Architecture of the Soviet Armenia: Contemporary Stage
5. Contemporary stage (since 1971 to the present)
In the initial development periods of Soviet Armenian architecture its creative concepts personified the unity of the dialectical oppositions, in creative competition of which kreplo took courage the contemporary architecture of Armenia.
In the Seventies the contradictions of these concepts aggravated. The prevailing ideas about the harmony of architecture and its environment failed by centuries, many problems of innovating and tradition interpret illegibly about the national uniqueness of skill, etc. po.
From other side, the one-sided typification of the vigorously developing mass home construction activity flooded cities by the monotonous building, which deprived of their architectural-artistic uniqueness. Is such the inherent background, against which in the general river bed of Soviet architecture proceeded the process of the development of the architecture of Soviet Armenia.
In spite of the errors in prognostication noted higher than of the rates of increase in the populations, explained by the absence of the district planning of large Yerevan, and also by a certain idealization in the structural construction of the transport- main network of city, the now acting general plan of Yerevan it continues to regulate the development of city.
The aforesaid, in the first place, relates to the mass home construction activity, which is led in the territories free from the building, which makes it possible to rapidly and steadily increase the specific security of population with dwelling space.
On the basis of the regularly developed projects of the first turn of the building, where estimation and selection of territories under the mass housing building is produced, now, as a rule, to the composition of the projects of building are developed the projects of detailed planning (PDP), the relatively best natural climatic conditions of stay serve as the criteria of the selection of the zones of first priority building, proximity to the places of the application of labor and to to center cities. The limitedness of the selection of territories is caused by the presence as in the previous years, within the boundaries of the city of the highly productive agricultural earth, due to which is necessary vynuzhdenno to supplement the territorial resources of city. Therefore not all selected under the housing building earth complexly satisfy these requirements.
From other side, takeing into account the relief dissociation of residential territories, as a result of which the prevailing mains and artificial transport construction thus far yet cannot everywhere ensure the optimum time of working trips, during the arrangement of new habitable building more greatly it is necessary to be oriented not to that concentrated, but to the dispersed dislocation. The apparent inconveniences of the organization of construction- technological process in this case with the surplus are compensated by other merits. First, remain the prevailing working connections with adjacent promrayonami for the worker- new settlers, who lived here before obtaining of new dwelling. In the second place, do not increase the expenditures of the "free time" of workers and volumes of passenger transportation of municipal transport, characteristic during the concentrated arrangement of mass dwelling.
New building in these years was conducted on the right bank of river it was distributed - in the Western residential area, in the residential areas Of avan-e and Avan-Arindzh (in the northeastern part of the city), the recently initiated Davidashenskeye region (in the northern part) and finally in the residential area Of nork-2 (in the east).
The estimation of these regions according to the parameters, given above, is diverse. If Western areas are located close to the basic places of the application of labor, then such regions, as Avan and Avan-Arinj, possessing favorable natural climatic conditions, are sufficiently removed from the main industrial city district.
Not only an increase in the exactingness of the destination of the priority of the building of residential territories was new in the town building. In comparison with the past decade qualitatively changed the relation also to the planning- structural construction of habitable formations. The signs of an increase in the value of scale composition thinking began to appear. These special features did not slow down to affect the appearance of new residential areas and city blocks, in which not there was already stereotype, which was being observed in the 60's. Certainly, this by no means indicated the solution of the problem of the variety of building, but by themselves steps, undoubtedly, they were new.
Residential area Western- A is expanded around the folding zone of public center at the intersection of the highways of townspeople value - ul. Sebastiya and Center - West. To to center adjoins the recreation park, which is been the offshoot of the system of the townspeople zone of leisure.
The stereo composition of region is formed on the basis of the combination of two architectural themes: the linear 9- storeyed buildings, which form groups around the planted greenery courts, and 16- storeyed, rhythmical situated along ul. Sebastiya. Is here made the attempt to overcome the monotony of building by using the differently arranged groups of the habitable standard buildings of a united series, the components of its kind of variation from the rhythmical it is series and the three-dimensional organized courts, so characteristic for Yerevan.
The tendency to build region by the apartment houses of a united series rejected the existed incorrect opinion that the variety must be achieved by the set of the different types of the houses, which could not possess design and modular unity.
In the residential area the withdrawal from the principles of free building was outlined. The methods of regular building characteristic for Yerevan lay as the basis of stereo composition.
Is picturesquely planned composition it is center maintenance, based on interaction of landscape and architecture. The buildings or their groups, which compose the multifunctional components of center, freely are placed along the water esplanade, to which of the city blocks converge pedestrian ways. Their clear isolation, which was outlined here, will find subsequently the more expressed solutions in other residential areas. The main pedestrian artery of region by avenue strip pierces entire region on the way to public to center, oriented as entire region, to the mountain ararat.
Unfortunately, after a lapse of more than ten years since the beginning of the building of residential area by a housebuilder almost nothing are made for shaping of the center of region. The matter not only in the fact that because of this the series buildings, which are been located from the back side of center and intended to form background for it, now proved to be in the role of those forming the building of esplanade. The main thing in the fact that the population of region already long time deprived of many it is specific the sphere of services and it is forced to accomplish after them the frequent trips z the center of city or to the adjacent regions.
If unity and the integrity A region the authors attempted to provide with the composition means, inverted to the environment, then region Western - B has somewhat different conceptual approach.
The triradial system of mains here term residential area to three city blocks. One of the rays continues the avenue strip, which goes from the adjacent residential area Of a. daleye it in the form of the pedestrian zone through the city block B -2 it is oriented toward The araratskuyu valley. Thus, both Western residential areas form the specific town-building unity, inverted to the main natural dominant - mountain ararat.
As the basis of the structural construction of the building of residential area B, also as A region, served the system of yard spaces. However, here town-building unity is ensured not by composition relation to the directly adjacent main streets and the mains of townspeople value, but by the internal rigid structural construction of the three-dimensional theme of courts.
At the same time, it is desirable to note some innovations, because of which the appearance of region is characterized by the specific freshness in comparison with residential areas 50 - the 60th it is annual. During the solution it is angular building are here introduced the section- inserts, which considerably improved the architectural expressiveness of buildings because of overcoming of their shtuchnosti and forming the integral and diverse it is specific volumetric
combinatorial analysis. Much fabrication is appeared also in the solution of the vstroenno- attached objects of the sphere of maintenance, although in this case some volumetric excesses are allowed.
In the northeastern part of Yerevan in the 70's began the building of the residential area Of avan-e, which consists of several city blocks.
The territory of the first city block with an area of 35 GA covers the part of the existing settlement Of avan. Taking into account the arrangement here of the unique architectural monuments OF THE VI and later it is age-long, the authors increased the green zone adjacent to them and derived the first turn of building on the free territories. The large habitable complex, which consists of 9 and 16- storeyed houses, grouped around the large planted greenery yard spaces, composes the basis of the three-dimensional and planning composition of city block. Such complexes, opened to the side of central green massif, - seven. They stand with the space from the mains.
In the central green nucleus of city block are located the schools, kindergartens and creche, the objects of the domestic and maintenance of population, sport, etc. are amorous solved the courts of the habitable complexes, in which the landscape of territories is used, is created the unique micro-medium, whose expressiveness undoubtedly will be strengthened after the creation of the provided small architectural and decorative forms.
City block № 2 is located on the more broken ground. Architectural monuments and part of the existing settlement here are located. Both in the first and in this case in accordance with the tasks of the protection of historical monuments are revealed the necessary measures for the creation of the exclusion areas, guarding zones of monuments and zones of the guarded landscape. In the city block № 2 in the places, where is allowed area relief, is preserved the planning idea of the small gardens of city block № 1 already realized in the nature. Unfortunately, area relief is used not everywhere equally successfully. However, as a whole in the new residential area Of avan-e is created the unique and memory three-dimensional medium, differ significantly from other habitable formations of city.
Is interesting and promising the town-building development of the last years - experimental residential area Of avan-Arindzh ', whose building is begun in 1978.
Residential area is formed of two city blocks, one of which is built by individual 9 - 14- storeyed apartment houses with the flexible volumetrically- planning structure. The design decision of the authors, honored THE I reward at the All-Union competition, lay as the basis of an experimental series of the houses of new region. However, the second city block is built by the 9- storeyed apartment houses of standard series.
The residential area, in project of which is provided the guarantee of inhabitants with all forms of contemporary cultural and general and commercial services, is separated by the clarity of the planning solution and by the promising directivity of the development of standard volumetric structures. Building of experimental residential area - approval for the widespread introduction of new methods on the creation of the diverse town-building complexes, comprised of the limited number of primary blocked elements. It is interesting from the point of view of the development of all possibilities of the provided here new types of the lightened external wall panels.
The individual approach of the authors of the experimental residential area Of avan-Arindzh to the balanced package of the important task assigned to them confirms the fact of the not always skillful use of standard projects in a number of other cases of the town-building practice of Soviet Armenia 60 - the 70th it is annual.
These years are characteristic also by the appearance of apartment houses, elevated on the individual projects. To them should be carried the houses on the prospectus of Lenin (angle ul. Amiryana), along the streets Of charentsa and Sar'yana, and also the 16- storeyed frame-and-panel apartment house, elevated at the angle of the streets of marshal Bagramyan and Proshyana in Yerevan.
These houses confirm the need for individual approach with the design under the conditions of the prevailing building of center. Each of them bears the specific load in the general composition. Thus, if apartment house at the angle of the streets of marshal Bagramyan and Proshyana emphasizes the important topographical point of amphitheatre, attaching the distant futures from the center of city, then apartment house at the angle of the prospectus of Lenin and ul. Amiryana bears town-building function, accentuating the center of communication of Lenin's prospectus with the area im. V. i. Lenin.
At the same time, in the first house an attempt at the new creative comprehension of architecture and construction of panels is made. However, in the house on Lenin's prospectus draws the tendency toward the unity and the truthfulnesses of architectural and design complex.
In the 80th years further development obtained one of the promising trends of industrial construction - method of lifting of floors and overlaps, about which already went the conversation above. Only in Yerevan to 1980 with this method it was built more than 400 thousand m2 dwelling. The separate residential area Of norashen to 25 thousand inhabitants completes in The shaumyanskom city district. It consists of the buildings of different configuration and height, combination of which it is intended to reach the integral stereo composition of city block. By the efforts of the creative association of All-Union design experimental design and technological institute at present complete the projects not only of habitable blocks and point houses, but also schools, children's garden- creche, garages and other buildings and construction.
Under the contemporary conditions is especially important the interrelation between the architecture, construction engineering and technology, whose unity provides the best conditions of the realization of the creative intentions of architect. Unfortunately, in the case with the building of buildings by lifting of floors and overlaps architecture, frequently going on to occasion in method, nevertheless remains diagram and does not reveal all shaping possibilities of method. The great possibilities of using the consoles on entire perimeter of building by no means completely are revealed in them. Finally, is absolutely unacceptable the building in the most varied regions of Yerevan of one and the same, which are received already as the standard, apartment houses in the form of trefoil and other indeed absence of a feeling of measure impoverishes urban environment.
The authors, apparently, it follows to be guided by their thesis about the fact that the essential feature of the method of lift - possibility of obtaining, because of the free arrangement of columns, any desired form of building.
As a result of intensive scientific and practical searches into the last 10 - 15 years noticeably were improved design developments in the region of town building and home construction activity. The calculation of local conditions in the projects of the detailed plannings of residential areas became more concrete. These years are noted by significant focusing of attention on a question of use for purposes of the town building of steep slopes.
The first sign in this work was the habitable city block Of kakhni-Khach into Dilizhane, designed in the sedlovinoobraznoy territory with inclines 15 - 25%.
The northern exposure of the slope of the mountain, where is created city block, dictated to the authors the need for setting apartment houses across the relief. The authors forewent the linear apartment houses, which are placed along the horizontals of relief and which require production at the significant volume of land and zemleukrepitel'nykh works. Thus were improved outlet conditions for ground water, which is especially important in the mountain locality with landslide phenomena, which lead to the disturbance of the integrity of the unique natural environment Of dilizhana.
Takeing into account this, was developed for Dilizhana its type of the five-storied apartment house, located across the relief with the orientation of apartments to the east and West. The apartment house, gathered of three blocks, united under staircases, is plastically rich. Specifically, local conditions dictated in the residential area Of kakhni-Khach and refusal of shaping of the habitable groups of the all around locked or semiclosed courts. Its building is solved quietly, without the unnecessary here three-dimensional accents and harmoniously it is combined with the natural landscape. However, yard spaces are opened in the northern and southern directions how are created the necessary conditions for their insolation and ventilation.
Under the severe conditions of the steep broken relief is constructed Kafan. In the center section of the city on the slopes (with incline 55 - 60%) is conducted the building of residential section to 2500 inhabitants '. Its planning and three-dimensional organization is interesting. The apartment houses of different height and the configurations, located across the relief, are united by the laid along the relief passages into three tiers (with the drop 18 - 25 m). Vertical connection is achieved by means of the elevators. For the daily cultural and general services the accomodations of the socle and communication floors of habitable buildings are used. The stereo composition of block is formed with the combination of sectional apartment houses with the increasing floors, the apartment houses it is cascade -galere1nogo, of cascade- sectional and block- cascade types. Actively they are connected in the panorama of block from the side of center and the high massive bulkhead, which were appeared as a result of the not always plastic processing of relief and certain nemasshtabnosti with respect to the landscape planning and stereo of the solutions accepted. Vexation causes mixing in the block of the different experimental types of houses.
In 1979 is developed the project of low habitable complex into Ashtarake, which is been a new attempt at the practical solution of the problem of the mastery of complex relief. The housing building of complex is planned in accordance with the construction traditions of region and the specific character of the landscape of locality. Was developed the nomenclature of low habitable block- houses, which possesses wide composition possibilities. Separately it is desirable to note the idea of the retention of prevailing architectural means of one of the small historical it is municipal republic without its disturbance of chuzhdoy| on the appearance and the spirit by four-storied I standard building, as this occurred in the region of the church Of marine.
Republic is unique by its natural climatic conditions. Here, it is similar to preserve, found place almost all zones, determined by All-Union division into districts. Certainly, they are sometimes small and fractional. The calculation of these regional special features speaks for the fact that the expansion of the catalog of standard projects is necessary. But, from other side, it makes it necessary to think above the entire system of standard mass building. Indeed in this case it is necessary to enlarge the nomenclature of the industrially produced articles. All these questions need scientific and experimental development. In them as yet there is no system scope of all factors. Possibly, it is necessary much to reexamine in the prevailing system of mass home construction activity on scales of the entire country. It is interesting that all deficiencies, which occur in the mass building, are especially opened in the new residential areas and the populated areas, where the absence of the historically prevailing medium, capable of softening contradictions, makes with their especially convex.
An interesting example of the formation of new city in the republic is Abovyan, the need of developing last general plan of which arose in connection with the arrangement in the city of new industry and its transformation into a rayon center.
Abovyan city developed on the base Of elar settlement. It find 8 km Yerevan on the territory, on both sides from the former highway Yerevan - Sevan.
In the new general plan g. of abovyana, calculated for 100 thousand inhabitants, were placed the principles of the previous general plan. The development of city is accepted in the direction northern from the existing city, by the territory of the agricultural earth with the favorable natural conditions. The selection of northern direction is caused also by the desire to avoid the development of city to the side of Yerevan, which in many respects can prevent the possibility of merging Abovyana with the capital of republic.
