amazingly be nearby. The traced details of building separate, with the taste and small forms supplement the general impression. In the symbiosis of new and traditional the building sounds even more contemporary.

By other appears the hotel Of "ani" in Yerevan. Pyatnadtsatietazhnoye building somewhat unexpectedly proved to be advanced to the red line of townspeople main. All subsequent questions - increased height in a number of five-storied building, the absence of the necessary recreational space in front of the building for the pedestrians and the motor vehicles - inevitable consequence of this error. However, during the solution of nesredovykh, uzkoformal'nykh problems the authors appeared a good taste, a fabrication and a feeling of descriptive brightness. The combination of light yellow felsite with black local tuff, augmented by the aluminum enclosure of continuous balconies, gives the interesting coloristic solution to entire building. The decorative black and white rock incrustation of the end of adjacent apartment house reveals entire system of the artistic- cultural directivity of this work. Together with a contemporary constructive and functional solution, here appear art-like associations with the culture of our most ancient ancestors. By a similar historical method in the approach to the solution of difficult problem and until now object causes imitation, and its artistic value in the course of time grows.

Considerable attention was given to construction of sport facilities. In the plan of the implementation of long-range program the development of sport center in Yerevan continues, in the zone it is previously the constructed stadium. By large event in this region of building was the construction of largest at that time in Transcaucasia stadium "distributed" to 75 thousand spectators.

The expressive composition of the two-level amphitheatre, opened to the side of the gorge of river it is distributed, reported to construction originality and gave to it the memory architectural means. Stadium was serious examination for the architects and the builders of republic to their maturity in the realization of construction of contemporary largest sport facilities by industrial methods. Unfortunately, here not to the end were decided questions of the guarantee of audience flows together with entire complex of the work of transport in the adjacent to to center cities region. These questions must be permitted in the process of the realization of the project of the reconstruction of the center of city.

In Zeytun region in Yerevan was begun shaping of the complex of scientific research establishments. Are here built the buildings of the institutes of thin organic chemistry, building and architecture, biochemistry, cardiology, and also computer center. It is three-dimensional, however, their unity is not confirmed by ansamblevost'yu, although each of them, undoubtedly, possesses their local merits. In the course of time is in prospect the composition of the united town-building regulated document not only for overcoming the composition dissociation of data of construction, but also for introducing the methods of contemporary integration and cooperation of their work in all possible components.

Is characteristic the building of the institute of cardiology, built in Verin region Zeytun. In the environment of low building it is solved by the united, undifferentiated volume of the increased height. Accepted step and width of "blades" on all planes of volume present something average between the sun-protecting means and the usual interwindow partition.

As the first they serve defective, as the second - it is excessive chalks. In spite of the large size of volume building as a whole lost scale even in the comparison with the surrounding building.

The interesting ideas of the authors were realized in large the institute for comprehensive studies of mathematical mashin2, located in the beginning ul. Komitasa. However, in the town-building plan building could not connect the building Of the arabkirskyyo plateau and the townspeople zone of leisure in the gorge of river it was distributed. It them insulates from each other.

The building of the symposia of Byurakan observatory bribes by laconicism and skillful use of different materials.

The clearness of the functional solution and the strictness of the selection of means distinguish the architectural solution of the building of the Russian pedagogical institute im. V. bryusova in Yerevan.

The complex of student hostels in Zeytune continues the innovative line of the architecture of the 20th it is annual. The contemporary sounding of building is caused by the application of the repeated forms and ostrokontrastnykh comparisons of glass and planes, coated by stone.

In the building of the museum Of "erebuni", built in the foot of fortress Arene- Baird, in the commemoration of the 2750- anniversary of the base of Yerevan, are skillfully synthesized the methods of contemporary architecture and monumental sculpture in the spirit of the stylization of Urartian decorative methods. Other, more restrained means expressed the architecture of the museum of antiquities in Metsamore - the center of the gorno¬metallurgicheskogo production OF III thousand to n. 3.

The original triangular solution of volume distinguishes small house of chess player by them, T. petrosyana, erected on the annular avenue in Yerevan. The combination of deaf rock planes with the glazed surfaces of the ground floor - method, which more lately found a use in many construction. In spite of small sizes this construction is a good example of the monumental solution. Special attention during this period they deserve the building of the in a cultured way- entertainment designation, which assigned in many respects tone to further development of the architecture of Armenia. In this number should be noted the building of the academic dramatic theater im. G. sundukyan in The the erevaney. Elaborate entertainment complex with the hall in 1150 places personifies by itself the unity of architectonic construction. Inverted by main facade to the ancient park, it personifies the enormous, opened portal of scene with the rock "curtains". Its scale is emphasized by small input portal with the symbolic reliefs carven on it. With the evening illumination through the glazed surface is examined the picturesque panel of the wall of the foyer of the second floor by size 30X5 of m, executed by the people artist OF THE USSR, by Lenin prize winner By martirosom Sar'yanom.

