Gevork Vartanyan

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Armenia Pays Tribute To Legendary Soviet Spy

11.01.2012

President Serzh Sarkisian and Armenia’s main national security agency paid tribute on Wednesday to a legendary Soviet intelligence operative of Armenian descent who died in Russia at the age of 87.

News reports citing Russian intelligence sources said that Gevork Vartanyan passed away at a Moscow hospital on Tuesday afternoon.

Born in southern Russia to an ethnic Armenian family, Vartanian for decades worked as an undercover agent for the Soviet KGB in different countries and Iran in particular. He is best known for his reportedly major role in ensuring security at the historic 1943 conference in Tehran between the Allied “Big Three” of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt.

Working under the codename Amir, Vartanyan led a spy group which is believed to have exposed hundreds of agents working for Nazi Germany’s intelligence in Iran.

According to the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), Vartanyan also infiltrated in 1942 a British spy school in Tehran that allegedly trained agents for undercover operations in the Soviet Union. He continued to operate for the Soviet intelligence abroad, in tandem with his wife Gohar, after World War II.

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev offered his condolences to Vartanyan’s family, describing him as a “true patriot of his country” who took part in “brilliant intelligence operations.”

Sarkisian sent a similar letter from Yerevan. It referred to the deceased spymaster as a “worthy son of the Armenian nation.” “I maintain the warmest recollections of my meetings and conversations with Gevork Vartanyan,” he wrote.

Sarkisian, who headed the Armenian successor to the KGB in the late 1990s, also declared that Vartanyan “stood by independent Armenia” during the Nagorno-Karabakh war and helped to strengthen its intelligence service “with advice and assistance.”

Vartanyan received an Armenian state award, the Order of Honor, from Sarkisian in 2009. Armenia’s National Security Service (NSS) honored him with a medal in 2004.

The NSS on Wednesday issued a separate statement in connection with Vartanyan’s death.

In Memoriam: Gevork Vartanian, 87, Soviet spy who foiled Hitler's plot against Roosevelt and Churchill

by Emil Sanamyan

Published: Wednesday January 11, 2012

WASHINGTON - In the middle of World War II the allied leaders of Soviet Union, United Kingdom and United States, the Big Three, came together in the capital of Iran to coordinate their strategies in the war against Nazi Germany.

The summit was planned in secrecy, but Hitler learned about the plans for what came to be known as Tehran-1943 after Nazis broke the U.S. naval code. Hitler then ordered his special operations chief Otto Skorzeny to either assassinate or abduct Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.

Scorzeny, who previously managed to snatch Italy's Mussolini from captivity, went ahead with planning what came to be known as Operation Long Jump that, if successful, could have unravelled the course of world history.

But as it happens, a 19-year-old Armenian intervened.

Born in 1924 in Russia's Rostov-on-Don Gevork Vartanian came from an Iranian Armenian merchant family. In 1930 his father, Andrey Vartanian, was persuaded by the Soviet intelligence service to move back to Iran, set up a business there and assist in intelligence operations.

Vartanian grew up in Tehran and as teenager began to take on intelligence assignments. In 1942 he attended a British intelligence course in Tehran, which helped him hone his spy skills and, later, expose British agents working against the Soviet Union.

But in 1943, the two countries were still allies. In 1941 to prevent Iran from allying with Germany, Soviet forces occupied northern Iran, including Tehran, and the British forces deployed in the country's south. But Tehran still had a community of 20,000 Germans, a number of them working for the Nazi government.

According to Vartanian's recollections published by Russia's official RIA Novosti in 2007, this is how he made history:

"The German field station in Iran, headed by Franz Meyer, was very powerful. Long before the [Big Three] conference - from February 1940 to August 1941 - our group of seven intelligence officers had identified more than 400 Nazi agents. When our troops entered Iran, we arrested them all. Meyer went deep underground. It took us a long time to find him - he had grown a beard and dyed it, and was working as a grave-digger at an Armenian cemetery."

Vartanian related in another publication that Meyer's choice of profession was not accidental: Nazi operatives planned to follow an underground river that ran near the Armenian cemetery and towards the British embassy. During the 1943 summit the British embassy, where Churchill was staying, was connected via a heavily-guarded corridor with the Soviet embassy across the street, where both Stalin and Roosevelt were staying.

The group of "seven intelligence officers" was in reality a group of seven teenagers led by Vartanian that rode bicycles around Tehran while following Nazi operatives and agents. The Soviet station chief in Tehran instructed the "Amir" as Vartanian was nicknamed and his group dubbed "light cavalry," to try to locate the Germans that would be on their way.

"Our group was the first to locate the Nazi landing party - six radio operators - [on road to] the town of Qum, 60 km from Tehran. We followed them to Tehran, where the Nazi field station had readied a villa for their stay. They were traveling by camel, and were loaded with weapons.

While we were watching the group, we established that they had contacted Berlin by radio and recorded their communication. When we decrypted these radio messages, we learnt that the Germans were preparing to land a second group of subversives for a terrorist act - the assassination or abduction of the Big Three. The second group was supposed to be led by Skorzeny himself, who had already visited Tehran to study the situation on the spot. We had been following all his movements even then.

We arrested all the members of the first group and made them make contact with enemy intelligence under our supervision. It was tempting to seize Skorzeny himself, but the Big Three had already arrived in Tehran and we could not afford the risk. We deliberately gave a radio operator an opportunity to report the failure of the mission, and the Germans decided against sending the main group under Skorzeny to Tehran."

(Vartanian discussed the operation in an interview with Russia Today in 2009 and last year Russia's Channel One aired a film based on these events.)

Vartanian credited his success as an intelligence officer to the motivation and training he received from his father as well as the Soviet intelligence station chief in Iran during World War II, another ethnic Armenian Ivan Agayants, who rose to deputy chief of Soviet foreign intelligence in the 1960s.

Gevork Vartanian and his wife Gohar continued to work for Soviet intelligence in Tehran until 1951 when they came to Yerevan to earn their college degrees. Later, they went abroad again and most of Vartanians' postings and activities in the West, Near and Far East, remain classified. They finally re-settled in the Soviet Union in 1986.

Colonel Vartanian retired in 1992 but his very identity remained classified until 2000, when he was decorated with a number of medals, including the country's highest decoration of the Hero of the Soviet Union, only the third Soviet intelligence officer to be so awarded. Gohar Vartanian, whom Gevork Vartanian described as "his biggest and most important recruitment," was also awarded with the Order of Combat Red Banner.