In the architectural-planning solution is here set the purpose of the creation of new compact city - the satellite of Yerevan. The structure of city is based on the radial- annular system of the organization of territory with a maximum radius of 2 km habitable territories by amphitheatre they surround public- administrative center - the composition nucleus of new city. Arrangement of habitable formations on those more elevated with respect to to center points gives the possibility of disclosing in them the wide distant prospects to the picturesque environment.
Residential zone consists of two semirings. The first of them is formed by several amalgamated habitable groups, in which are combined the elements of individual and government sectors with the maximum socialization of basic functions.
For purposes of the economical use of the earth, and also for an increase in the free from the building spaces, which ensure introductions into the building of natural medium, is built the city by the houses of the increased height.
The second tier of the amphitheatre of habitable zone is comprised of the city blocks with the mixed building by five- and nine-story standard apartment houses, hospital town, the territory of trade school, recreation park.
Significant reduction in the height of the building of the second semiring despite the fact that it is located on the higher marks, in our opinion, will lead to a certain leveling of high-altitude accents of future city and will hinder the solution of the problem of visual communications with the prevailing elements of natural landscape, and the main thing, it in principle contradicts the logical substantiation of an increase in the height of habitable buildings in the limits of the first semiring.
Now, when is not yet completely completed center, causes a certain fear the extensiveness of the building of its entire zone. This rarefaction creates the sensation of a decrease in the level of the informative functions, characteristic for the center of city. Furthermore, this solution atypically for the natural climatic conditions of entire region contradicts the communicability of residential territories. The industrial city district on the general plan is located between the residential zone and the railroad strip, which excludes the transit of cargo transport through the habitable territories.
The solution of street network is logical and it is convenient. Two ring mains cover entire residential zone, whereas diagonal urban and habitable streets connect the separate zones of city with each other and center.
For the pasts 10 and the more of years the new city, which has unique and contemporary appearance, here grew. Much of the fact that was namechenone all equally successfully, with the well-known expenses of the formation of medium standard buildings. Not everywhere at the high level and the quality of building. But as a whole - svezho is dynamic.
It underwent significant changes in recent years and city was distributed. The general plan of city is drawn up in 1961 in the institute Of armpromproyekt. Later in the same institute is begun the development of the design of the detailed planning of the center section of the city, which was continued in the institute Of armgosproyekt.
The territory of city in the range of general plan has the characteristic broken relief. The active natural factors of the district of the constructed city include river it is distributed, its inflow Of marmarik, and also artificial reservoir in the village Of akhpyurak. Center is surrounded by picturesque hills and is located directly in reservoir.
The selection of territory under the building of the center of future city was explained not only by picturesqueness of landscape and by presence of territories free from the building, but also by its arrangement in the geometric center of city, convenient connections with the nearest urban regions and transport mains.
The central city district occupies the territory of more than 100 GA. By project of the detailed planning of onrazdelen to three large quarters and numbers of of smaller. Main street - composition axis, which connects two most important areas of central region, including terminal. Arrangement on the main avenue street of the building of dramatic theater, museum, NII - SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE AN of Armenian SSR, universal store and palace of pioneers, grouped around the areas, is expedient and it is functional. Commercial center in the block A-1 is well placed in the territory and is organized.
The opposite southern angle of region is occupied with the buildings OF NII - SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE AN of Armenian SSR. Before them desirable there was to have more the open or planted greenery spaces how this is provided in the project. It was desirable to warn also against the excessive regularity, used in the organization of the planted greenery territories in so rich topographical an environment.
The planning composition of center g. it is distributed underwent clear and clear development, combining in itself the elements of the regular and free systems of construction. In majority their they are functionally justified, connected with the relief and proceed from the climatic conditions of region. The smooth bends of circumferential streets lie down well on the locality. Are correctly used in essence and the topographical conditions of territory. The free from the building and planted greenery steep sections, which penetrate directly into the blocks, the significant park massif of block AE, the developed system of re-planting in the blocks, picturesque natural environment and view of reservoir with their active development in the process of building and proper culture of operation undoubtedly must play significant role in shaping of the natural medium of future region.
Because of the abolition of the local street, which leads into the village Of makaravan, became possible coarsening blocks, and at the same time also the scale of the building of entire center. Is correct the idea of unloading terminal area by transferring transit motion to the parallel main street. The possibility of the clear organization of motion with an increase of its intensity in the future causes only doubt, since two directions will intersect in the terminal section: transit (through it is distributed) and station- center. In this sense, possibly, more expedient there would be the device of overpass for the passage of transit motion, especially as in accordance with the project basic motion must be achieved along the townspeople main, which connects all city districts with the railroad station, by an auto depot and an urban center.
Organically is combined with the natural situation the solution of the sport complex, placed in the southwestern part of the city. It is located on the relief and besides especially functional conveniences opens interesting prospects to the surrounding landscape.
The part of the territory of center g. it is distributed with project it is isolated under the housing building, however, without the organization of separate residential sections by the self-contained groups. In essence with setting of apartment houses area relief and orientation are takeed into account. In this sense is less successful the building of the northern part of the block the a-th with setting of buildings across the relief, and also the block A -6 along the street, behind building of which partially will be hidden the nature of the adjacent landscape.
Several interesting town-building developments are realized in the postwar period for g. of kirovakana. The last general plan Of kirovakana is fulfilled in 1968 in the institute Of armgosproyekt.
In accordance with the new general plan the development of city occurs in the free territories in the eastern part Of kirovakana, in feature of which are included also the villages Tyuey megrut, Khndzorut, Darbas and Zhdanov. Are planned works, also, on the reconstruction of the prevailing building. As a whole the industrial profile of city taking into account the liquidation of harmful ejections remains. In the city receives new development the network of scientific the establishment also of the higher educational institutions, for which are isolated the corresponding territories (for studgorodka - in the elevated section of the region Of dimats, and for the scientific establishments - in different parts of the city, but in immediate proximity of the production).
The use of rich natural climatic conditions of territories for purposes of the organization for health resort and mass recreation of population is solved via shaping of the complexes of tourism, pioneer camps and recreation centers both in the limits of city itself and after its feature - in the regions adjacent to it.
The structure of the general plan Of kirovakana is formed of two planning regions, each of which, in turn, consists of three residential areas, public center and industrial territories. Unfortunately, the clearly expressed industrial nature Of kirovakana led actually to the confluence of residential and industrial zones, to the diffuse penetration of the latter almost into entire organism of city, with exception of its eastern regions.
Great town-building value had for Kirovakana the building of the new habitable city block Of bazum, located in the elevated sections in the eastern part of the city. On relief conditions the arterial roads of city block are laid on the lower marks of territory and gird it, excluding transit motion through the city block.
The architectural-planning composition of city block is based on the creation of five habitable formations, grouped around the public center and the school nucleus. On the basis of the special features of wind regime their composition is accepted locked. Under the mikrorayonnyy garden are isolated the territories of the surrounding steep slopes and sections in the sanitary-protection strip. Possibility and expediency of the realization of similar solution are doubtful.
Are notable person such town-building developments of the institute Of armgosproyekta, as general plans is municipal Echmiadzina, Oktemberyana, Ashtaraka, the projects of the detailed plannings of the center Of spitaka, Kalinin, Razdan, Charentsavana, Stepanavana, etc.
In 1971 the institute Of armgosproyekt created the general plan g. of Sevan, located on the shore of similar alpine lake. Was developed the project of the detailed planning of the center of city.
By new general plan it is provided for to bring the population g. of Sevan in 2000 to 70 thousand man. The existing city is located on the northwestern coast of Sevan lake on the absolute marks, which exceed 1 900 m above sea level.
In accordance with the general diagram of the development of the population of the places for Armenian SSR on 2000 Sevan city is developed as the multifunctional center of Sevan town-building region, which has industrial- agrarian and predominantly health resort- health-improvement value. It should be noted that in spite of specific natural climatic conditions, the value of city with the years will grow in connection with the output to the transit railroad main line.
City obtained the architectural- three-dimensional construction, based on two being intersected axes, one of which goes from the station to the lake, and another is pulled along the coast, uniting entire system it is center urban formation.
Desirable peretrassirovka of the highway of union value Yerevan - Tbilisi in the section Sevan - Tsovagyukh for the purpose of the conclusion of transit transport beyond the limits of city and zone of leisure of republic value, as showed practice, would be extremely necessary and justified.
In spite of the difficulty of the building of railroads under the mountain conditions, for the same reasons it would be desirable to exclude from the urban feature and the railroad line, laid through Sevan and which cuts it to two parts.
Making a decision about the development of city to the West is planning and it is economically justified. The majorities of residential sections have the best exposure. Because of the arrangement in the elevated sections from them are opened rare on the beauty prospects in Sevan lake and the surrounding mountains, which visually includes the prevailing elements of natural landscape in the building of city. Both the residential zone as a whole and the primary habitable cells are developed taking into account the creation of the possibilities of output to the lake. Expediently provided by project solution about the removal of the zone of prolonged leisure from the peninsula. Is outlined also work on conducting of excavations and restoration of the tsarist palace Of ashota Of erkata for the purpose of the organization of single historico- archaelogical complex.
Subsequently it follows to attain larger unity between the existing and projected structure of city. Again should be verified the need for the scales of city in the unique natural medium of Sevan lake.
In the town building of Armenia of two recent decades the qualitatively new solutions began to find questions of retention, judicious use and enrichment of natural medium.
"man lives by nature. This means that nature is its body, with which the man must remain in the process of a constant contact in order not to die. What the physical and spiritual life of man is inseparably connected with nature, indicates nothing else but that that nature is inseparably connected with itself itself, since man is a part of nature ".
In each city is formed their microclimate and cultural landscape, that possess the specific special features with respect to the environment, which, especially in the large cities, are unfavorable not only with the health and hygiene, but also from an aesthetical point of view. Is expressed this in worsening in the air and water basins it is municipal, in the aggravation of radiation-thermal regime, raising the level of production and transport noise, displacement from the urban formations of natural nature and as a result - in the creation of the uncomfortable conditions of stay.
City, entering into contradiction with man and surrounding nature, generates the problem, to solve which in the future is possible only with method of solution of the complex of social, economic, town-building, scientific and technical, ecological and other questions.
Under the contemporary conditions by the imperative need for stals also the improvement of technological processes in combination with the effective town-building measures, connected with the organization of sanitary-protection zones, by the conclusion of harmful enterprise from the concentration areas of people. The level of improvement and planting of greenery in the territories of both quite industrial enterprises and urban blocks adjacent to them must be raised also. The correct selection of areas under the building, a strict zoning is municipal and the observance of many other, it would seem, elementary positions, with development of which the errors are committed, they must piously soblyudat'sya by designers.
Correct relation to it in the town building is one of the efficient methods of the protection of nature. From the contemporary town-building science and the practice is required not only the solution of the great circle of the questions, connected with the problems of optimum use and enrichment of nature, but also qualitatively new approach to the work of architect and town builder, to entire process of design and building. Each promising development must consider all aspects of interaction and reciprocal effect of anthropogenic and natural elements and phenomena in the urbanized medium. From other side, taking into account, that the natural systems are independent from the will of man, town builders must search for the diverse variants for the selection of optimal solutions and producing the town-building principles, based on the specific natural conditions.
Scientists with good reason lay the solution of the problem of the protection of environment directly on the man. "nature in is its own way" social ". the "social significance" of it also in the fact that it can live next to the man, contribute with it, if that, in turn, sotsialen and intellektualen is itself "[ 34].
The rapid development of the industrial production, placed in the large urbanized territories, led to an unprecedented increase in the large it was municipal, that present the complex interconnected systems of group settling, with the not always controlled processes, which pass in them. Therefore contemporary town builder is obligated to know, to check and to direct all aspects of the influence of city on the ecological system.
Today, because of urgent need for the protection of nature, became the crying problems of removal of pollution from natural medium by harmful ejections. However, thus far yet is not paid the adequate consideration to the geological bases of the conversion of nature and to the tasks of protection and economical utilization of a geological medium - very key problem, especially for the mountain regions of the country. As early as 1944 academician v. i. vernadskiy accurately determined the role of man in the development of the surface part of the earth's crust: "noosphere is a new geological phenomenon on our planet. In it for the first time the man becomes the largest geological force "[ 35].
It is most intensive, it is diverse and constantly the action of man on the geological medium occurs precisely in the city in connection with the building of high-rise buildings, metro, conduits of different designation, roads and other engineering communications. Without examining in the complex all questions of the influence of his activity on the processes, proceeding in the lithosphere of city, man then is surprised at the destructive buildings, the drying squares and the disappearing rivers.
From other side, it is important so that the scientific knowledge and the achievement, which we have in the region of the protection of environment, would become the property of the whole people. They must directly influence the culture of the way of life of people and form the philosophy of their thinking in the specific plan. In questions of use of natural resources is separately urgently today known Leninist requirement, "... so that the science would not remain dry letter or fashionable phrase (but this, it must be confessed, especially frequently it is) so that the science actually would enter into the flesh and the blood, it were converted into the component element of way of life completely and by present means ".
Under the contemporary conditions the substantial changes and creative concepts on the improvement in the direction of the production of the professional habits, which reveal the idea of the democratization of urban environment, underwent.
In the essence the improvement assumes the creation of entire town-building (artificial) medium, in contrast to the natural, the topographical. Historical Armenian cities were distant in their morphology from the European concepts of the regularity of the media, which began stably to be added in the epoch of revival they found development in the classicism. The specific succession, which goes from the ellinicheskogo understanding of free urban environment, rested on the natural-philosophic roots. Of this it is not difficult to be convinced at least based on the example -philosophic city (X v.).
Since concept "improvement" found the definite meaning in the law about the design pornd England 1909 it was municipal, it underwent many different interpretations. In the present time its limits stretch from the Japanese concept, which covers public sanitation, convenience and care of environment - to different modifications of contemporary urban design with its sotsiakul'turnym approach to the problem.
However that may be improvement, including re-planting, the division of the general town-building directivity of its time comprises.
To the middle of the 50th it is annual they ruled the principles, which were being rested on regularity and closure of three-dimensional construction with the perimeter building. The methods of improvement accurately followed this concept. The idea of three-dimensional dismemberment continued here. Fences, shtaketnye enclosures, the system of re-planting and other measures seemingly reflected certain elitarnost', which mechanically passed in our time from the past epochs.
However, the first attempts at the release from these, undoubtedly, the obsolete concepts gave unexpectedly effective results in the practical activity. Two aspects had special influence on the first steps of the reconstruction of urban environment in the direction of its humanization.
First, the removal of the architectural barriers, which articulated urban three-dimensional medium, created the real connections between the adjacent territories and, in spite of the absence of the composition- organized beginning, they formed the spontaneous large-scale planted greenery zones, which more lately were transformed into the pedestrian.
In the second place, takeing into account the specific character of southern city, street and area they became the three-dimensional continuation of buildings. Benches in the stoppages of transport, small points for servicing the population together with the works of decorative- applied skill democratized urban environment.
Landscape and architecture, being the interconnected and mutualling-cause factors, which form the inhabitable evnironment of man, supplement and enrich each other. Sometimes in practice the incorrect treatment of connection "nature - man" leads to the destruction of connection "landscape - architecture". In this sense the responsibility of town builder is enormous, since the ideas, connected with the correct use of a natural landscape, must be placed even in the general plans of the populated places.