The symbiosis of architecture, sculpture and painting personifies by itself the harmonious treatment of the synthesis of skills, distant from the characteristic banalities of a similar plan, which occurred during this period. It is rich, but is not always with the irreproachable taste solved interior building. Composition chain from the vestibule, the lobbies, the winter garden in the foyer, completed by the auditorium, represents the sum of the most diverse impressions. The explicit relaxation of taste is observed in the formulation of the interiors of hall and summer garden. In a strict plan appears the new building of the dramatic theater im. Mravyana in Leninakan. Here everything is subordinated to the expediency of internal function, which found truthful expression in the extrinsic ethos. It is seemed that for this theme are completely competent both the approaches to the solution of problem examined. If in the Yerevan theater for the theatrical action unique architectural medium is created, then in the the leninakanskom - this medium is consciously neutralized and subordinated to action. Similar difference in the treatment of the architectural means of functionally identical buildings - basis for their truthfulness.

For the time in question characteristically active penetration into the architecture of the concepts of designer skill with its treatment of the architectural means of buildings.

It is customary to assume that the greater the circle of the limitations of the freedom of architectural search, the higher the level of the probability of finding the optimal solution of task. It is connected with the tendency of the reduction of the search parameters. This is natural. The conditions of complete freedom are impossible in our three-dimensional skill. The rationalistic establishment of the framework of tasks on their significance, order of functional interdependence and sequence the solutions of problems are characteristic for any search in the science or in the skill.

The specific character of the architecture, which occupies the intermediate place between the first and the second, also depends on this. In the aspect of skill it rests also on the mental, intuitive factor, in turn recognized as the form of the manifestation of intellectual beginning. In the searches for truth to science are important all factors, whereas to skill - those determining. Among them one of the most important - environment. Poet said: ". . prirody temple for the architect - house of otchiy ". No to contemporary architecture of another worthy alternative.

The latitude of the effective range of this factor stretches from the local low forms of three-dimensional organization to the complex higher artistic compositional problems of shaping of the means of ensembles and wholes it is municipal.

As the simple manifestation of the phenomenon of medium, is appropriate an example of the architecture of the summer hall of cinema "Moskva" in The the erevaney. In difficult architects S. kntekhtsyan, T, Gevorkyan the period of perestroika of the conceptual bases of Soviet architecture, at joint 50 - the 60th is annual, the appearance of this small work was similar to artistic revelation.

On the spot of the small, complicatedly outlined space among the urban building, where it is earlier, similar to the wound bird nest, found place wooden summer cinema, the authors found all necessary architectural- three-dimensional means in order harmonically to be entered in the varied stylistic building of environment woven from the picturesque smears.

Now, after a lapse of many years, you realize, that entire originality of this construction is based on the realization of the three-dimensional special features of place, which determined its volumetric structure. Possessing the necessary measure of the irrationality of construction, inherent in skill, here everything in the essence is very simple and it is expedient.

Instead of the traditional external, limiting building limits, it is the open to the side of street interior, which became its organic part. Formal innovations and tendency to cause surprise by them are alien to it. Logical accent is set to the varied-height, ingeniously designed conical ferroconcrete columns, upon which rests the amphitheatre. In the general harmonic key composition, similar to flower, completes the volume of motion picture projection. Entire system of the materialized idea absorbs any deficiencies, which become quotients. You do not see them. Neither place nor value of building loaded with its higher composition functions.

The main thing consisted of finding of accurate architectural key for the concrete situation. Task, it seemed, was sufficiently simple and single-valued. But it should have been correctly placed and solved.

We stopped in greater detail at this building, since in it tendency toward the restoration of environmental approach, toward the permission of composition tasks in the period of uncertainty into the stability of this most important special feature of architecture more brightly appeared. Furthermore, it was (in spite of other stylistically qualities) the manifestation of succession, which asserts the high composition- environmental understanding of architecture, which was age long inherent to Armenian historical architecture.

How differently the three-dimensional essence of architecture can appear itself, it is possible to see in other example.

