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A region of eastern Transcaucasia. It lay essentially within the great triangle of land, lowland in the east but rising to mountains in the west, formed by the junction of the Rivers Kur or Kura and Araxes or Aras. It was thus bounded on the north by Šervan; on the north west by Šakki (Armenian Šak'e) and Kaxeti in eastern Georgia; on the south by Armenia and Azerbaijan province; and on the southeast by the Caspian coastal province of Muqan or Mugan. Arran's situation between these two great rivers explains the name Bayn alnahrayn given to it by Islamic geographers.

In pre-Islamic times, Arran formed the heart of the Iranian province of Caucasian Albania (to be distinguished of course from the Balkan Albania), which in fact embraced all eastern Transcaucasia, i.e. Arran here was a wider concept than that of post-Islamic Arran, and corresponded grosso-modo with the modern republic of Azerbaijan (since 1918).

The Armenian term for this land was Alvank` or Raneak`, and the history of the region, from mythical times till the 10th century CE, is given by the Armenian historian Movses Dasxuranc'i (formerly referred to as Kalankatwac'i).[1] The Greeks knew the people as Albanoi, and the Georgians knew them as Rani, a form taken over in an arabized form for the early Islamic geographical term al-Ran (pronounced ar-Ran). Early Arran seems to have displayed the famed linguistic complexity of the Caucasus as a whole. Strabo 9.4, cites Theophanes of Mytilene that Albania had at least 26 different languages or dialects, and the distinctive Albanian speech persisted into early Islamic times, since Armenian and Islamic sources alike stigmatize the tongue as cacophonous and barbarous, with Estakhri, p. 192, Ebn Hawqal, p. 349, tr. Kramers-Wiet, p. 342, and Moqaddasi, p. 378, recording that al-Raniya was still spoken in the capital Barda'a or Barda'a in their time (4th/10th century). Hence Markwart, Eransahr, p.117, was doubtless correct when he spoke of Albania/Arran as being pre-eminently a non-IndoEuropean land; the Albanian tongue must have belonged to the Eastern Caucasian linguistic family, as is indicated by the recently-discovered table of the 52 characters of the Albanian alphabet, in which a few inscriptions have also been found by Soviet archaeologists.

Albania became Christianized at approximately the same time as was Armenia; Movses Dasxuranc'i places this event in the reign of King Urnayr in the mid-4th century CE, and states that St. Gregory, founder of the Armenian national church, was responsible for the monarch's baptism. The Monophysite Albanian church remained separate from the Armenian one till the end of the 7th century CE, when the two were united under stimulus from the Arabs. Until well into medieval Islamic times, Muslims must have been only a minority in Arran; Moqaddasi, p. 376, writing towards the end of the 4th/10th century, describes the Christians as still a majority in the towns of Qabala and Šabaran (near Quba). In the Byzantino-Sasanian wars, the Albanian kings sometimes had to supply contingents for the imperial Iranian army, and Urnayr participated with Shapur II in the siege of Amed in 359, but more generally they combined with their fellow-Christian Armenian princes in resisting Persian expansion into Transcaucasia and Armenia, at times even paying tribute to the Byzantines.

Towards the end of the 5th century, the ancient ruling dynasty of Albania seems to have died out, and in the later 6th century and at the time of the Arab invasions some decades after then, Albania was ruled by princes of the Mihran family, who claimed descent from the Imperial Sasanians but were probably of Imperial Parthian origin. Their most famous representatives in the 7th century CE were Varaz-Grigor, his son Juanšer (Persian Javanšir) and Varaz-Trdat I (Persian Varazdad). The military exploits of the latter two potentates in the period of the first Arab invasions of Armenia and Arran figure prominently in the 2nd book of MOVSES Dasxuranc`I’s chronicle. These princes bore the Persian title of Arranšah (in certain of the Arabic sources corruptly written as Liranšah), Armenian Eranšahik` or Aranšahik`.

During the time of the orthodox caliphs, and in particular during `Othman's caliphate, such Arab commanders as Salman b. Rabi`a al-Bahell and Hab-b b. Maslama led raids into Armenia and Arran, and in ca. 24/645 conquered the chief town of Arran, Partaw (Arabic Barda'a, q.v.). Henceforth, Barda'a was always to be the bastion of Islam in these parts, though Muslim garrisons were placed in other urban centres such as Baylaqan, Šamkir, and Qabala, and these were used as bases for raids northwards to Darband (q.v.) or Bab al-Abwab and the Khazar lands.[3] Nevertheless, Arab control over these Caucasian marchlands was of necessity light and often uncertain, in the face of periodic invasions by such northern peoples as the Alans and Khazars. Arran remained essentially a frontier province, left to its native princes, who were led by the Mihranids,[4] on condition of the payment of tribute to the Muslim exchequer. In practice, the princes of Arran in the time of Varaz-Trdat I (died 705 CE) paid tribute simultaneously to the Arabs, the Byzantines and the Khazars, according to Movses Dasxuranc'I,[5] an indication of the confused state of affairs in eastern Transcaucasia,

Since the people of Arran remained substantially Christian, they were treated in Islamic law as ahl al-Dhemma, hence liable to the poll-tax or jezya. This was paid in coins with Islamic superscriptions, and under the Umayyads sporadically and under the `Abbasids regularly, dirhams were issued from a mint called "Arran" (probably either Barda`a or Baylaqan), in the case of the `Abbasids, from 762 CE onwards, continuing into the 3rd/9th century.[6] There was also in Arran, as in the whole Caucasian region, much intermarriage between Christians and Muslims, and Movses Dasxuranc'i (2.32) inveighs against those Albanian nobles who polluted the race and their faith by marriages with the infidels.