The nonrepeatability of many it is municipal historical Armenia it is connected precisely with the successful use of a natural medium. The clearly expressed uniqueness of examples of Soviet period in many respects is connected with the culture and the skill to work with the landscape.
The annular avenue, planned even according to the first general plan of city, until recently existed only on the paper. And today it is not yet completed finally. One cannot fail to note that into the idea of the creation of the continuous green ring, which covers entire center of city, in practice were introduced the changes, which destroyed the entirety of ring and almost to one third reduced its extent. Nevertheless, by its realized in the nature section, avenue introduced fundamentally new features into the landscape of entire central region of Yerevan.
On the annular avenue, first of all, turns to itself attention skillful work with the relief, use of all its possibilities for creating the interesting planning and three-dimensional, architectural and dendrologicheskikh compositions. The lined by dry laying terraces, which are successfully combined with the relief of cafe, the artificial pond of free configuration, serpentine concrete benches give to the section of the avenue between Lenin's prospectus pul.Teryana the unique coloring of southern mountain landscape.
The multistage metallic fountain, which closes prospect ul, is the adornment of avenue. Tumanyana.
Completes the improvement of the last, southern section of avenue, which is characterized by the uniqueness not only of planning composition, but also all the three-dimensional solutions, formed taking into account the special features of the microrelief of section.
From the middle of the 60th it is annual in Yerevan they are conducted work on the organization of the zone of leisure in the gorge of river it is distributed. Central, but it is at the same time because of the steep rocky coastal the isolated from the residential areas arrangement, the significant dimensions of territory (about 400 GA), extent more than to 15 km and presence of active natural factor - river it is distributed, created not only difficult, but now and then contradictory beginnings in design and building of the zone of leisure of townspeople value.
The principles of the free topographical planning, which made it possible to maximally use the best elements of nature of gorge and to enrich by their additional landings of trees and bushes, are assumed in the basis of the general plan of zone. This purpose serve the separate park objects, whose number is sufficiently limited. Zone is the system of the correlated parks, located on both banks of the river, which is been actually the basis of composition, to which gravitates towards a number of side-line composition axes.
In connection with the noticeable decrease recently of a quantity of water in the river it is distributed special sharpness it acquired a question of the use of aqueous surfaces. For its solution was realized the building of small weirs, because of which considerably increased the total area of aqueous smoothness. In the gorge the entire cascade of the small flowing lakes naturally inscribed into the relief was formed. Marries the zone of leisure the artificial Yerevan lake, located in the southwestern part of the city on the spot of the expansion of the canyon of river it is distributed. It spilled in the territory by area in 62 GA as a result of building in 1964 - 1966 dam on the river it was distributed (on the continuation ul. Tamantsineri). In accordance with the general plan of city in the adjacent to the lake territories the second decade is conducted the building of the park of the townspeople value, which is been the natural functional continuation of the zone of leisure in the gorge of river it is distributed.
Basic park massif is created in the territory, which adjoins The echmiadzinskomu highway. Here are already well-organized the coasts of lake, along which was lengthened the concrete strolling lane, which connects general beach with the children's, located in the northern part of the lake. In the project is planned also the building of underground crossings under The echmiadzinskim highway, which will connect park with The dalminskimi gardens.
Along the left shore of lake in the beginning of the 70th it is annual it is built the embankment- lane, the adjacent which steep slopes are already partially planted greenery. In accordance with the project on this side of Yerevan lake the restaurant and rescue station are put into use. From the lake they directly flush of the fountains, whose design height are 45 - 60 m. they they are examined well both from the territory of park and from different points of city, being unique orientator.
The creation of Yerevan lake and the bombardment of river sharply changed the landscape of entire region, considerably improved its microclimate, and the main thing it artistically enriched.
Aqueous surface became during our days one of the active constituents of urban landscape. Only for the latter several years in Yerevan are created artificial lakes in the theater of opera and ballet im. Spendiarova, in the parks "pobedy"2 and the name 26- TI of Baku commissioners, in the prospectus of freedom, not far from the apartment house "trefoil" on the prospectus Of oktemberyan 3 and in other places of city. Picturesquely were entered in the view the artificial ponds, built in Kirovakane and Dilizhane.
It is even at the end of the 30th annual in Yerevan they were annual carry ouied significant works on re-planting of the stony slopes Of norkskoy elevation, Arabkirskyyo plateau, elevation Of tsitsernakaberd and other territories, which played important role in improvement in the natural situation and creation of that excellent green amphitheatre, against the background of which surveys entire central region of modern Yerevan.
Today's natural situation of Yerevan, created artificially urban climate require solution of the new town-building problems, directly connected with the life of entire city.
In 1970 - 1980- X years in theory and practice of the town building of Soviet Armenia in the creative use of factors of natural medium are made noticeable steps, about which testify the scientific and design developments, executed into ArmNIISA, the institutes Of armgosproyekt, Yerevanproyekt.
In 1973 - 1976 in the institute Of erevanproyekt is developed the project of the topographical organization of the territories of Yerevan for the calculated period of general plan - up to 2000 here is for the first time at the level of design developments made an attempt at the solution of the problems of the interrelation of city and nature.
In the topographical organization of the territory of city important place belongs to the integrated assessment of natural conditions. The analysis of each topographical subarea individually was carry ouied for the development of nature and specific weight of the propagation of the varieties of landscapes throughout the entire territory of Yerevan and the corresponding map was comprised. Analogous data for the city as a whole are generalized in the diagram of the topographical differentiation, where found reflection natural situation, contemporary state of the use of a landscape and the projected landscapes of city.
Integrated assessment of natural conditions is given in the project around the individual topographical localities and the city as a whole with the isolation of natural elements and phenomena, designation of territories and degree of the favorableness of natural conditions.
Special attention is inverted to the analysis of relief from the point of view of the stereo organization of city, in connection with how is checked the visibility of the most important buildings and ensembles from different city districts.
How is characteristic the stereo organization of the central region of today's Yerevan?
It, as it was noted, was located in the foothill plain, surrounded from three sides by the natural amphitheatre of elevations with the sharply breaking themselves slopes. Panoramic survey from the center in the southern and partially southwestern directions is opened completely. The split four- five-storied building is leading in the central city district. The separate point multistory buildings, built in recent years, still finally did not destroy the closed three-dimensional- self-contained nature of the system of the center of city, in spite of the explicit chaos of their setting. But this already affects negatively the formation of the silhouette of building. Meanwhile the hypsometric situation of the center of city with its interesting geomorphology (gorge of river it is distributed, numerous hills, Avanskoye gorge and so forth.) in combination with the points of multiplan panoramic survey to ararat, Aragats and other dominants of natural environment rare on the beauty are created rich possibilities for the stereo organization of center and city as a whole.
Taking into account that the administrative- public centers of the planning regions of Yerevan (besides central) yet were not formed, the role of the determination of their three-dimensional connection with the natural environment and the prevailing building rises in the present stage.
Analysis and the estimation of the hypsometric situation of the territory of Yerevan and numerous unsuccessful, in our opinion, examples the use of a relief in the practice of building city (apartment houses according to Orbeli's street, the created extensive "screen" with a height are more than 30 m; the apartment houses in Zeytune, which compete from many points of city on the height with the monument of victory and other.) they lead to the conclusion that the building on the critical points of the surrounding center natural amphitheatre must be conducted only in the exceptional cases, on the basis of the basic principles of the stereo organization of central region and composition considerations of the construction of city as a whole. At the same time, should be limited the medium altitude of the housing building of center for the coordination of new habitable buildings with the prevailing four- five-storied building and accentuation in the space of the public buildings of city.
It seems that with shaping of the building of the blocks of center, especially located from the outer side of annular avenue, it is necessary to reveal prospects to the natural amphitheatre. In this case it is expedient to exclude the building of the extensive buildings of the increased height, which level relief, lock three-dimensional corridors, detain and dissipate the flows of cool air going on top, so necessary in the summer time.
Furthermore, that nature is the "body" of a human, in it occurs entire its economic activity, which is flowed in the general natural process and which influences it.
This tendency was imperceptible in the epoch of the subsistence economy. "as long as human association was the component part of the natural order, their physical and biological stability was to a considerable extent provide ford with the self-regulating of nature itself" [ 36 ]. Yes even man yet did not possess such powerful possibilities as now. Therefore in response to the generosity of nature, which gave presents by all its its riches, he could in no way compensate that undertaken, except as by appreciation in the form of spiritual, ethical and aesthetical manifestations.
The merciless offensive of man to nature began, when it by capitalism proved to be that implicated in the system of commodity-monetary relations. Being enriched due to nature and thus pumping its muscles, man again was brought down to it with an even larger force, than before. They are full of of anger U. Morris's word about this barbarism: "you chop excellent trees..., destroy ancient buildings in order to extract profit..., soil water in the rivers, shut the sun, poison air - no one is obligated to worry about this, to think about the methods of opposition to these terrible processes: here is activity and the purposes of today's industrialization and capital... "[ 37 ]. It seemed that nature - the "inexhaustible storeroom and bottomless dump" [ 38 ].
Consumer relation to nature penetrated the consciousness of people, being transformed into the spiritual categories, intended to justify their actions. In contrast to all others it is specific spiritual human activity, others it is specific skills this penetration into the architecture, which has the dvuyedinuyu essence (symbiosis of skill and technology), it was relative lung and simple, since technology for this appeared, so to speak, by "fifth column" in the architecture. Crisis was aggravated by disruption of the interior equilibrium of architecture, by shifts in the dialectical unity between its function and form.
The industrial methods of building, based on the series production of plural repetition, more could not on the old ensure variety in order to satisfy traditional requirements. Therefore in the mass building above the architecture ever more ascended the throne the supremacy of the designer "skill of abstract medium".
Formula "function determines form", brought out at the dawn of "new architecture", almost one hundred years serve as conceptual support for different, frequently opposite, the directions of the architecture: from the orthodox functionalism to the angry raytovskoy inversion "the form determines function".
The designer interpretation of function escapes from the industrial essence: to create is much, rapidly and it is cheap, on the scientific basis. Aesthetical criterion: the truthful expression of internal structure and technological special features in the external appearance, as if saying "only truth and nothing besides truth".
The qualitative limitedness of this concept with the interest is compensated by the objective requirements of quantitative aspect, supported by social order. Specifically, to this criterion for long years it was judged rule, also, in our architecture. This had its soil. Our country, solving enormous social problem, conducts mass building more than any another, precisely, by industrial methods.
The force of concept was so great, that it forced traditional architecture to surrender position to industrial design, to become its obedient instrument. The ultimate source, from where it now drew inspiration, were not nature, but technical peace, created by man, so to speak, derivative of nature. Imitating to it, houses and construction ever more became the flesh of not eternally living nature, but this artificial peace; therefore by them was judged brief life. The magic force of one-sided end forced architecture even in those, not very many cases, when it could appear and open itself in the specific space, turn from this under the fear of charge to retrospektivnosti.
Designer concept is tightly connected with the development of technology and not to the step it can allow itself to remain it. A constant dynamic state of this process does not give the place for traditional normativnosti, which makes it possible to attain the steady ideal forms. It rapidly grows old, without having the stable basis, which could be only environment.
It is obvious that a similar one-sided interpretation, characteristic for the applied skill of design, cannot solve the art-like problems of architecture. This is with its own eyes evident from the general practice of mass industrial construction, its monotony and artistic- informative scantiness.
To say nothing of the highest descriptive- artistic possibilities, to which the architecture raises in its best manifestations, for it in the usual practice are necessary means for converting the lowest forms of structural organization into the artistically original compositions. This originality is simply unthinkable without the creative involvement in the formation of the architecture of environment. The caught special features of its nature by feedback penetrate the internal structure. Here already internal structure (buildings, town-building complex), design construction become concrete modification by the formed concrete environment. Form becomes mediator, who harmonizes object with his environment. The internal structure of unit not only x-rays through it. In it is reflected external peace, while in the highest forms of artistic expressiveness exterior form is capable of transferring sense from one object to another.
Not in this whether ability is placed the phenomenon of form? Not therefore whether the form, from which long ago "its shrewd" borne content, does continue to enrapture, appearing to us artistic self-worth?
As basis for this serves the degree of depth and latitude of the reflection in it of the factors of concrete environment, nature.
Denying historical continuity and normativnost', "new architecture" gave birth to stereotype and die, which into the century of high-speed informativeness were immediately extended by marketable ideas on entire light.
Preaching complete vsedozvolennost', substituting by eclectism the high concept about the romanticism, the region of architecture was converted into certain Babylon, where "were mixed languages" so that one was not understood another, as if not self-restriction is the expression of complete freedom with vsedozvolennosti.
Intolerance toward the original, the unique, component the organic essence of designer plurality and repetitions, naturally, are directed against the primitive trade skills, many of which either ended its existence or they are located on its face.
Thus, it is objective, technology trampled not only nature, but also intellectual values, which asserted its primacy. People creation, after proving to be in the position of "martyr", in the recent decades caused the unprecedented wave of sympathy. Changed in the root relation also to the old ordinary buildings only because they were the carriers of this culture.
These contradictory processes - evidence of the disrupted equilibrium inside the earliest skill of architecture. to the "new architecture", which "died together with the utopian hopes for remaking of society by its means", now for the change goes the new wave of eclectism with its acknowledgement of the values of the "context of urban environment", historical method, cultural succession. Those being seeming positive of its multi-contact; however, are more greatly limited to the sphere of the rhetorical debunking of "new architecture", than by the results of practical activity. In spite of the attractiveness of the declarations, proclaimed postmodernistami, their creative aspirations "thus far pour out only in the assertion of petty-bourgeois ideals". Nevertheless "the revival of interest in the cultural values of the past and the context of the prevailing medium became not only the support of fruitful searches, but also the justification for the new wave of eclectism" [ 40 ].
In this flow are united all, frequently contradictory directions against the "new architecture", which do not allow, speaking frankly, to give single-valued determination to its ideological positions and creative concepts. This will have to make time.
Between the man and the medium - by these stable categories of nature - lies the architecture, which is been mediator in their consolidation. They be determining in its functions: the satisfaction of man by the organized space with the maximum conveniences for each form of activity and the harmonization of object with his environment. Finally, the realization of these requirements becomes the basis, on which the force of the talent of creator reports to it the highest expressiveness, which raises architecture to the die spaces of public consciousness.
At this level into its formation are implicated the higher spiritual manifestations of medium in the form of the regional, historical and natsional'nnykh factors. Having only traversed this, architecture becomes international, accessible all, which is confirmed by the entire history of its development. Any gap in this triad, isolation of separate component or their combinations, similar to disturbance in the biogeocenosis, inevitably lead to the disintegration of entire cultural subsystem, which presents the architecture.
Architecture as the region of spiritual activity, in the recent decades obediently proshagav after the developing technology, together with it approached the critical threshold, after which are destroyed the self-regulating possibilities of its stability.
After this threshold of our era (technosphere) two ways: world catastrophe or, regarding V. i. vernadskiy, preobrazovannaya by scientific thought and completely controlled by man norsfera.
The general making more active of the universal motion of masses - from the amateurism of nature to the defense of peace on the Earth, in the final analysis serves shared objective and confirms the positions Of v. i. vernadskiy.
Of all skills the architecture, in view of its specific character, especially sensitively reacts to the progress of science, which composes the part of the bases of architecture and bridges into all field of knowledges. But the main thing, as Goethe said, if artist depicts nature, then architect creates in nature.