The house of chamber music in Yerevan, placed on the annular avenue, is moved aside from its central axis. Already similar shift opravdanno returns primacy strictly to avenue. The stereo solution of building begins from the planar, planning elements on the sufficiently distant approaches to it. This of path, borders, aqueous surfaces, which form with the verdure of lawns and the flower gardens of their kind prelude to the basic volumetric actions of building itself. A similar development from the flat, lowest forms of plastic to strictly the building reports to entire composition liveliness and dynamicity, typical for the development architectural and musical themes. Without having next bright architectural dominants, building supposedly would find its architectural support in the earth, on which it stands.

This visual aspect of three-dimensional thinking by the author is consecutively into the efficient categories. After foregoing the traditional limiting barriers - walls, the doors, which insulate the space of hall, it, the surrounding landscape inside the building seemingly implicates. Thus any corner of interior is converted into the part of concert hall and further - into the part of environment.

A similar worn condition of functional and three-dimensional boundaries ensured their unusual unity. In building they are inherent the sequential irrational treatment of architectural-artistic means. Under the truthfulness of means here we do not see primitive. Withdrawal by the author of main entrance from the axis of building, for example, made it possible to avoid the chrestomathic "truthfulness", alien to skill. Therefore the building found the dynamic equilibrium, which depended on its shifting from the axis of avenue. But the main thing, by the disclosure of interior foyer along the longitudinal axis of building threw the bridge between entire interior and surrounding landscape.

United architectural theme, as if having been borne from the organ confronting on the scene, pierces entire interior. In this theme are drawn the chandelier of hall and the relief frescoes, executed singlehandedly by the author - architect (long ago forgotten and very praiseworthy precedent!). This artistic illusoriness and acoustic qualities of hall, confirmed by specialists, convert it into the beautiful and well disposed gigantic musical tool.

Amazingly freely here the author uses entire architectural palette also of contemporary and traditional means. Where the constructions are accepted ferroconcrete - there they truthful express their forms; there, where rock, the author with the research accuracy reproduces by centuries the usovershenstvovannye methods (form of laying, the bandaging of seams, cutting, etc.). Authenticity seemingly fixes the high achievements of each of them; therefore nowhere appears the ominous thought about the eclectism, inevitable with the "approximation" or the "pseudo-truthfulness". Old and new language architectures are here united.

The house of chamber music, designed and begun by building in the 60's, completed in the subsequent decade. In a number of architectural-artistic aspects it reflects the features of withdrawal from the orthodoxies in understanding of innovating and present of architecture. Continued to be developed in these years and the health resorts of Armenia. Were built Dzhermuk, Arzni, Dilizhan, Ankavan on the base of known therapeutic mineral waters. Is constructed All-Union value sport base in Tsakhkadzor.

By the originality of the treatment of means should be noted the dispensary of the plant im. Kirov (now NPO "Nairit") in Arzakane, although its setting in the form "of house- bridge" across the gorge can seem by questionable. In the period in question is built the large number of industrial units and complexes in the entire republic.

Continuing the prevailing traditions, about which we spoke above, here are not placed genre barriers. Their architecture continues to be developed in the general course of the development of Armenian architecture as a whole.

To the successes of the industrial architecture of those years should be carried the plant of synthetic fiber in Kirovakane, the complex of the plants of the chemical reagents and vitamins in Yerevan, Razdanskeye GRES - STATE REGIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANT, etc. they are built on the basis of contemporary construction technology, it is compact and it is economical. The faithfulness to the architectural- expressive qualities, traditionally inherent in the industrial construction of Soviet Armenia, remains together with these contemporary qualities of building in them.

Simultaneously in the leading republic design institute for the design of industrial construction To armpromproyekte are developed the town-building projects, which regulate building in the industrial centers and the urban industrial regions. With respect to the complexity of the solution and the guarantee with their harmonic town-building interrelation with the residential regions, among them should be noted the industrial centers in Masise, Gagarin, etc.

The high degree of the state of development of the urban infrastructure of Yerevan for a long time remained the attractive factor of the arrangement here of new powerful industrial enterprises. But the limitedness of territorial resources gave to know itself. It was necessary to preserve area under the building lot for the stormily growing population of city. It suffices to say that according to the forecast the population of Yerevan {according to the general plan 1951 g.) for the calculated period of 1965 it had to be 450 thousand man. But as long ago as 1959 it exceeded 0,5 millions. and it continued grow.