The Mihranids were extinguished through the assassination of Varaz-Trdat II by Nerseh P'ilippean in 822-23 CE, and the Armenian prince of Šakki to the north of Arran, Sahl i Smbatean (Arabic, Sahl b. Sonbat), extended his power over Arran. The province was in these years much disturbed due to effect from southern region, namely Athropatekan or Azarbaijan and the revolt of the Kkorramdinan lead by an Iranian freedom fighter Sardar (Warrior) Babak, whose centre was at Badd just to the south of the Araxes, and it was Sahl who delivered up Babak to the caliph al-Mo'tasem in 837-38 CE.[7] The middle years of this century saw an intensification, however, of the policies of Islamization under al-Motawakkil's governor in Armenia Boga al-Kabir, when various Armenian and Albanian local princes were deported to Baghdad and Samarra. But in 861-62 CE the caliph recognized as supreme prince in these regions the Bagratuni Ašot I (Arabic, Ašut), who in 272/886 received the title of king.

As `Abbasid control over the outlying parts of the caliphate decayed, so its authority in the Caucasian region weakened, allowing local Muslim military commanders and adventurers, like the Iranian Sajids (q.v.) of Azarbaijan and then, in the 4th/10th century, the Daylami Mosaferids (q.v.); also called Sallarids or Kangarids to assume control in eastern Transcaucasia south of Šervan (which now had its own line of Šervanšahs, the Arab Yazidis, based on the town of Šervan). The northern branch of the Mosaferids, a family originally from Tarom in Daylam (today Gilan), ruled in Arran under Marzoban b. Mohammad b. Mosafer (941-57 CE), followed by his son Ebrahim, extending momentarily as far north as Darband, but failing to maintain their position in Azarbaijan and Arran under pressure from the Rawwadids of Tabriz. It was during the Mosaferids' rule in Arran that the Scandinavian Rus mounted their celebrated raid up the Kur valley to Barda'a (943-4 CE).

The Islamic geographers of this period give descriptions of Arran in general and of its towns (Barda'a, Baylaqan, Ganja and Šamkur or al-Motawakkeliya) in particular, describing their agricultural fertility and their importance for commerce across the Caucasus, despite their vulnerability to attacks from the Georgians and the Rus. The Hodud al-`alam,[8] considers Azarbaijan, Arran, and Armenia as the pleasantest of all the Islamic lands. It is also interesting that Ebn Hawqal[9] speaks of "the two Arrans," apparently meaning Arran proper to the south of the Kur and also Šervan to its north. The native princes of Arran were in the later 4th/10th century and early 11th century CE hard-pressed by the Kurdish

Shaddadids established in Ganja from 970 CE onwards, who also captured the Armenian city of Dvin. It seems that certain of the princes of Arran tried to preserve their position by marriage alliances with the Rawwadids. Also, after this time, when the Shaddadids were in full occupation of Arran, the Persian poet Qatran (q.v.), who flourished in the middle decades of the 11th century CE and was the eulogist of various Muslim potentates of Azarbaijan and Arran, praises the Shaddadid Amir Fazlun b. Fazl II b. Abi-Aswar (1073-75 CE) for his descent on the maternal side from the Bagratunis, indicating further Muslim-Christian alliances.[10] The last known native prince of Arran from the old families mentioned by a continuator of Movses Dasxuranc'i (3.23) is the ruler Senek'erim of Yovhannes son of Išxan, king of the Armenian province of Siwnik` or Sisakan[11] in the last years of the 11th century.[12]

The eastern Caucasus came under Saljuq control in the middle years of the 11th century CE, and in ca. 1075-76 CE Alp Arslan sent his commander `Emad'al-din Saboktagin as governor of Azarbaijan and Arran, displacing the last Shaddadids.

From this period begins the increasing Turkicization of Arran, under the Saljuqs and then under the line of Eldiguzid or Ildenizid Atabegs, who had to defend eastern Transcaucasia against the attacks of the resurgent Georgian kings.

The influx of Oghuz and other Turkmens was accentuated by the Mongol invasions. Barda'a had never revived fully after the Rus sacking, and is little mentioned in the sources. It seems to have been replaced as the capital of Arran by Baylaqan, but this was in turn sacked by the Mongols en route for Šervan and Darband in spring 1221 CE[13]; after this, Ganja (q. v.), the later Elizavetopol and now Kirovabad, rose to prominence, the southern part of Arran now becoming known as Qarabag (q. v.).

The old name Arran drops out of use, and the history and fortunes of the region now merge into those of Azerbaijan (q. v.)

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