Today everything speaks for the fact that the architecture is located on the threshold of the new historic action, when be swept aside all alien to it one-sided manifestations and the achievements of our time are generalized.
In always function the buildings and its extrinsic ethos had to satisfy utilitarian and aesthetical needs in essence of particular owner, who invests building. In the society of social equality these relations in the root changed. Architecture is here in principle free from the concrete- personal requirement and through the optimization reflects the social order of society as a whole on the significant and repeated scales. It comes out not simply as the category, which satisfies the vitally important needs of people, but also as the social- normalizing means of new society. This special feature is the instrument of the assertion of new social economic device and the tool of molding of the adequate spiritual peace of people.
In our classless society, which consists of the different social population groups, the needs in the dwelling are determined not by luxury, but by the qualitatively different requirements, which correspond to the specific character of way of life and kind of the activity of each group, primary cell of which is family.
From other side, in shaping of these social groups participates demographic specific character with the concrete polovozrastnoy structure. Only these some factors - (social and demographic) in the process of their differentiation and in the deep introduction can give the enormous variety of the "assortment" of dwelling. This is the internal uniqueness, with which not into what comparison can go the "wrapping" staylingovoye difference, which has today marketable prevalence abroad. This internally caused variety cannot organically but be reflected in the extrinsic ethos. The main resources of the variety of building are here placed. Dwelling - our "uppermost clothing", after passage to the individual methods of production close approached the sphere of commodity. In fact, in the ideal it ever more will become similar, for example, to the industry of the production of foot-wear. It is necessary to assume that the first industrial shoe production immediately did not begin to satisfy demand for all required forms. Plant housebuilding was borne several decades ago and it find in the beginning of its development. For it it is necessary not only to solve complex technical problems and to create its architectural-artistic concept, but also to overcome many by centuries the prevailing ideas about the architecture. There is no doubt, that will come the time, when industrial housebuilding will completely carry out the social order, which is characterized by the organic, internally caused variety.
The population of planet during the year now grows almost to 80 mln. people. To 2000, according to the most modest forecasts, it must grow one and a half times more than. It becomes hence clear that the quantitative problem of the creation of material goods advanced the task of increasing the intensification of production. This is - the main motive power of contemporary scientific and technical revolution. The industrialization of building, which ensures a steady quantitative increase in the production of the materialized medium, not end in itself and was not borne itself.
In one of his letters F. Engels indicated that "... if in society appears the technical need, then it moves science forward more than tens of universities".
This advance was stormy, first of all, in the region of quantitative problem. However, the delay of the development of form gave birth to a whole series of paradoxes. The sense of the main thing of them consists in the fact that the quantitative requirements make it necessary to reduce mnogodel'nost' in the technology of the production of dwelling and for this purpose maximally to enlarge the sizes of tipoelementov with the reduction of their number. However, qualitative aspect, on the contrary, is characterized by tendency toward a reduction of sizes and an increase in their quantity for expanding not only the assortment of the types of dwelling, but also for increasing the diverse variability of the form of dwelling - the main "filler" of urban space.
This is only part of the matter, which constitutes the essence of problem, by limited tasks of material needs.
Of all questions, more all agitating us today, the most urgent - overcoming the aesthetical crisis of the monotony, survived by mass building.
What resources of variety does conceal the sphere of the satisfaction of spiritual, aesthetical needs? At what level they are placed under the contemporary conditions?
Once L. mis van to der ROE said that the architecture begins, where one brick is assumed on another. Obviously, this preserves its force and until now, but only in the region of the building of unique building, with the characteristic for them jewelry skill of finishing each detail.
Ancient Greece created the models of architecture, which are characterized by the nuances of architectural-artistic interpretation inside each strictly standardized type of construction. Their Romans extended to the huge territories. In spite of this, each geographical region with only in him the inherent natural and topographical special features, the construction methods and the materials and finally with its original culture (certainly, and by architecture) so adapted to its conditions these customary types, that they cannot be entangled with others. Where, for example, still it is possible to meet similarity to temple in Harney, although this by itself type even "is commonplace".
New, "honest" architecture began one hundred years ago as reaction to the aesthetical utopia of moderna, ever more moved away from the vital realias despite the fact that it itself recently contributed to the wreck of conservatism and academicism in the architecture.
In this "honest" architecture, whose distant roots go back to the ideals of the sincerity of Age of the Enlightenment, rather was expressed the "subjective understanding of reality by artist, than the objective relation of structure and artistic form in the work of architecture"... "sequential aspiration to the sincerity in a similar understanding excluded the subordination of the object of creation to environmental conditions: the ethical concept, in reference to the internal dependences of object, was transformed into the intolerance to any pressure of environmental factors. Thus was asserted idea about the work of architecture as locked mikrokosmose, very essential for the development of architectural utopia subsequently "[ 41] (isolation our a. g. and M. T.).
Proclaimed the position, with which "contemporary building must extract its architectural expressiveness only from the force and values of its own organic proportions, must be truly in itself" [ 42 ] (isolation our a. g. and M. T.). For the change of the utopia of aesthetical arrived the utopia ethical, freest for the development of technology, the defined by example in no way concept, which by the hands of design asserted the primacy of technology.
So architecture, having lost its basic criterion of beauty - harmonic connection with the environment (as the minimum - by landscape), it began to be rolled up in the creative positions of technical aesthetics, design. It is interesting that the criteria of evaluation of its steel are designer. In a word "innovating" were designated, mainly, design, technical merits. And, of course, increasingly less attention was given to the age long properties of architecture, to the perfection of its specific means of expressiveness, sharpened in the collaboration with the surrounding environment.
The pioneers of "new architecture", living into the century of industrial construction, could allow themselves "to begin architecture", where another was assumed on one brick. In the essence all their buildings are unique and confirm these aphoristic words.
But it is not possible, for example, in this city as Yerevan, during the year to construct thousands of apartment houses and to remain in this case within the framework of small-scale brick and even panel. Architecture cannot possess firm scale. It in each epoch its. And it is completely obvious that today the resources of architectural expressiveness in the mass building begin not from the separate house, since its composition perfection with the multiple repetition asserts the monotony of artistic informativeness. Therefore this approach, which occurred? in the used series of standard projects limited according to the nomenclature, it today eliminated itself. Thus, the functions of three-dimensional sense from the separate house pass to the larger formations, whose individual appearance is formed each time in the organic coordination with the concrete medium.
Selection of different aspects, which generate the monotony of building! modern city, it shows that this monotony, as many naively assume, does not begin and does not end one only with monotony okoye architectural craftsmanship out of the understanding in the common form - town-building, since only it forms environment.
All traditional architectural expressive means in the more scale expressions, as we already spoke, come out as the mediators between the buildings and landscape or architectural medium. Indeed ten is age-long man, scrutinizing into the surrounding peace and living prorodu, were formed these means. Possession and skillful use by them cannot but guarantee the success in their final activity - the harmonization of artificial things with the peace, which gave birth to these means.
Is characteristic in this sense the building of the hotel of "Dvina". The large-scale nature of its undifferentiated volume will not be coordinated with the topographical dominants of medium - by the gorge of river is distributed and by hills Konda.
One cannot fail to note and the fact that the number of diverse types of houses not always the guarantee of the success of building. It is even vice versa. In the essence not each "brick", i.e. element of volume in the building, must express the idea of individuality. Then there are many examples, when with their limited number is achieved not only architectural- three-dimensional unity, but also uniqueness. This is the result of the skillful organization of the motion of man in the space and the possession of skill the "architecture of the earth", which supports the composition idea of the three-dimensional solution and that reporting interest to architectural space by its nonrepeatability.
The imperfect possession of these professional methods also generates frequent turning to templates and stereotypes.
Is not admitted united measure, also, in the procedure of standard design. We already said that Armenia was almost all zones of all-Union climatic division into districts. However, they are territorially extremely small in order to create its for each of them, even small, individual construction base. The required "assortment" of dwelling under these conditions unusually grows, if we consider the unlimited uniqueness of mountain relief. The active practice of two decades of plant housebuilding more greatly showed, how it is not possible to make under these conditions, than that, as it is must. For example, two or three not very extended of house, built under the foothill conditions of city, caused unprecedented protest even in the nonprofessional circles. And, on the contrary, originally organized courts in Avan-e region from the point houses proved to be harmonious with the natural landscape.
Procession in the united methodological fairway of industrial plant housebuilding almost completely froze the output of scientific search in this region to the practical arena.
In the building the concepts of industrial production ever more are asserted and it is clear that recovery to the old not it will be. But indeed it is allowed and even it is encouraged so that with unification and observance of All-Union Standards the production of the popular consumption of separate regions depending on the action of local factors would be diverse. Why, when it is obvious that the new regions of mass building do everywhere become similar and with monotonous, being the alien to means individual cities of poliferatsii, we do not make the attempt to develop in the new prevailing medium the means of this city?
Among the medium architects ever more are heard the voices about the fact that "the reasons for the so-called facelessness of architecture lie in the fact that we tore the chain of basic it was sectional, by which are implied an architectural-planning and constructive solution, industrial production, building itself and economy. All this is solved today in detachment one from another ". It turns out that in view of this we actually "plan and it is achieved inadequacy of expression" [ 43 ].
The steady procedure of standard design, as showed long-standing practice, does not ensure final, synthetic result. The right to synthesize remains for the architect only for the period of design, after which each side (customer, builder, supplier and finally the examiner of object), interested in its bureaucratic interests, turns the fate of object in the side advantageous to itself. However, for the success of common cause to architect must be returned the autocracy from the beginning to the end, since it on. to the specific character of its profession of "vnevedomstvenen", and fruit of its labor is evaluated at nature.
Is indisputable, in our opinion, also thought about the fact that it is not necessary to attempt to improve, to develop that the fact that itself it did not justify. For each region is best anything that ensures its requirements of convenience, beauty and flexibility with the advanced technology and efficiency of building. Nowhere they can be general. And the main source of efficiency universal in the country, expediency and variety here lies. Speaking in Goethe's words, "is permitted that becomes".
Being examined to the relatively brief way of development and mass building in Armenia, it is possible to ascertain that the successes in this region were always connected with those cases, when in the experimental order even small deviations from the prevailing principles were allowed.
Turning to the specific character of the topographical conditions Of dilizhana made it possible to create the city block Of kakhni-Khach. Of strangling land shortage under the mountain conditions Kafana it oriented to the building of the group of many-storeyed houses on the super-steep relief in the very center of city. The unique historico- architectural medium of the center Of echmiadzina drew to the plastically picturesque solution of the housing building of block Vagarshapat near the cathedral. Variety in these cases did not come out as end in itself, as one tendency alone toward the aesthetical revelations. It here - the organic consequence of expediency.
Attempting to introduce no corrections into the social- normalizing bases of the prevailing typology of dwelling, action our should be directed toward the searches for this system, which would ensure the best solution of the problem of mass habitable building for each region.
Now in the republic by total area into 30 thousand km2 during the year are introduced more than 1 million. m2 dwelling. Its territory, as it was noted, was almost all all-Union climatic zones, in which the building is conducted without taking into account their utilitarian and economic special features.
Only climatic conditions and relief with their numerous combinations require the unusual flexibility of projects. The existing methods of mass habitable building by their hardness and by limitedness frequently force to leave for the absorption even without that of the scant of the resources of the agricultural earth with the plains relief.
Patchiness and atomization of earth different in geomorphology, together with the climatic polymorphic quality, require the complete revision of the entire prevailing practice of mass building. The small dimensions of republic make it possible to solve a question by introducing the standardized system of the industrial production of the dwelling of most varied types. We do not see another alternative for the permission of the problem of the building of convenient, economical, beautiful and diverse in the appearance dwelling. This task, however, can be permitted by the revision of the long-standing organizational practice of building. New system must distinguish the unity of purpose, and management of the matter must ensure the complete unity of actions and means of different interested departments.
In this sense the specific hopes moves the accepted in 1984 program of the promising development of the industrial basis, increase in the technical level, effectiveness and quality of mass home construction activity in Armenian SSR to 1985 - 1995. As the basis of its development are assumed the principles of the unification of the design solutions, specialization and cooperation of house-building combines and plants of the ferroconcrete articles, which actually in the republic find in infancy, and finally passage to the block- sectional method with the complete mastery of the entire nomenclature of projects. Only improved series 129/1-2 consists of 42 block- sections for the urban building and 16 - rural.
Practically the building of apartment houses on the basis of the standardized constructions will begin since 1987 with the reduction to 40% of total number of standard sizes and stamps of articles considerably it increases the variability of the architecture of buildings as a whole and the especially architectural-planning and volume- three-dimensional solutions of habitable formations. Is extremely important putting into practice 1 -, 2- and 12 - 16- storeyed apartment houses from the monolithic reinforced concrete with the application of industrial adjustable of plankings, and also new series 1 -, 2- and 4 - 5- storeyed apartment houses from the natural stone. The latter has fundamental importance for the architecture of small it is municipal and the rural populated places of republic.
In the contemporary situation, when because of the requirements of time improbable jump is perfected in all regions of human activity, the volume of initial information in the science, and also in the architecture it grew to the gigantic sizes. The separate components of architecture were isolated in the independent scientific region. Being tightly clamped with the architecture, each of them has their clearly outlined boundaries of scope. Social hygiene, climatology, technology of construction production, technology of buildings and much other today can be developed completely izolirovanno. It is not difficult to present the helpless position, in which could prove to be in this situation the architect, deprived of the possibility to envelop, to synthesize and to harmonize the inconceivable flow of contemporary information in the, it seemed, improbable combinations themselves.
Architecture today as however and entire science, developed into the region, which is powerful further to be developed on the basis only of system method of study and solution of problems. The dogma, which reigned long centuries in the science about a "change in the factors on one", is not today completely acceptable in the complex systems, which it is necessary to solve, also, in the architecture.
Contemporary science is located on the threshold of the complete disclosure of that concealed information, because of which will be revealed the regularities, which developed the skill of synthesis in the past times. Thus of person, who improved his arms and legs, improves not only thinking, but also feelings.
In the period of creative reconstruction in the middle of the 50th it is annual it underwent complete revision and the system of architectural formation. Requirements for the selection of the artistically gifted young people first of all were reduced. Even the poorly prepared in this sense contingent went in architectural VUZ - Institute of Higher Education.
The swollen volume of purely engineering disciplines, directly let us say over any measure, it pressed to the pitiful sizes the program of the aesthetical training of architect. All this was completely in the spirit of the celebration of the funktsionalisticheskikh concepts in our architecture, whose consequences we easily reveal to this day.
Technical-engineering preparation contributed to the assertion of the formation of architecture on the basis of her internal functions. However, the three-dimensional thinking, based on the mastery of the elementary methods of the formation of compositions under the action and environments, but not only functions, was with many "forgotten". It is appropriate to here recall the famous traditions of the artistic education of architects, manufactured in the creative schools of our outstanding masters. Matter not only in the legend to the oblivion of the methods of reflection in the composition of the factors of environment. The main thing here in the fact that the deposition of the priority of artistic disciplines decreased the general aesthetical culture of specialist- architect, who entered into the creative life. Meanwhile it is known that the sharpening of an artistic feeling occurs through the serious occupations by drawing, by painting and, of course, by training architectural design. There is no other way.