Was accepted the solution about the need for the development of small and average it was municipal republic, especially locating in the zone of the propagation of the influence of the capital on the transport accessibility and the system of the sphere of services. Already then the pendulum migration of the population of the capital and these it was municipal, which became the basis of the beginning of the formation of Yerevan agglomeration, was added. In the development of this tendency, intended to hold in control an increase in the population of the capital, begin to change all populated areas in the zone Yerevan - Sevan. The presence of the hydroelectric power plants of Sevan cascade, the building of largest TES, superhighway and railroad provided the favorable conditions of settling. So was established beginning g. to razdanu - to center mining and chemical industry, Charentsavanu, to Sevan, To lusavanu, To abovyanu and to other cities along this line.

In view of the fact that were overlapped many positions of the general plan of Yerevan 1951 (population, territorial resources, etc.), in 1961 g, by the institute Of erevanproyekt (with the participation of the specialists Of giprogora) was begun development TEO of the new general plan of the development of city on 2000 after composition TEO was developed general plan \ which in 1971 it affirmed the government of republic, to be thus after assuming nachal.o to new development stage of city.

With simple quantitative changes in the population and territory the development of the new program, which regulates the development of city, would be the matter by not so complex. However, city, pereydya into the discharge of the large, changed qualitatively: almost all planning- structural and functional problems was to be solved on other principles. Hence and those fundamentally new positions, which were in it placed. Complex interaction of natural, architectural- three-dimensional and functional- structural requirements organically broke city into nine planning zones (regions). Prolegli the high-speed urban roads, which ensure the netranzitnye connections between them, and mezhdugorodniye of communication.

Communicability between the adjacent zones, with the center of city and the places of the application of labor was provided for along the townspeople mains, which, in turn, clearly outlined the boundaries of residential areas. By the same principle district mains together with the habitable streets superimposed on the general plan the structure of smaller formations - city blocks.

General plan was sketched by flower with eight lobes around the center and by three additional industrial regions on the external circumscription, where south deeply is interfered with the center of the city (error, committed in the prewar period, which sometimes it must be removed). Now, after a lapse of many years, should be worthily estimated the organic nature of this idea for the complex conditions of the territory, in which is developed the city. Even canyon of river is distributed with its whimsical serpentine outline it harmonically supplements the artificial beauty of the structural- organized urban environment.

Beauty of general plan... How in what manifestations it can have been we perceived?

In it, the accordion between the place, its nature and organic nature of the functional interrelation of parts in the life of whole is probably, potentially placed. Finally, this is the stereometric program of the transformation of mathematical proportional categories - into the three-dimensional and the temporary, with the same unity and infinite accordion...

Once only it is not possible to envelop this whole. But it in our ideas, undoubtedly, is synthesized precisely in the temporary and space harmonics relationships of parts. Thus, in our idea are added the artistic means of nature, it is municipal and all that that it is not visible by our sensory organs. Therefore it is not surprising that even if will be occurred the possibility to simultaneously see entire city or large landscape, then its artistic means in the consciousness they will form the brightest and typical special features, which we in the state will then repeatedly "twist" in our imagination.

Is such Yerevan. There are many points as the edge Of the arabkirskyyo plateau, the park Of tsitsernakaberd or Nork, from where in different ways we can envelop the greatest part of the city. But not these ideas are characteristic for the means of city.

In the concentrated, artistic- generalized form this means is most vividly and capacious expressed by the amphitheatre of center, by area of the name Of v. i. Lenin and By teatr opera and ballet. Even in spite of the present dissociation (yet not probit is the northern prospectus, which must connect them) in the idea, based on their contrasting treatment, similar to the methods of film editing, they are received united. The building of area on -Roman organizes space, and operatic theater - in Greek (and in Armenian), similar to sculpture subordinates to itself the surrounding space. This contrasting method, which goes from the idea of the first general plan of the city, when is build ot northern prospectus, will even more enlarge the composition nucleus of center and will strengthen its scale sounding.

Architecture is since ancient times named that thickened in by stone- music. Obviously, at the basis of this comparison, besides the general means of harmonization (theme and its variation, rhythm, proportional system, key and even color), lies the generality of perception at the time. And, if within the framework of separate work their difference in this factor is in the controlled sequence of perception - for the music and by the spontaneous of --• for the architecture, then "city is construction in the space, but gigantic scale, something such, that it is possible to perceive only in prolonged time" [ 30 ]. Moreover, "everything is received not by itself, but with respect to the environment, to the connected with it chains of events, to the memory about the previous experience" [ 31 ].

In the skill of formation it is municipal, the special skill, isolated even from the architecture, K. linch the main thing sees in the use of the "specific sensations of environment". Men, it is similar to entire living, using sensory organs, it identifies and it orders its perception of this medium. Disorientation in the medium indicates the loss of comfort and sincere equilibrium.

Therefore the means of city, formed in man with the action of all environmental factors, in many respects is determined by the activity of town builders, who appear by "manipulators by material environment" and interested "by the external carriers of that interaction, which generates the means of environment".

The subjectively formed means becomes group, forming the "zone of agreement" and forming "public means". Specifically, this latter - tool in the hands of town builder, who simulates environment for the majority.

The steady increase in Yerevan, which was outlined from the establishment of the Soviet regime, it continues until now. It, first of all, is caused by the development of industry and science. In the last 60 years Yerevan, which inherited all qualities of province God-forsaken place with the unit half-amateur productions, became one of the largest industrial, the scientific and cultural it was center the Soviet Union. Chemistry, electrical engineering, machine building, and in the last period instrument manufacture, the means of automation, etc. - - here is that the incomplete enumeration of the branches of industry, which gave to city the unprecedented pulse of development. Ever more in the production complex of city rises the role of science, which comes out as producer. Science and production associations persistently enlarge their decisive influence on the branch of industry. Is such the foremost tendency of the industrial potential of city, which stimulates its explosion.

If on the population census of 1926 in Yerevan he was only 64,6 thous. pers., then in 1984 it was 1113,7 thous. pers., i.e. it grew more than 17. Through the rates of increase in the population Yerevan is found on one of the first places in the country.

However, the scantiness of territorial resources as a whole in the republic creates great difficulties, also, in the development of city.

It suffices to say that the density of settling in the republic, if we exclude the territories, unfit for this, it is about 1000 men to 1 km2, that several times higher than in such tightly populated countries as Belgium and Holland.

Clarity and clearness of the architectural- structural construction of the new general plan, affirmed in 1971, make it especially valuable for the realization of mass home construction activity. Each town-building formation in it is basis for shaping of the independent architectural- three-dimensional cell, at the same time entering through the stepped structural construction the general cloth of city. In this sense new general plan became certain notopis'yu, in which to us and for the future generations one must read its accordion.

But the calculated population of Yerevan according to the new general plan proved to be achievement in advance for 20 years! This without the realization of all basic measures of social and economic, town-building, ecological, transport, technical-engineering nature and without the mastery of all territorial resources occurred. This means that the today excess population due to the overpacking lives in the urban territories nonstandard on the area. The content outdistanced form.

And its serious deficiencies here were revealed. The autonomous system of settling was placed with the composition of the acting general plan as its basis. Not were takeed into account all factors, connected with the development of the populated places for the Yerevan agglomeration, which tightly interlace with the city by the exchange of labor resources, by sociocultural connections, recreational functions and general engineering infrastructure.

Considering city as the object of planning, from many programmed aspects it is important to isolate the forecast of its three-dimensional and structural-compositional development. These factors, combined with the time factor, ensure to general plan stability and dolgosrochnost'.

The remaining components, which are concerned planning the development of the industrial base of city in the distant future, as shows life, they are unsteady and variable. When they are embedded as the gradoformiruyushchikh factors, then forecast for the calculated period with its distant development stages to skovyvayushche defines concretely the structural- three-dimensional solution of general plan. This divergence with the natural, asserting themselves requirements of the three-dimensional and temporary development of city, in our opinion, is inadmissible. It is necessary that the general plan would become universal and during its estimation this criterion would be one of the main things.

Proof-reading general plan, caused by the changing requirements of life, in this case it would be possible to produce rapidly and painlessly. Especially as during entire period of action is constantly deepened its content by the development of the designs of detailed planning and building.

Having once and for all placed into the basis of general plan the optimum possibilities of the mastery of the territories adjacent to the city and their structural- planning solution, we obtain the possibility on each visible planned prospect to establish our limits of development in the time. One should be specified that in this case the cities must not be developed unlimitedly. An example of the development of Yerevan confirms the expediency of the proposed procedure of the composition of general plans.

The acting general plan clearly outlined the boundaries of city as static formation. Beyond its limits in the town-building uncontrolled territories arose, in essence by volitional order, the entire groups of the new industrial enterprises, which spontaneously are formed into the industrial regions. Of course their personnel compose urban population. Now, when is required the composition of new general plan, these unplanned industrial territories by its destruktivnost'yu imperiously shake loose the optimally possible functional and three-dimensional organization of urban territory.