Motives, on which in its time architecture left the shipbuilding, so By a. Burov in the book "about the architecture", today in the larger measure can be referred also to the industrial housebuilding. The loss of individuality, series circulation create the objective basis of the reference of this region not to the skill, but to the industry. If we recognize this fact, then to the industrial housebuilding must be extended the properties, which distinguish the industrial goods: technical perfection, bezukoriznennost' of performance, the design of model and so forth why, for example, the windows of apartment house must be inferior as to the windows of motor vehicles? We think that this nonconformity is explained by the presence of today our plant housebuilding, in comparison with the automobile construction, at much the lower step of development, explained by the youth of region. It is possible to be confident that window Thermopane in the aluminum binding and with the mechanical opening in the course of time in the apartment house will become simpler and it is cheaper than today's bulky wooden frames. There are sufficiently many similar nonconformities.
Apparently, the time of rate setting the circulated types of houses came. But this will indicate the introduction of a constant innovative search for ways of improvement and renovation of dwelling.
As it was noted, as early as the 60's the town building of Soviet Armenia intensely is oriented to the formation of averages and small it is municipal, caused by the plans of the development of entire national economy of republic and especially by the arrangement of new industrial enterprises. Is activated work on the improvement and the home construction activity in the already prevailing industrial centers - Leninakan, Kirovakane. Alaverdi, and also in The echmiadzine cities, Oktemberyane, Dilizhane.
In the last decade are developed the diagrams of the district planning of the social and economic regions of republic, the projects of district planning of approximately 30 regions. At present all cities of republic are provide ford with general plans, but the calculated periods of some of them already elapsed, although were not achieved some of their basic indices. Are developed for calculated 2010 general plans it is municipal: Yerevan, Leninakan, Kirovakan, Sevan, Artik, Artashat, Dilizhan; district is center Aparan, Bagramyan, etc. Unfortunately, the analysis of state is municipal republic it shows that in the overwhelming majority of the cases an increase in the population, civil housing and municipal building, re-planting and improvement are not developed in them harmoniously. A certain exception in questions of home construction activity and improvement be only cities it is distributed, Abovyan, Kafan and Charentsavan.
Period 1970 - 1980- X is annual it is characteristic by the completion of the projects of the detailed building of basic health resorts and zones of leisure of republic. The well-known health resorts Of dzhermuk, Arzni, Dilizhan, Ankavan, Stepanavan found contemporary general plans, projects of the detailed planning of the regions of first priority building and projects of the building of the separate health resort formations, which serve as basis for their systematic development. By the main institute Of armgosproyekt is comprised the diagram of the distribution of the territories of national park "Sevan", TEO of the arrangement of pioneer camps in the republic, the projects of detailed planning and building of separate health resort formations in Dzhermuke, Arzni, Ankavane, Arzakane, Dilizhane. As successful objects here should be recognized the building of the dispensary of Yerevan tire plant in Arzni, tourist base in Stepanavane, antitubercular sanatorium in Dilizhane, pioneer camp in Agbyurake, boarding house in Dilizhane, boarding house Of erNIIMM in Tsakhkadzor, etc.
Especially should be noted the architecture of the latter. In the boarding house Of erNIIMM the restrained, but expressive solution of the volumes, terrace-like which are climbed on the relief, the culture of detail, organization and treatment of interiors are combined with the sufficiently high quality of building. Certain inappropriate monumentalizatsiya of means, especially in the interiors, does not decrease the general architectural expressiveness of building. The cascade construction of composition is long ago known, but, when this method entered into the contact with surrounding nature, it sounded svezho and it is original.
The building of many units under the conditions of republic is achieved long years. Some in this case lose the originality of concept. These buildings frequently suffer sketchiness, enthusiasm by the rigid linear systems, alien to local landscape, by the enormous glazed planes of apertures and nemasshtabnost'yu of composition methods. But even with the successful in the entire solution not all authors manifest proper perseverance in the tendency toward the high quality of the performance of concepts.
The building extended to the decades, as showed practice, gives birth to the ruinous desire in housebuilders to raise the small, now and then nonlegitimized objects, scattered today in all zones of leisure and health resorts of republic. By analogous method are build ot almost entire Arzakanskoye gorge, individual sections of the coast of Sevan lake and many other unique in the landscape places of republic. This chaos does damage to natural environment, at times to the irreplaceable losses. Position is frequently aggravated by the absence of the required sanitary conditions, the engineering equipment, establishments of cultural and general services.
The health resort Of dzhermuk, for example, clearly illustrates the aforesaid. The leading town-building idea in its building today is not outlined, in spite of the existing general plan. One after another rise the huge things of faceless housings. The quality of building is located on the low level, is absent the proper culture of conducting blagoustroitel'nykh works, in the pitiful state re-planting. In entire city there is not united ukhozhennogo corner. Here is already powerlessly any unique natural environment is certain.
Resolution of a question of the formation of the new medium of the urbanized spaces is directly connected with an increase in the effectiveness of the design solutions and architectural-artistic expressiveness of the objects of industry. Characteristic for the 70th is annual the search for the ways of overcoming of monotony and stereotype in the architecture it were extended also to the industrial architecture. To each has already long ago become clear that unification and typification - this only of the means of industrialization, but not the final goal of industrial construction.
An increase in the attention on this region grows taking into account the enormous town-building role of industrial objects, since many of them are located in the critical places of urban environment and actively form it.
The number of design institutes is occupied by the design of industrial objects in the republic, including Of armpromproyekt, ArmNIIprotsvetmet, Armgidroproyekt, Armgiprotrans and other institutes and special design bureaus.
Developed more than twenty diagrams of the general plans of industrial it is main in the last decade in the institute Of armpromproyekt, which envelopped about 300 industrial objects, are comprised the diagrams of the ordering of the existing industrial building of industrial regions. It is difficult to overestimate the role of these works under the conditions of the limited land resources of republic.
The significance of industrial architecture for Armenia is visible in the impassive enumeration of the basic objects of the past five-year plan. These are - Armenian atomic power plant, Razdanmash, the Oktemberyan plant of glass container, The leninakanskiy plant of magnetic circuits, the expansion Of the kadzharanskeyeo combine, the Yerevan plants of electric motors and forklift trucks. This enumeration it would be possible to continue, after including in it both the final and begun by building objects. Are projected and are constructed the numerous complexes of scientific research institutes, the individual groups of enterprises, the dispensaries, directly connected with the development of industry.
By creative approach to the solution of series of problems are here separated the auto works Of erAZ, housing of newspaper-magazine production, editorial staff and publishing house OF TSK KP of Armenia, the building of the printing house of colored press in Yerevan, The leninakanskaya stocking factory and the plant on the basis of the innovation repair of diesel automobiles in The masisskeye region.
The housings of newspaper-magazine production, editorial staffs and publishing house OF TSK KP of Armenia are characteristic by the appeared desire to be connected with the existing building of the knot of the intersection of the streets Of karmir Of banaki, Khandzhyana and prospectus of Ordzhonikidze.
Is at the same time difficult not to note here the mixing of the obsolete and contemporary structures - from the wall of "midis" to the steel body of building.
The industrial architecture of republic reached the specific successes, but little here and serious deficiencies. They concern the rationality of the solution of industrial zones and general plans of the territories of industrial objects, shaping of medium by industrial buildings and by construction, the use of advanced methods of building and achievements of technical sciences, and also especially artistic problems. In Armenia these deficiencies bear the clearly expressed nature, since for the republic tens of branch planning organizations, located in the most varied cities of the country, project objects.
In these organizations, which try their forces in the small territory of republic, are developed both technological and architectural and construction of the aspect of the projects. Certainly, the technological parts of the specialized productions can be developed only in the central specialized planning organizations. But indeed architectural and construction and engineer units it is possible and must project in the republic. It is otherwise difficult to attain architectural planning, stereo and stylistic unity and coordination of all works even at one construction site, frequently divided between several design institutes, which protect the interests not of city as a whole, but only its departments. Special damage in this case falls out in the portion of architecture and rational land tenure.
The contemporary state of the industrial architecture of republic can be described as the underestimation of its social value and artistic role in a matter of the creation of the necessary conditions, which stimulate production human activity and which influence the ideological and aesthetical training of workers. However, in the creative plan the architecture of many industrial buildings is still very distant on its level from the solutions Of erGES-y, complex of the wine plant of trust "ararat become classical", the buildings of cognac plant, Yerevan meat combine and other achievements of past years.
In recent years the architects of the republics, which work above the problems of the conversion of village, achieved noticeable successes. The realization of the program of further increase in agricultural productivity outlined by party is located in the direct connection with the organization of capital construction. The concern about the development of building in the village today became the most important composite • partly agrarian policy of party.
Achievements in the region of rural building to a certain degree are caused by the organizational measures, which were directly affected in practice of design. If in the near past only schitannye villages of republic had general plan, then they now provide ford more than 70% state farm settlements. Matter concerning the collective farm settlements more badly is. In spite of significant work, the projects of planning and building provide ford less than half of villages republics, that cannot but affect negatively the quality of their building, which bears the sometimes chaotic nature or which is achieved by tyings of piece objects.
In 1983 began the building of the new experimental- exponential settlement of the state farm im. Paruyra Of sevaka in The araratskeye region. Are completed the design works of the settlement of the workers Of the echmiadzinskeye poultry processing facility. The building of the settlement of the state farm im. Paruyra Of sevaka is conducted according to the general plan, developed by the institute Of armgipsel'khoz. The streets of settlement are formed with one- twin-apartment rock apartment houses on the individual projects. Are specially for ArmNIISA settlement developed the experimental projects of farmstead type apartment houses from monolithic tuffcrete. In the complex with them the necessary economic buildings are constructed. Are erected kindergartens, school, public- cultural and commercial center. Is planned also the erection of the memorial, dedicated to outstanding poet paruyr To sevaku.
Passage to the qualitatively new stage in the rural building is connected with the creation everywhere in the village of contemporary production base. For the republic questions of the optimum selection of territories for the development of the promising rural populated places, creation of the general plans of collective farm and state farm settlements, development of the wide range of the designs for the village, which consider both the specific character of rural production and way of life, and cultural, artistic and construction traditions of Armenian people, acquired the increased importance.
Badly be matters in Armenia concerning the rural apartment house (if we do not consider individual building), in connection with how is required the development of the new designs of rural apartment houses for different natural climatic regions of republic and categories of building. By the combination of this way with the uniqueness of the town-building solutions it will be possible to avoid leveling the extrinsic ethos of Armenian villages, contributing thus and solution of important social problem by the fastening at the places of rural population.
By weak component the building of agricultural production units and complexes continues to remain. In the planning of their territories the pavilion principle of the arrangement of objects widely adapts, because of what the considerable areas of the earth are spent. Sharply they are reduced in connection with this and possibility of improvement and planting of greenery in the territories. Is low the architectural and construction level of the vozvodimykh production buildings, which do not maintain in the majority of the cases of serious criticism, especially in the part of the solution of interiors. But indeed a positive example of complex on the production of milk to 800 cows in the village Ovtashat Of the masisskeyeo region speaks about the increased possibilities of designers and builders in the village.
Returning to the town-building problems, it is desirable to dwell briefly on two questions, directly connected with the environmental approach to the solution of the confronting architecture problems.
Concerns this of creative use in the town building of historical heritage - the "memory of the city" and of work in the natural medium.
In the present stage of the building of Yerevan in connection with the significant expansion of its boundaries and the making more active of works on the reconstruction of central planning region the problem of the combination of the prospects for its development with the series of problems in protection and restoration of the monuments of architecture acquired special importance. It is urgent for Yerevan still and because the absence in the recent years of a strict regulation of the protection of the monuments of architecture, located on the territory of city, brought in the process of the building of new Yerevan to their significant changes, and sometimes - and to the destruction.
The practice of the reconstruction of the historical parts of many Soviet and foreign are municipal it leads us to the conclusion that in the interests of such it is municipal as Yerevan, Ashtarak, Leninakan, Echmiadzin necessary to preserve together with the unique and in the necessary measure series buildings and construction, which do not present independent historico- architectural value, but which are been the organic part of the prevailing ensembles and which create the necessary historical and ethnographical atmosphere. To such territories of Yerevan it relates Kond, part of the settling Of avan, which adjoins the group of historical monuments, individual sections of old mink, build ot by characteristic models architectures of people dwelling.
Kond - the old residential area of Yerevan, build ot by one- two-story, in essence the decrepit apartment houses, characteristic for the people architecture and the structure of the way of life OF THE XIX - the beginning OF THE XX of substances located it on two hills in the central city district, opposite Tsitsernakaberda. In the northern part Of konda is located the church SV of ovanesa Of mkrtycha (Hans krestitelya), dated by 1710g.
Presence in the past of the channel Of "mamuri ARU" (I thousand to n. 3.), which, according to the evidence Of mkhitara Of ayrivantsi, was restored in II v., gives the foundation for assuming that Kond - place of the earliest settling. About this testifies the outlined system of the arrangement of the earliest settlings in the territory of Yerevan whereas (It teyshebaini-Shengavit - Mukhanat Of tapa - Erebuni, in the northern from Shengavita direction - Kond and Tsitsernakaberd).
Almost all buildings, built during our days in Konda region, cost unimportantly with respect to the hills, without revealing and without emphasizing their characteristic landscape. There is no also unity between them. The old building Of konda is obtained by city as the inheritance from the past times. Retention and renovation here of town-building medium does not cause doubt.
What must be this medium, such as there will be its function in the new urban organism? Here the entire knot of the questions, connected with the retention of the unique landscapes of city and territories, which have archaelogical value together with the tasks of the unpacking of the center of Yerevan and finally with the interests of restoration and recreation of the models of the architecture of people dwelling. Is extremely important for Yerevan and retention for the subsequent generations at least of one quarter with the corresponding to past centuries historical atmosphere and the town-building principles. In the city, in our opinion, there is no other more suitable for these purposes place.
Building Yerevan and turning works on the reconstruction of its center section, one cannot fail to pay special attention to the need for the development of the historical staging character of the building of city, to the guarantee of possibilities of its retrospective perception. In this aspect the skillful combination of the historically prevailing elements of city with the contemporary building enriches the three-dimensional and artistic expressiveness of city. The inhabitants of the similar to Yerevan it is municipal they love traditions, past its city, they manifest the interest in the retention of its historical heritage, since romantic and the intimate nature of old regions profitably distinguish they from the enormous, often cold and faceless new residential areas.
The competition carried out in 1985 confirmed the idea: not to remove Kond completely under the new home construction activity, but to partially build only the sections, which adjoin the urban mains, and thus to balance the already prevailing sufficiently faceless contemporary building. In the remaining territory Of konda it is intended to conduct works on improvement and selective retention of separate buildings and entire town-building medium for its conversion into the ethnographical block and creating the center of the development of people trades and applied skills.
In recent years is carry ouied extensive work on development and traveling papers of the valuable in historical and architectural sense buildings, built at the end OF THE XIX - beginning OF THE XX of substances, predominantly in the zone of the center of city being subject to reconstruction. A question of their retention is extremely complex and is contradictory. These houses, as a rule, one- two-story, are sprinkled into the old, decrepit or low-valued building. Their value in many respects is determined by the harmony of the entire being subject to reconstruction medium; therefore arose proposals about their "transfer" into another "related" to them environment. From other side, with their retention on the spot they enter into the scale nonconformity with the renewable building and are converted into the small forms. Were even proposals about their circuit building not only in the depth, but also on the height by applying the unique constructive solutions as this made in the project of children's cinema on the main prospectus.
It is seemed that in this problem as nowhere, it can be single-valued recommendations. The proposed measures, in the final analysis, they speak about the value of monument, however, we we think that the transfer of architectural monument - measure completely unacceptable.
Under the severe natural climatic conditions of Yerevan, yes even the majority of others Armenia it is municipal, special significance acquire the green cultivations, which deeply penetrate the building, composing the integral part of its organism. Critical role in the formation of urban landscape belongs to them, only with their aid it is possible to solve structural-functional, health and hygiene and aesthetical questions of the organization of urban environment in the complex. The nonuniformity of the distribution of green cultivations within the limits of modern Yerevan and the absence in many instances of the planning and composition connections between the parks, the gardens, the squares, the avenues and the larger green massifs affects negatively both microclimate and the air pond of city. Under the separately unfavorable conditions in this sense the southern industrial city district find.
With planting of greenery in Yerevan should be paid considerable attention to coarsening the massifs of green cultivations and to their active combination with the aqueous surfaces. The vital need of city is also the creation of suburban green belt. Besides its health-improvement functions it becomes the unique cordon, which fixes in the nature the limits of the promising development of city, thus preventing its mechanical spreading.
The development of the building of Yerevan requires careful relation to the free, free spaces of city, which carry today diverse functions. The value of these spaces with the natural landscape under the conditions of the sealing urban environment prevailing in them is great. They, as "natural channels", canyons, the gorge and others fill city by air and light, bringing coolness in the summer time. Simultaneously they help the disclosure of the individual parts of the city to the elements of natural environment. These spaces serve also as natural barrier from noise, prevent the confluence of building and are the place of daily leisure of townspeople. Finally, these are territorial reserves for the promising development of the functions of the separate zones, which are especially to to center regions.
In this sense is expedient the retention Of dalminskikh gardens, territory Of erablura, planted greenery slopes around the center of city, old mink, the gorge of the river Of gedar, unique in the beauty topographical natural boundaries, which adjoin the group of the monuments Of avana, the redundancy of strip along the edges of the canyon of river it is distributed.
The populated place must be constructed with the required calculation and the comprehensive use of its natural medium. But numerous examples of the unsuccessful arrangement of buildings in Yerevan and other cities and villages of republic be evidence the fact that the problems of scale, proportions, silhouette of building cannot be solved independent of the landscape of territory. Moreover, the special features of natural conditions must be revealed in each individual case and assumed as the basis of project in combination with concrete architectural-planning, economic and other requirements. It is important to create the active impressions, connected with nature, since in the course of twenty-four hours the urbanized space even without that presses to the people by unease and neestetichnost'yu of many its forms and manifestations.
Of the territories of many it is municipal republic (Yerevan, Kirovakan, Goris, Kafan, Ashtarak) they are characterized by the exceptional mosaic of natural- topographical situation. Cartography of these natural formations can and must serve as basis for the town-building purposes. On the basis of dynamics of quantitative indices of topographical components it gives possibility to forecast state of environment with different methods of functional use of territories in town building and to determine most optimum versions, which amplify positive qualities of nature and which weaken unfavorable for the inhabitants manifestation.
As early as 1937 the outstanding Soviet architect I. V. zholtovskiy wrote: "., Lhbov6 to nature is for me the sign of the fact that the man has, let not a developed, but aesthetical feeling, a feeling of beauty, the rudiments of the artistic taste, without which not there will be architect "[ 44].
It cannot be forgotten that for the society the greatest value presents not the architecture of separate building, even put outting itself, but the totality of the components, which form the best conditions of life of the members of society.
After describing about the successes of the contemporary development period of the town building of Soviet Armenia, it should be dwell briefly, also, on the unresolved problems, whose part by us was already touch uponed above. The town-building developments, which are led in the republic to the 70th it is annual, they were far from always ensured by the necessary source material and did not fortify themselves by the appropriate theoretical and methodological bases for the prognostication. At the beginning of the 80th it is annual picture noticeably it changed. _ life have time correct many position, placed as basis last project planning urban territory, connected with development town-forming factor, estimation territorial resource, increase population naseleni4, task protection environment and other social and economic, demographic, ecological and ethnic question. Some town-building works are not located today sufficient informative material and analysis of promising security with basic resources and expected increase in the level of the sociocultural needs of population, including the development of the degree of their possible satisfaction in the future.
For determining the methods of creative solution of the problem of the mass dwelling, which is been the basic component of building it is municipal and villages, is required the critical estimation of the experience of the home construction activity, which is led in Armenian SSR.
Architectural-artistic means of new habitable formations, with small exception, stereotipen. Are stereotype the solutions also of entire town-building systems and urbanized spaces, which is especially inadmissible under the conditions of the unique and characteristic natural medium of Armenia regions. The clear on the drawings of design developments three-dimensional structure of new residential areas in the nature often is received as the piling up of the volumes of buildings, deprived of volumetrically- planning composition. , where this interrelation is outlined, result proves to be much more interesting, and the appearance of new habitable formation - memorizing.
Is considerably reduced the aesthetical level of the prevailing building as a result of known failures in the building of habitable formations in Yerevan, Ashtarake, Echmiadzine, Idzhevane, Leninakan, that were being characterized by thus far its clearly expressed architectural means, connected with the originality of historical development and with wealth of the natural medium of the territories, on which they are located. This position - consequence of the autonomous development of standard design, meanwhile it must be based on the results of experimental design and building. Only start in life of one or other standard series or another for the mass building can be given after the experimental check. In this case the authors of standard project must participate in all subsequent stages of design up to the mass introduction of their standard projects into the life.
Many deficiencies in the contemporary Armenian architecture are explained by the weakness of town-building approach to the solution of entire complex of architectural, engineering, technological and other questions, which the life advances. In the absence of the promising estimation of the solutions of today's problems of planning and building it is municipal and the rural populated places lie many deficiencies in contemporary development stage of town building. Town-building developments (projects of district planning, general plans it is municipal and the populated places and other.) they are not coordinated thoroughly with the extended forecasts of the social and cultural development of region, city or region. In Yerevan prolonged time the building of central planning region because of the absence of the corresponding developments was conducted not on the basis of the specific united town-building installations, but on the basis of the local solutions, limited by block, by street, by separate house or by simply rules-of-thumb. As a result was outlined the destruction of prevailing to the middle of the 50th it was annual the architectural-artistic means of the nucleus of Yerevan.
It is difficult to overestimate the role of unique buildings. They bear important town-building and art-like load in the organism of city. The examples, when the means of entire city personifies one only by building or complex, are not rare. So it was in always: The Kremlin in Moscow, the admiralty and Petropavlovsk cathedral in Leningrad, the palace of doges in Venice, town hall in Stockholm and until now serve as the symbols of these it is municipal.
By the successful selection of place and by the workshop development of the composition of these buildings entire city can begin to sparkle by new, unknown faces and, on the contrary, failure can lead to the tarnishing of previous architectural-artistic merits in the large spaces - the spheres of the influence of these buildings.
As experience appears, the greater the creative freedom with the design of unique public buildings and the less they are subjected to the straight attachment of the articles of mass building, the higher their descriptive- artistic potential ' in the last period in the republic is built a number of the unique large public buildings, many of which obtained acknowledgement beyond its limits. In them it is brighter than in the building of dwelling, were expressed the conceptual bases of the creative directions of architectures, caused by the freedom of self expression.
Examining examples of the building of dwelling, in past chapters we spoke about their deficiencies in the plan of the calculation of the special features of medium. This aspect in the architecture of unique buildings has wider value and interprets at qualitatively the higher level. Its value is hierarchic. It lies between the skillful tying of building for concrete place and its capability to express foremost public ideas. Between these points of the environmental interpretation of architecture the objective definition of the town-building value of object plays the most important role.
Limitedness it is specific and the forms of public buildings in the historically prevailing now largest cities of Transcaucasia it was characteristic. Yerevan does not be exception. Tol'k against few of these buildings are subordinated to the rules of town-building regulation. However, their large part is placed spontaneously, according to the laws of private property.
The spheres of trade and crafts were the predominant forms of maintenance. On the form these establishments of larger partly were combined in one building with the dwelling of owner or in the form of rental housing units. From this volumetric material were formed two basic three-dimensional forms of organization it was center it was municipal - main streets and commercial areas. These forms historically corresponded to the level of the social development of society and, in particular, to the level of the development of the sphere of maintenance.
The new social conditions, created after revolution, in the root changed the bases of maintenance system. The new forms of the public buildings of administrative, everyday, cultural, commercial arose and so forth this led to the development of the new progressive forms of their functional and technological organization.
Foremost town-building tendencies rapidly entered into blood and flesh of our practice. However, the deficiencies, which occur in the arrangement of public buildings, are tenacious and until now. But in what they are manifested?
In the projects it is center it is municipal on the basis of scientific forecasts they are not always determined nomenclature and place of public buildings. Is not paid to the building of public buildings adequate consideration and to planning in stages for the purpose of shaping of the architectural ensembles.
The departmental planning of the building of public buildings, out of the integrated planning of entire necessary for city building, frequently complicated by the uncertainty of their location and composition unity, leads to the random arrangement of objects.
In many respects this is explained by sketchiness PDP it is center it is municipal.
In spite of numerous examples of the arrangement of public buildings in the places inside the nucleus of the center of Yerevan unplanned according to their designation, as a whole its development occurred within the framework of the historically prevailing regularity and corresponded to a trend in development of center and entire urban territory. Life directed this process.
, are the unique lighthouses in the system of the center of Yerevan, around which to this day continues to be formed its nucleus, the areas of the name Of v. i. Lenin and Teatral'naya despite the fact that in comparison with the first general plan Yerevan grew almost seven. Are here obvious the regularities, which must determine further functional zoning of the center of city and arrangement of public buildings and complexes in accordance with their content. Under the conditions of the reconstructed center the following footholds compose their basis:
the potential transport- spacing possibilities of different zones;
the calculation of the functional designation of buildings and frequency of their attendance. The unique establishments, which are been the objects of irregular attendance, on the kind of their content can be related to the zones of the limited transport accessibility;
the unique, rarely attended objects must find place with the zones of leisure, being their active part. It is known that the latter in the large cities are located, as a rule, on the topographical dominants. Therefore their harmonious enrichment by unique objects acquires special town-building -kompsziqionny1 sense.
None of that enumerated by us conditions cannot be self-sufficient. On the contrary, only simultaneous solution of all conditions can give the desired result. Moreover, precisely this complex is criterion for evaluating the quality of the arrangement of public buildings in the center.
Examples eloquently confirm this.
Thus, the largest in the republic two-hall cinema "Russia" in Yerevan proved to be in the territory, limited by the mains of townspeople value. Stadium "is distributed" to 70 thousand spectators in the system of townspeople center it requires significant efforts for the solution of the transport and pedestrian problems, caused by its arrangement in the zone of leisure of river it is distributed in townspeople main - Echmiadzinskogo highway.
Is characteristic another example. The building of new department store proved to be in the collective farm market in the very center of the reconstructed region of Yerevan with the narrow streets, fixed by bearing many-storeyed houses. This led to the formation of significant transport- pedestrian loads in a large radius.
One cannot fail to note also the unsuccessful arrangement of the number of significant administrative and business establishments for the rest of marshal Bagramyan in Yerevan. Are not deprived of analogous deficiencies other cities of republic.
A similar practice of the random arrangement of public buildings does not reflect the level of the development of contemporary town-building science. The principles of their zone arrangement in some cases are not maintained. In others - according to the functional sign they are not grouped in the places, convenient for the maintenance by transport. And finally they prove to be those squeezed into the reconstructed zone of center, not provide ford with the minimum possibilities of maintenance by transport. Physical and psychological unease reduces on no emotional charge, obtained from the visit of in a cultured way- entertainment establishments how is reduced their functional value.
File:Assr-arch-281-kino rossiya.jpg The building of two-hall cinema "Russia" from the day of its generation was in the center of attention to architectural community in view of its scale importance. Furthermore, in it are most fully revealed the means of architectural expressiveness. Finally, it testifies about the increased level of the craftsmanship of the architects of republic, which is capable of resolving the most complex complex questions of contemporary architecture.
The clarity of the concept of the internal composition, expressed by the game of the volumes of two halls, the workshop application of guy overlap under the seismic conditions, truthful embodiment in the forms of the contemporary content - here are, in our opinion, the unquestionable merits of its architecture. Joining the two halls, whose sharp plastic combination determines the monumental essence of building - leit-motif of composition.
Cinema is planned as the multifunctional cultural center: film auditoriums are here united with the exhibition accomodations, the dance hall, the cafe. Film auditoriums are elevated above the vestibule, the foyer and the official accomodations. The development of composition begins from within, and the beauty of forms is based on their correspondence to tectonics of basic building materials. The solution to raise halls to the upper level is logical, after freeing under the restricted conditions lower level under the recess.
In the interiors found the place sculpture and stained-glass panel, and also the skillful use of the natural stone, which, losing its traditional design essence, comes out as active decorative means and shades contemporary tectonics of building.
At the same time, the general truthfulness of building, as it was noted, incomplete covers external, specific town-building questions.
Planning the form of building with its two-dimensional, rectangular structure accepted with difficulty is entered in the triangular section, limited by mains, and for this reason, growing into the volume, it comes into conflict with surrounding even without that sufficiently unsuccessful building. The minimum interrelation between them in the absence of more complex united subject or proportional connection could be achieved at least by the unity of attitude or, as it seems to us, the building of cinema it had to be solved in the softer, more sculptural treatment.
By its volume and by the strong longitudinal axis, directed against the motion of avenue toward the south, cinema created such transverse the prospectus Of oktemberyan dynamics, that the direction of prospectus from the station to V. i. Lenin's area in this section proved to be three-dimensional perebitym to the side of avenue. This happened still and because because of the limitedness of section building with the gigantic "volume- visor" hanging directly above the pavement of prospectus.
As a result all this creates impression, that the means of building began to be formed long before the determination of the position of its building, i.e. it from the first creative steps not was planned by the part of the concrete town-building medium. After being deprived of this required, as we already told, the special feature of town-building skill, it even long before that, when it was realized, it lost those potential architectural merits, which, undoubtedly, it could possess, takeing into account its uniqueness and creative possibilities of group of authors. It is necessary to note with the regret that the cinema "Russia" did not become the forming the architectural ensemble town-building object, in spite of the noted merits.
On these deficiencies we considered necessary to stop for asserting the higher criteria of evaluation of the absolute merits of this work, since the unusualness of the form of building under the conditions of our city, scale merits, the interesting methods of the application of works of applied skill shield very architectonic essence of building.
File:Assr-arch-283-youth palace.jpg By the authors of cinema "Russia" "is very fruitfully workers in the field of the building of public buildings, on the small hill with the slope Of the arabkirskyyo plateau, in the zone of student town is built the complex of the palace of young people.
Is here in the united center united universal hall to 1000 places, halls of marriage, library, showroom, disk library, hotel, restaurant, cafe, etc.
Above the complex prevails the round high-altitude volume of hotel, whose disoriented streamlined shape is equivalent with the review from all points. From its last floor, where is located the revolving cafe, are opened the splendid panoramas of urban landscape.
The stilobatnyy volume of complex, solved by terraces, arched propileyami and bulkhead from basalt of different working, several nesvoystvenen to the authors, accurate to the bases of "new architecture". Is outlined turning to national architectural traditions, although with the tendency toward their modernization.