The acted many years prohibition of further development of the large is municipal it proved to be that overturned by life; therefore special large-scale developments for the settling in the republics, the regions, the agglomerations of the populated places must precede the composition of general plans.

Special attention deserves the idea of the conversion of the spontaneously emergent agglomerations into the group systems of settling (GSR). Here settling would acquire significant three-dimensional flexibility and less limited possibilities.

In the last 10 - 15 years republic design institutes made extensive work on the composition of the projects of district plannings. This work covers all districts of republic, urban and rural settlings. As basis for their composition served more scale work - promising regional system of the settling of republic as a whole (RSR). Not far the time, when district plannings provide ford entire territory of Armenia. In these works special value present the analysis and the objective integrated assessment of natural geographic medium - important circumstance for the republic with the scant territorial resources.

Is now begun the development of the district planning Of the araratskeyeo (Yerevan) social and economic region, into which, besides Yerevan, will enter those adjoining it echmiadzinskiy, Masisskiy, Nairiyskiy, Artashatskiy, Abovyanskiy and other regions.

Its primary task consists in resolution of the questions, connected with the limitation of further increase strictly in Yerevan and its possible conversion into the group system of settling, together with the populated areas, which are to the city. The complexity of task is obvious. It is caused by the territorial, administrative and branch barriers, whose overcoming requires fundamentally new methodological approach. Still B I. Lenin wrote that "the cities represent the centers of the economic, political and spiritual life of people and are the main engines of progress". Under the contemporary conditions is required the approach to the city as to the single whole, which requires the interconnected development of all its elements [ 32 ].

The problem of complex increase it is municipal it became imperative of the time. In the century of scientific and technical revolution the multidepartmental structure of the industry of the city, where the science and scientific maintenance, transport and control substantially influence the formation of city, substantially changed and was complicated. City leaves from its boundaries.

The adjacent territories ever more are implicated into the sphere of its influence.

Working connections are complicated, rises the value of suburban zones with the enterprises of the gradoobsluzhivayushchego and recreational designation. Finally, the role of suburban ZONE as the means of active action on the ecology of city grows.

All these questions require new approach to the problem of the comprehensive development of Soviet city, which would connect economic, social, technical, lawful and administrative aspects in the unity. The specialists have long since insisted on this, and it is necessary to think that further development it is municipal will have to go by this method.

This it is desirable to expect, also, from the new general plan of Yerevan.

The revival of monumental skill began with the establishment of the Soviet regime in Armenia.

Since in the previous chapters the conversation about the monuments went in essence in the aspect of the evaluation of their town-building role, let us pause at this theme in more detail.

The monuments, built into the prewar twentieth anniversary, as a rule, are based on variations in the classical means, and their value is determined faster by the quality of sculptural images, than monuments as a whole. Are such monuments TO X Abovyanu, To g. gukasyan in Yerevan. Exception be monuments To v. i. Lenin and st. to shaumyanu, in which, in spite of their stylistic difference, are expressed properties and spirit of the Armenian skill of monument. If in the monument st. to shaumyanu artistic accent is located in the sphere of the unity of architectural- sculptural monumental form and material, then in the monument To v. i. Lenin, allotted by the same qualities, because of the wide use of invoice- plastic possibilities of the number of materials, are introduced additional chamber notes.

The monuments, built earlier, are the objects of the very limited town-building tasks. However, monuments To v. i. Lenin and st. to shaumyanu far fall outside these framework. Each of them, locking one side of similar area and their connecting avenue, finds the value of the large object of large architecture, which forms town-building ensemble. In the monument st. to shaumyanu because of monumental "pilonade", which participates in the formation of area, the verdure of avenue does not lose connection with the latter. Monumental form and absolute sizes of pylons served as the unique mediator between the space of area and strictly the sculpture, which found force and scale.

The same task solves monument To v. i. Lenin; however, by somewhat different means. Here the pedestal of sculpture - organic part of the developed stylobate tribunes. The height of stylobate does not prevent the verdure of the avenue located after it from being connected with the space of area. This ensures the dynamicity of the development of area in the southwestern direction, along the principal composition axis of the nucleus of center.