And here, unfortunately, it is necessary to note environmental deficiencies in the complex. The built-on hill is somewhat depressed by the volumes of the complex disproportionate with it, which moreover planning proved to be isolated from the composition arteries of the center of city. This question awaits permission from the point of view of the confluence of rich in functional possibilities complex with entire organism of center.
And nevertheless the buildings of the cinema "Russia" and of the palace of young people in Yerevan "are indisputably innovative on the spirit and the forms, introducing new tectonic regularities and uncommon combinations of methods and principles of construction" [ 45 ].
File:Assr-arch-286-zvartnots airport.jpg In recent years is completed the building of the building of airport "zvartnots". The volumetric solution of elaborate complex very effectively and bribes by its laconicism. The waiting room with the services of sending are placed in the external horseshoe-shaped volume; in the center - services, which operate passengers; is below - the hall of arrival. This volume is connected with the waiting room with the radial glazed passages. Mushroom-shaped pillar, crowned by the hall of restaurant and by the accomodations of the traffic control service, occupies the center of this gigantic wheel.
Entire composition is imposing on the scale, but it does not pass the limits, beyond which begins the region of gigantomanii. This undoubtedly, one of the merits of building. The structure of the design skeleton of building because of their clearness and the certain fractions of "ershistosti" are exclusively stressed. The special feature, which is even more strengthened by almost complete agreement of this structure of stereo organization. Building resembles the hills of volcanic origin, by which useyana Araratskaya valley.
It is now difficult to say, seemingly began to operate building with the complete mastery of entire contemporary complex technological equipment, but in the present form not all functional components are so perfect, as they were planned. The block of services for the expecting passengers is torn from the waiting rooms and is placed in the levels different with them. Secondary stairs in the center of mushroom-shaped pillar, became importantly communication for the communication of passengers, although it did not have this designation. Passengers always, from the moment of arrival to the station, be situated in the search first of one, then of another service.
In what the reason for this? Indeed repeatedly and competently examined project before the realization obtained approval.
But the fact is, how it seems to us that the acknowledged best competitive project with the linear composition in the process of further development underwent significant changes. Upon transfer to the circular shape under its action the technological and composition merits of the first version unexpectedly not only were not preserved, but also were converted into the deficiencies.
The linear composition of plan widely revealed waiting rooms to the landing area and to the mountain ararat. In the realized version of large horseshoe-shaped waiting room is received by the stereotype isolated fragments, deprived of any dominant orientators to the environment. Because of this man seizes a feeling of the presence "everywhere and nowhere", i.e. the expressed psychological discomfort.
Thus, the form of building proved to be in the specific alienation from its technological and especially composition essence. It creates impression, that the authors consciously dispatch to the creation of the locked, inverted inside itself composition, although it is difficult to agree with this.
However, here occurs a number of the inconsistencies, which generate contradictions.
File:Assr-arch-286-zvartnots airport int.jpg Thus, for instance, in the section the basic volume of waiting room by high part is inverted to the tower. However, pererezannost' of space lengthwise by mezzanine and by the deeply advanced into the hall stairs, which lead to it, deprives entire hall of last supporting orientator for the man in the space - central court. This becomes obvious, when you occur in the plane of mezzanine. Moreover the mezzanine is technological excess, since the protracted length of the points of the registration of passengers in the main hall is so great, that the space between them is by no means completely used by the expecting passengers.
It seems that with the development of the design of the realized version of building the refusal of the initial environmental conceptual bases in favor of orthodox functionalism occurred. This led even somewhere to the loss of man as the user of architecture, and not only in the functional plan.
The skill to isolate and to arrange three-dimensional elements on its significance is not a category academic. At its basis the properties of man on them lie to guess their place in the space and with the aid of the composition to further determine their actions in the time. In this consists the deep essence of the skill of three-dimensional organization - architectural composition.
Functionalism under the pretext of fight against the academicism in the recent decades inflicted heavy loss to the object of composition checked by life. Thus the natural process of generating the architecture from the concrete medium and in accordance with the biological properties of man substituted by slogans about the innovating.
But perhaps not on these properties of man and not on the basis of the requirements of concrete medium does be born new? Not the detachment whether from these bases did give birth to the marketable templates of "innovative" models, on which they did begin to cut architecture almost entire planet?
Concrete medium should be treated more widely: from the section of building to the national and ethnic special features of people, their spiritual aspirations and ideals.
In this case entire concrete simultaneously should be examined in the general universal river bed, i.e. in the features of classical approach to the task. Requirement about the fact that "the straight perception by man of its environment must be the principal criterion of his value" [ 46 ], today makes special and urgent sense. In this context other two buildings of the air terminals are seemed to us interesting: "erebuni" in Yerevan and Leninakanskiy. Simple and organic form in accordance with the clear technology took the shape of integral harmonic compositions. Their forms, undoubtedly, are contemporary, preserving at the same time traditsionalistskiye roots. Somasshtabno are solved the internal spaces of buildings.
Another example is the building of the central children's library im. Khnko-Apera in Yerevan. Critical place in architectural- organized kurdonere of block, in the neighborhood with the theater of opera and ballet imposed special requirements on shaping of the composition of building. The layout of internal spaces, their contrasting comparison and proportional relationships is very expressive.
A certain doubt suggest the equivalent treatment of volume in the external composition, the formed vertical three-dimensional axis instead of the longitudinal, to the side of theater. Extensive space with the swan lake required of the composition of the library of the corresponding prevailing accent, especially as the end planes of the existing buildings with their specific architectural themes forming kurdoner, our view, nedvumyslenno prepared this.
The logical prerequisites of a similar plastic solution required in the building of the library of their output to their culmination. However, instead of this here us meets the theme of asymmetric deaf wall with the decorative arrangement on it of windows.
Thus, town-building errors decreased many merits of this, undoubtedly interesting building.
The fastening of the building of state picture gallery over the area im. V. i. Lenin caused formidable difficulties in reaching of that planned Tamanyanom of complex town-building unity between the theatrical area and the area im. V. i. Lenin. This error is so irreparable that five of seven groups of authors, which participated in the All-Union competition in the center of Yerevan, in their projects either searched for other three-dimensional connections between these ensembles or they proposed to completely forego it, i.e. the northern prospectus.
It shows this example, to what irreversible town-building consequences it can lead the incorrect solution only of one building. The competition to the building of northern prospectus carried out in 1984 again confirmed this.
The building of new post office on the axis of main prospectus also shut three-dimensional connection condom and with the zone of leisure, in the gorge of river it was distributed, after converting the large part of the prospectus into the elongated, locked space - neither prospectus nor area. It is offensive that these errors are realized in spite of warnings of architectural community.
But indeed in examples of successful vpisaniya of buildings into the urban landscape even recently we not too are poor. On them it was said above.
Architecture as three-dimensional skill was developed during the millenia. The new methods of three-dimensional organization constantly enriched the achievements of the past. It is possible to forego the application of ornament, to reject the obsolete construction, but it is difficult to change the principles of the three-dimensional organization, which were always the artistic essence of ensembles and determined the role of quotient as a whole.
A feeling of medium, scale, composition unity, dynamicity of the development of theme, musicality of its development, etc., the time of their building independent of brings together all successful examples.
The centuries-old experience of civilization formed the aesthetical aspects of town building into the sufficiently exact science. However, many of us are not always turned to its services and they hope for their error-free intuition, to say nothing of such professionally complex forms of reaching the accordion of medium, as the creation of harmonics it is series or the contrasting comparisons of themes. With the bitterness we encounter the frequent absence of such chrestomathic rules of the interconsistency of buildings as the observance of united heights and articulations with the adjacent buildings, their solution it is joint, the agreement of scale, simple subject relationship, coloring, invoice so forth briefly, we forget about the usual "feeling of comradeship" between the buildings. In this sense, in our opinion, significantly new office building on the main prospectus.
The location of building is extremely critical. On the contrary is located the Government House, and the area im. V. i. Lenin is revealed from the western part. In order to understand this building, one should again turn to the adjacent with it Government House.
This is main in terms of the value building over the area. A. tamanyan selected its place asymmetric and it seems - even it is ordinary with respect to the principal axes of space. But this only first impression. Examining the general plan of center, it is not difficult to understand the value of this idea. The axis of northern prospectus over the area has a fracture, being directed further to the southwest. The Government House with its unaccomplished volume of hall, had to become the unique town-building "hinge", on which occurs the fracture of this axis.
By the nucleus of area, by its static beginning, thus became this volumetric accent, which was being agreed with with the stage box of operatic theater in the northern part of the prospectus.
Hence and entire appearance of the Government House, planned in the united architectural theme, the dynamically developing to the side hall, i.e. main entrance. The selected theme of wall with the apertures is skillfully developed similarly to complex polyphonic musical work. Scale, plastic, silhouette culmination is located in the necessary place.
The finest development of architectural theme has symphonic nature. Everywhere force and tenderness go hand to hand, nowhere giving absolute, "frontal" treatment not to one, not to another. And their only kontrapunktnoye sounding emphasizes the necessary generality in one of the keys. In this aspect the building costs in one row with the masterpieces of Soviet architecture and it is the visual school of the highest craftsmanship. You will compare only the microrelief of the edges above the niches of pylons and the powerful plastic of main arcade! Here in the neighborhood with this building is built new office building.
First of all it enters into the single combat with the Government House with the height of its volume, exceeding it almost two times. Excessively the hypertrophied scale of arcade also he argues with the theme of the Government House and other buildings area. Static, symmetrical composition is not substantiated, since it is inverted not to the main area of city, but to the secondary territory of parking lots - in the tail of the Government House. Its far-fetchedness especially reveals itself from the side of the area im. V. i. Lenin, being projected for space of which, building looks in half of its volume by the deaf massif, which is associated with the means of industrial or other construction.
But how are resolved in this building other questions? First, the carrying ferroconcrete body of building is completely isolated and does not participate in shaping of architectural appearance, allowing completely this role to the naslonnoy to the body wall.
In the second place, this wall took upon itself by all expressive means to represent the design essence of building, whereas with the normal role of body it had to bear altogether only the function of the enclosing construction. However, this it proved to be little. "loaded) by functions wall was even more" intensified "by the fact that in it the communications of air conditioning hid. To crown it all architectural theme - arcade, as grooved in the wall, by the unusualness of its form it is so decorative which deprives the theme of the wall of sensible tectonic sense traditional for the national architecture.
Many successfully adapted by us recently tectonic methods were considered normal. Today we already so is not constructed. Therefore it seems to us that the estimation must be given to our today's buildings from the positions of the contemporary level of development of technology.
In any way it is not possible into the century of plant panels to recognize the body, covered by rock wall, in our opinion, as contemporary tectonic system, since both of them - independent architectural substruktsii.
All these stratifications in the building could not but influence the artistic level of ensemble. Moreover, it is clear that to the very building of the Government House in this case was caused the specific artistic damage. Monumental theme of wall with the arches of the Government House for ul. Melik-Adamyana, the area of the name Of v. i. Lenin, ul. Nalbandyana and to main prospectus supposedly would decrease in the size. But indeed how much was required craftsmanship To a. tamanyan in order to dostich' this monumentality in the low, three-storied volumes!
In spite of the assigned absolute sizes, new building is lost in the space because of the absence of living connections with it this paradoxically, but, it seems to us that with its subordinate solution in the prevailing situation, appropriate proportional articulation it could emphasize the prevailing value of the Government House and thus to become the part of the single whole. From this it would become not only more significant, but also would overcome its estrangement to the formed architectural environment.
All this - the result of erroneously stated problem and election of the methods of its solution.
For the certain degree of the completeness of selection, not excess it will note one additional circumstance.
There was the time, when the small piece of ornament on the facade estimated as "excess". There is no doubt that in this case were allowed the explicit bends. However as to estimate the result of the work, where the design generosity is such, which it would possibly be sufficient to the building of two similar buildings? Not here whether the place of authentic excesses?
The compound alloy, named craftsmanship, consists of ideological maturity, the ability to accurately determine task and to select for the method of its solution. To talent and in professional training are compulsorily inherent these abilities, which prevent from the irreparable errors.
In some cases these errors - result of the conscious underestimation of their consequences, in others - erroneously stated problem.
Architecture is created by the association of people. Only mutually-coordinated actions create the architectural ensembles. With the contemporary volumes of building there cannot be any "volumetric sensations" without the three-dimensional comprehension of the group of construction.
The decisive role acquire the promising town-building developments, on basis of which must be determined not only the places of necessary to center the cities of public and other buildings, but the main thing - their three-dimensional and architectural-artistic interrelation with the prevailing building.
Free three-dimensional form with its convenient position according to the connection with the habitable territories, urban transportation, verdure of public designation must become another form of the organization of maintenance, and the main thing - by sovmeshchennost'yu it is specific maintenance in the multifunctional centers.
With the complete reconstruction of decrepit and emergency funds in the centers it is municipal the freed territories they must be, in the first place, they are diverted under the formation it is main the central core of city. The growing, difficultly forecasted variety of the forms of maintenance requires care of these territories. In connection with the fact that the programs of the mastery of these territories of the building of public buildings do not be in temporary agreement, should be reserved them via temporary improvement. One ought not to return them under the habitable building, the rates and volumes of which now they sharply anticipate all forms of civil building they absorb the majority of the free earth. Spontaneous formation it is main maintenance it leads to the destruction of composition- functional system it is center. Dissociation deprives the system of scale and hampers the balanced package of transport questions.
However, the convenient transport maintenance of these it is main, coordinated with the harmonious selection of establishment to the multifunctional centers, preserves forces and the time of population.
The building of Yerevan metro became significant development in the life of the republic of the last years.
Under the conditions of the strongly grown urban territory (about 17 thousand GA) and the presence of that moved boundaries 1 mln. populations, metro are represented by that radical means, which helps to solve not only the problems of movement. Because of it perceptibly is reduced the pollution of atmospheric air from ground transport equipment, which contributes to an improvement in the quality in the living environment.
It is considered that the metro - expensive construction. "this is correct, if we examine it only as the object of building. But if one takes into account, that it makes it possible to economize the enormous expenditures, necessary for padding and reconstruction of main streets, with which are carried numerous apartment houses, for the development of tram, trolley-bus motion, and the main thing to reduce the time of the trips of population, then it will seem that the metro - cheapest form of transport! [ 47 ].
Our ideology gives one of the determining values to time factor in the individual vital activity of people.
"time is space of human development". "present wealth - such time, which is not absorbed by directly productive labor, but remains free for the pleasures, for the leisure, as a result of which will be opened the space for the free activity and the development".
Is such briefly the complex of the basic factors, which determine any actions, intended to increase the resources of the free time of workers.
It is not difficult to estimate the value of reduction in the "transport time" in these resources and the role of metro as radical means for achievement of this under the conditions of the largest city.
Eloquently it testifies in favor of metro and the fact that in the incomplete two years the first turn of metro with five stations transported more than 80 mln. passengers. On the building of metro were used the technical-engineering and architectural achievements of the Soviet subway construction, whose wide experience has world glory. Nevertheless creative approach in the calculation of each specific condition gave its interesting and diverse solutions.
At the stations it is again not difficult to trace the latitude of creative directivity, characteristic for the architecture of republic in the recent decades. It covers the range between the concepts of "new architecture" and the tendencies of the attraction of the traditions of national architecture. To the first direction should be carried the stations "eritasardakan" and "marshal Bagramyan"; to the second - "area of Lenin", "gortsaranain", "sasuntsi David" and partly "barekamutyun". In the stage of building the two additional stations are located: the "area Of spandaryana" and "Shengavit".