Running in somewhat forward, let us say that a similar succession of town-building method found its development and in the monument AL to myasnikyanu, built at the end of the 70th it was annual. Here the role of the architectural optical barrier, which forms area, for itself took the group of polished granite stel, in openings of which new avenue is examined. The sculpture, confronting stelami on the wide stylobate, unfortunately, is not solved in the key general with them.

In the recent decades consecutively and tselenapravlenno develops the theme of stely architect J. torosyan. The theme, which goes from the Urartian epoch and through khachkary approaches our time. This grateful task found realization in the monument, dedicated to the 1600- anniversary of Armenian written language, monuments to soldiers, who be killwas in the World War II in the village Of mets fellows, to the victims of genocide near Ashtaraka, etc.

They all are characterized by refinement of tracing and proper artistic time, inherent in the author.

Is deeply symbolically personified the idea of the friendship of the sister-cities Of kararry (Italy) and Yerevan. In the zone of annular avenue, not far off from each other they stand the gift Of kararry to Yerevan - the white marble sculpture of the "hands of friendship" and the copy of stely- spring - the gift of Yerevan To kararre, symbolism found original expression in the improvement of the avenue between the monuments To v. i. Lenin and S. g. shaumyana. For entire its elongation (more than 100 m) they beat fountains into 2750 jets, converting this entire complex into the unique monument to the base of Yerevan (Erebuni), to its 2750- anniversary.

Is unique monument to great Armenian gusanu (people poet and musician) of Sa4t- virgin soil, established in the square before the conservatory. In the open white marble wall contemporary on the form is vkomponovan the bust of gusana, executed in the sufficiently thin plastic.

At the angle ul. Nalbandyana, on the annular avenue, is set sculptural monument to the outstanding poet and revolutionary democrat to Michael nalbandyan. As pedestal here serves enormous plate from black that polished granita.Otsutstviye of customary pedestal and the free treatment of entire composition they transfer the essence of artistic means, being the innovative treatment of the synthesis of architecture and sculpture.

The salient phenomenon in the entire cultural life of republic became construction in Yerevan on the hill Of tsitsernakaberd of the memorial complex Of "egern", dedicated to Armenians - the victims of genocide of 1915.

The ensemble of monument, which consists of the hall of memory, the obelisk of revival and guiding wall, expresses unusual entirety and unity. In the center of composition, around the deep round area with the eternal fire, in the sorrowful silence 12 powerful granite pylons are inclined. "is overlapped" the hall of memory by the firmament, the openings between the pylons form gigantic "thorny corona". The being flowed sounds of national choral music form the unique accordion of different elements and rare emotional attitude. The solemnly sparkling in the sun rays double obelisk, which symbolizes the revival of Armenian people, sounds with the contrast, which amplifies minor key.

Complex is the model of the assertion of the limitless neoposredovannykh art-like possibilities of architecture. Here there are no other depictive means whatever, even - traditional- Armenian inscriptions on the stone-. In a certain sense it is the song, dedicated to architecture. The wave of emotions, given birth to by this surprising work of skill, leaves indifferent no one.

Another significant memorable complex was begun by building in these years near the village Sardarapat, where now is completed the construction of the large complex of the memorial park- monument, dedicated to the victory of Armenians in 1918 above the Turkish aggressors.

Complex covers strictly monument - belfry, "lane of eagles", memorial wall with the triumphal gates, museum and refectory. This entire system with the complex dynamics of development, by memorial wall as is divided into two zones. In the second zone are located refectory and the culmination of entire composition - museum the ethnographies of Armenia.

The building of museum without any expenses can be referred to the most salient works of Soviet Armenian architecture. A fundamental understanding of the museum essence of building, understanding of the difficulties, connected with the determination of the correct combination of the need for concentrating the attention of visitor in the separate, sometimes "manual size" exhibit with the architectural- powerful scale of building next to majestic ararat, here is that range of the creative search, in which is originated this construction. The author into the architectural theme of rock wall invaded with the deep, classical and simultaneously contemporary comprehension of the role of natural light. The building locked in the essence proved to be the pierced sunlight. With the almost scientific accuracy are used the properties of direct light - through the zenith windows of ^t.radu\i, ionic "yerdiki") and reflected - through the light courts, coated by red Oktemberyan tuff, whose color reports almost stage illumination to interiors from pink tuff. This Armenian architecture did not know. Such here the innovative comprehension of traditional.

Accent from the sphere of traditional architectural form here it seems is displaced into the region of the spiritual, philosophical comprehension of architecture. However, form to the rarity is meager, even asketichna. It seemingly serves as the background, against which is turned architectural action. Doors, rails, candelabruies and other "trifles" of architecture are noted by juiciness, israyelyanovskoy artfulness and are similar to the living sprouts, originated by this monumental building.

The powerful plastic of building strikes with its scale. Yes, this is new architecture with the adequate scale and the plasticity. Its internal technological and stereo structure is united and it is deeply contemporary. Its output to the external composition, to the joint of external and internal functions, is deeply organic.

The unexpected gift to visitor are seemed in this unique locked peace, created with the requirements of the specific character of building, two narrow specific windows, directed toward the mountains ararat and Aragats. They are similar to the picturesque fabrics, which entered the graphically calm, monochromatic architectural medium of the interior of museum.

The influence of this building on the creative directivity of Armenian architects is enormous.

The creative comprehension of task, but only not in the topographical, but in the prevailing urban space, it is inherent in another memorable complex, dedicated to the 50- anniversary of Soviet Armenia. Its building was also begun in the 60's. Entire complex is planned as united town-building ensemble, the unique cultural center of townspeople value.

Its axial composition is the section, which connects the system Of severnego prospectus with the highland Arabkirskeye region. Complex, thus, occupies the steep slope of upland and completes on the edge of plateau strictly by monument- obelisk.

The planted greenery slope with a length of 400 m is planned in the form of the original cascade of the cultural and entertainment construction (film library, showrooms, cafe, the open hall- amphitheatres), which are provide ford with pedestrian and escalator connection. These objects are grouped around the cavities, inverted to the panorama of city with operatic theater on the axis and majestic ararat far. Basaltic obelisk with the height is more than 50 m and the covered memorable hall in the form of square arena they complete this cascade of construction.

Obelisk marries by gilded ear - the earliest symbol of the eternity of life. Memorable hall decorates presented in the center basaltic germa, illuminated by on top traditional zenith light. Trekhvershaya germa, which resembles ancient boundary sign, and framework of "erdika", collected from massive, but elegant processed in the spirit Armenian khachkarov, plates, can be considered the works of plastic skill.

It wished in the process of the final completion of entire complex to be intensified its organic connections with the park, which is in prospect to place on the slope of northern cascade.

Monuments and memorable complexes are built in other cities of republic. Among them focuses attention the monument to the 1000- anniversary of the base of the medieval capital of Armenia - the city Of ani, elevated in Leninakan, and especially the somewhat later final monument "revival" in Aparane. Composition and the plastic originality of the latter make with its one of the interesting models of monumental genre. One cannot fail to stop also at the monument to Aleksandr tamanyan, rightfully who gained universal acclaim. The erected in the beginning of similar street, monument rivets attention by uncommon composition and by the unexpected treatment of the very means of architect. In it the monumentality of forms is combined with the generality of the plastic solution, based on the high professional level of performance and the large culture of three-dimensional thinking. This undoubtedly one of the achievements of our monumental skill.

The range of the genre of monumental skill is exceptionally wide. It stretches its boundaries from the large memorial complexes to the small memorable boards, installed on the buildings in the honor of historical events or outstanding workers. For these memorable boards is characteristic neshablonnost', thanks to which they overgrow into the unique works of skill. To the certain degree it is possible to assert that by their destination they are the contemporary modification of traditional khachkarov.

The continuous searches in this direction are now and then very motley and speak about the unsteady still finally bases of the genre, where besides achievements is much questionable. However, the vitality of the tradition of deep respect for its past is here undoubted. It is difficultly rigid to demarcate the spheres of small memorial forms and small forms of improvement.

We already spoke about the spring- monuments. Their popularity is extraordinary. In the entire republic as the inherent element of improvement are built drinkable small fountains, which is extremely important under the conditions of arid summer. In Yerevan, over the area im. V. i. Lenin, before the historical museum from the one-piece basaltic - massif is carved drinkable fountain. The generalized structure of its construction organically corresponds to sculptural composition. A similar unity and, most importantly, - the scale, caused by place, make this small form with the work of architecture. Its scale is achieved by the treatment, similar to the iceberg: its major portion illusorily is contrived underground. That reaching from there invigorating cold moisture seems that this is only the head part of the gigantic construction, hidden in the depths of the earth and.

The monumental skill of Armenia tightly interlaces with the architecture - large and small. It is now and then difficult to determine division betweens them. It is at the same time obvious that its feeding sources are deep, and the boundaries of genre stretch from the majestic architectural construction to the jewelry skill.