The main component of the ground-based part of the station of metro "area of Lenin" is recreational underground cavity with the powerful fountain, whose jets are visible at the level of upper area. Escalators hence conduct on the station, whose architecture is built on the motive of the promising arches, which are associated with the earliest forms of national architecture. However, here there is no shadow of archaism or stylization, since these forms are creatively rethought.
Upper area is less successfully solved. It is considerably elevated above the level of streets.
And nevertheless here "the logically organized, well functioning, i.e. irreproachably contemporary form" blooms "by the ornament, which generates associations with the means of national culture... The meager, but accurately obtained details complete the composition, which naturally connects useful and excellent "[ 48].
Several in the outstanding plan goes the interpretation of the succession of national architecture in the station "gortsaranain" and "sasuntsi David". If in the first accent is set to the application of traditional design, tectonic themes of wall and overlap in a strict correspondence with the contemporary rationalism, then the secondly of --- the prevailing value is attached to sculptural- plastic beginning. the Descriptive- artistic task of the deepening of the theme of the national epos, to hero of which is set splendid sculpture over the terminal area, here > nakhrdit its reflection. The skillfully executed reliefs of vestibule show infinity of the limits of the solution of serious architectural problems by different means.
At the stations "marshal Bagramyan" and "eritasardakan" is desirable to stop separately. They are differed from each other, in spite of the general formal contiguity to the concepts of "new architecture".
The authors solve the first station hall in the stand- girder system with the active attraction to the architecture of the means of artificial lighting. Although the realization does not completely correspond to project, the combination of white marble it is series it is column with the daylight illumination it sounds easily and holiday.
Much interesting is inserted also in the architecture of ground-based vestibule. Through the continuous glazing of the pavilion, built in the steel constructions, is examined the verdure of the park, in which it is built. In contrast to the bessredovykh construction of "new architecture" the authors, formally remaining on its positions, nevertheless made a successful attempt at the composition coordination of vestibule with the environment via the passage of the internal bridge through the pavilion to the side of hill after it. But, unfortunately, nemasshtabnost' of the small passage, directed toward the large hill, makes it necessary to doubt the expediency of raising the entire height of the pavilion, which shielded natural dominant along the axis of approach to it from the prospectus. Nevertheless, station as a whole can be considered as the author's success.
The sequence of the embodiment of sharply clashing concept is characterized by station "Yeritasardakan"y. Functionalistic- designer "internal truth" here it poured out into the extremely tempting and expressive form. Inclined escalator tunnel, continuing above the vestibule, is expressed by enormous ferroconcrete light lamp. After its scale the enormous underground structure, which it "presents" in open air, error-free guesses. The dynamicity of form is supported by the expression of the surrounding walls, as if directed after it.
In contrast to the previous example in the station "eritasardakan" oshchushchayetsya the lack of compromise in the conversion of basic concept. The back side of pavilion just as actively is not revealed to the space of avenue, as this objectively required medium. It is seemed that with the appropriate reaction to this, it would be possible to attain this steadiness of entire composition, which would somewhat restrain its powerful dynamics and would soften the extreme proximity of input part to the pavement.
Underground station hall because of the skillfully obtained proportions of pylons, and also their original architecture seems spacious and at the same time comfortable. As a whole station and especially ground-based vestibule can be considered bright finding within the framework of the realized architectural concept.
In station "barekamutyun" attention is drawn to the original solution of the underground annular pedestrian passage, in center of which is placed the cafe. The skillful possession of the means of contemporary design together with the rich heritage of national applied skill reported the specific architectural-artistic interest to construction.
In the constructions of Yerevan metro it is not difficult to note, 7 what wide circle of creative concepts and the enormous range of the attraction of the means of art-like expressiveness work now Armenian architects. However, this confirms our thought, expressed at first relative to simultaneous and joint co-existence of both age long directions in the skill,: classical and romantic. Let us add only that in this case the romantic direction was its kind "experimental laboratory", where obtained start in life entire new, and classical - skillfully it injected.
"national features additionally define concretely regional (probably, and environmental, a. g. and M. T.) special feature. Here there are two positions. Supporters of one consider that it is necessary to create by contemporary means the comfortable construction, which consider the specific character of climate and today's demands of people, and this exactly it will be contemporary national architecture. But complexity in the fact that today the demands of nations inherently include national historical tradition and interest in it grows. The supporters of the second position accentuate precisely this moment and attempt to create for Nazi he and l of 6 n about- in the znavayemuyu architecture (isolation our a. g. and M. T.), consciously interpreting historical heritage. Perhaps, as is nowhere distinctly both positions are manifested in Armenia... "[ 49 ].
Among the public buildings, built in other cities, is focused on itself attention office building in Abovyane ', cinema into Echmiadzine, house of the creation of cameramen in Dilizhane and their other medium is different. If the first is in the center of new city, and the second (cinema) - not far from the salient monuments of medieval architecture, then the third - in the richest ladshaftnoy wooded country with the relict vegetation. Nevertheless them are united a feeling of medium and its calculation in the formation of architectural-artistic means.
In the cinema the traditional rock arcade of portico found contemporary expression not only in the original promising construction. Entire system of ancient rock theme sounds unusually svezho because of the state of adjustment of proportional relationships in accordance with tectonics of the kombinirovannoy construction of building - from the stone and the reinforced concrete. The selection of form is dictated to historico by the forbidden essence of environment and, undoubtedly, is justified.
In other key the house of the creation of cameramen is solved. Is here valuable neordinarnost' of composition. In the positive plan the functionalistic concepts, faithfulness to which is preserved by the authors, as a whole here found contact with the surrounding view. The major volumetric masses of construction, clearly formed according to the functional sign, form the composition, pierced by the components of view. Is skillfully used relief in the input part.
Recreational cavity is expressed by the unique vestibule, from which branch the ways into the components of construction. Cottages are especially successfully solved.
A certain uneasiness, in our opinion, introduces the generous use of different design methods and surfacing materials. However, the large scale of composition method to a certain degree reduces the value of this deficiency, preserving in this case the integrity of construction and the unity of its perception. And the nevertheless stylistic variety of forms, apparently > somewhat weakens this merit.
The bright and significant development of the architecture of republic the last time is the completion of construction of largest public facility - sport- concert complex (SKK) in Yerevan.
Complex is built on the hill of the park Of tsitsernakaberd, which rules above the entire northwestern zone of the center of city. The volume of construction supplements the rich landscape of park along the picturesque gorge of river it is distributed. Approaches in the form of cascade (fountains, stairs, escalators) are organized from the side of the main of townspeople value - ul. Leningradyan.
The internal three-dimensional composition of complex organically escapes from design and technological prerequisites. Actually the extrinsic ethos of building here became the clear expression of the design essence of contemporary krupnoproletnogo overlap. The ambiguity of its form, justified by the complexity of entire construction, determined architectural-artistic means.
SKK is the construction of multifunctional designation. Large of halls by 5000 places for the sport contests and the mass entertainment ideas is located above the vestibule and is connected with it with stairs and escalators. Small hall in 1300 places is located along the axis of vestibule. Before the halls the rotary platform, which, being transformed, increases the capacity of each hall by 1000 places, is located. Questions of natural and artificial lighting are very effectively in entire complex resolved. The cross-shaped arch above the main arena, solved by guy construction, is supplemented with freely suspended cantilvever wings. The natural light, which facilitates lightening massive constructions, penetrates through the clearances between them. Associations with the traditional methods of the use of natural light in the models of people architecture involuntarily appear.
Questions of acoustics, information service are resolved at the level of high contemporary technology.
Space above the concert hall and by grates it is possible to use for conducting of different conferences, symposia and as the rehearsal accomodations.
Separately should be noted the work of designers and builders. SKK showed their increased technical maturity in the solution of the complex problems of the complex contemporary construction, worthy of the largest modern city. In this sense the jump in the mastery of the new sum of scientific and technical means and possibilities of their realization was made.
A certain discrepancy of main approach to SKK with the planning of region and the active plastic of cascade, which disrupts the natural structure of hill, do not substantially influence the general majesty of the complex, which is undoubtedly been reaching our architecture.
Architecture - early from the skills. It is the carrier of large truth. In it always "shines the truth". Only it of all skills - entirely skill is three-dimensional. In contrast to the painting and skul'ptur'!, it cannot be transferred into any medium. This is ensured by the harmonic connection of the unity of internal and external composition with the surrounding space. In this the principal criterion of evaluating the artistic value of architectural work consists.
The connection of construction with the global space is achieved through its connection with the concrete medium. Thus such building becomes the part of the infinite. It shows turning to the history of the development of this position, by what complex; however, purposeful ways people attempted to make building or construction the part of the universe.
In the separate historical stages this idea depending on the degree of the development of the technical capabilities of society and aesthetical ideals was achieved by different means. For example, if in the Ancient Greek architecture stand- girder, and in the Armenian architecture wall theme they attained efficient connection with the environment, then in the epoch of revival the ideals of steel to anticipate technical capabilities and this connection became illusory. Such composition questions, as the disclosure of building to nature, its directivity, rotation to some ladshaftnye or architectural dominants more frequently began to bear depictive nature. The force of aesthetical ideal was so great that influence it it is possible to trace even in the environments of the works of the painting of this epoch (Giotto, Piero della Franceska, Karpachcho, etc.).
Thus, in spite of the nature of embodiment, connection with the environment always remained in the center of attention as one of the basic requirements of architectural composition.
Creative process assumes the creation of the necessary ideal model, which in the process of its concrete materialization in the form of building is harmonized with this medium, takeing into account its special features.
By expressive means of architecture, by such, as the required scale of building, the accurate selection of the leading theme with its dynamics of development (generation, increase, culmination, the decrease and extinction), the proportional system of the prevailing architectural medium, the logically dictating system of new building, plastic, color, etc. - dead building material seemingly can be spiritualized.
In nature there is no impersonal, abstract topographical or architectural medium. Understandably, how objectively must be takeed into account the composition prerequisites, dictated by concrete medium. Their collection, accumulation and synthesizing - most important part of the creative process. Here there can be no discussion about the certain mathematically specific methods, about the simple geometric order. The simple order nothing in common has with the classical understanding of composition - by complex artistic order. The first is extremely limited in the possibilities of the reflection of the variety of the peace surrounding us, it is poor and alien to skill. However, the second is infinitely rich, since it is based on the laws of life and nature. Being constantly enriched in the discoveries of science and technology, it is dynamic in the development and is generous by artistic revelations.
Of beauty are characteristic the tasks not of simple similarity or elementary order, that give aesthetical primitive. It is based on the complex accordion and, moreover, the Hegelian "accordion of accordion and disharmony".
Authentic architectural work - the symbiosis of reasonable and emotional began. Not long before death of Chopin Eugene Delacroix wrote down in his diary: "science, as it understand and visualize people, similar to Chopin, is nothing else but skill itself and, on the contrary, skill nothing of the kind how considers its boor, i.e. the certain inspiration, which comes unknown from where, it dvizhetsya it randomly and depicts only outer shell of things. This is - reason itself, crowned by genius, but which follows inevitably, established by supreme laws "[ 50].
The validity of these words is in connection with architecture indisputable.
Depending on talent and temperament, culture and intellect of creator the answers to the tasks in one and the same medium can be different, but in any case - considering objective, logical installations, dictated by medium. The creator of building, figuratively speaking, must "reembody into the building", which it creates.
The degree of the finesse of calculation must determine the hierarchical place of work in the medium by the architect of the objective installations of medium. Hence emerges the degree of its expressiveness. This complex as a whole characterizes the personality of creator, in the range from his world view - up to the taste, which is been the aesthetical expression of moral views.
To all this arsenal of expressive means skillfully used our ancestors, who created such masterpieces as temples Ripsime and Zvartnots, Akhpat and Sanain. Scale concentration To ripsime, in spite of the dimensions of temple, it gave to it the properties of the created by nature crystal, capable of entering into the view Of araratskoy valley. The elaborate complexes Of akhpata and Sanaina, which are located from each other on a sufficient distance and solved on different stereo principles, produce the impression of the strictly intermatched complexes. Monumental skul'pturnost' of the first is supplemented with the plastic brokenness of the second, that forms the local and logical, directed toward the medium half-open spaces. Of courageous strictness of one are contradicted striking scale, human heat of another.
They mutually survey during the clear day. However, in the poor weather, under the conditions of complete invisibility they remind one of themselves by the ringing of bells. However, their joint perception in the fourth measurement - time, the most striking: the accordion between them overcame space. Of this it is possible to be convinced, if we during one day look around both monuments in the independent sequence. Here they will reach surprising "chime" between them - in the broad sense.
Not on these whether classical principles of the unity of Armenian architecture are based academician tamanyan's ensembles? Of antique skul'pturnosti of the volume of operatic theater is contradicted strict three-dimensional organization of the area im. V. i. Lenin, whose heroic scale did not more lately find the expected support.
Has already been indicated that the architecture is always concrete in the time and the space and at the same time it was specific dvuyedinstvom of function, as it is accepted to speak - internal and external. Even apartment house serves not only the everyday functions of the limited number of tenants. It by the specific means of architectural expressiveness through the unity with the adjacent houses enters into urban environment, becoming "thing for all".
Are such all buildings. In them change only internal utilitarian function for the direct users and external, spiritual for all, in the relationships, determined by place and value of each of them in the system of city. Concreteness in the time is expressed in the form of the stylistic special features, inherent in each historical epoch.
However, three-dimensional concreteness besides such simple manifestations as the calculation of physicogeographical factors (landscape, relief, climate, etc.), has in the form the more complex forms, which determine the spiritual content of the skill of architecture, including error-free definition, so to speak, the architectural key of building. Any omission here leads to the general failure. \
Specifically, at this step is maintained examination to the craftsmanship, which requires enormous cultural potential, knowledge and talent, that is rested on the artistic comprehension of medium.
It is necessary to note with the regret that since our architecture of 30 years ago passed to the new way of development, precisely, here we sustained the largest losses of the riches, accumulated by previous generations. Our enthusiasm by the concepts of the "truthfulness" and of "rationality", as now evidently, too dearly it managed in the formation of the large town-building spaces, whose scales constantly grew.
With the design of buildings us more greatly led the tendency to make new, uncommon, not on that similar. This tendency by itself is progressive, if it pursues defining concretely architecture in time and space of purpose and rests on the culture of the wide environmental understanding of architecture.
The common concept about the connection with the medium, with nature is the basis of the three-dimensional essence of architecture. It is infinite as space itself. The organic nature of this connection, which causes beauty as the manifestation of unity and accordion, is determined by the completeness of calculation and reflection in the architecture of the special features of concrete medium.
In this light sredovost' is expressed not simply by the calculation of regional special features or uniqueness of place. National and historical roots come out as its unique and higher spiritual manifestation. Not in them whether did always lie the authentic resources of innovating and variety? Not the abolition whether of these sources gave birth to boredom and monotony, for determining which we were fixed to the first discoveries of "new": provided not to be turned to already the familiar sources? So "innovating" became the deprived of soil end in itself. Step by step our buildings and construction, losing the generality of architectural language, became similar people, which were deprived of the ability to understand each other. Tendency toward the novelty became simply prestige. Earlier we just as zealously did not fight for the novelty. Is not sympathetic whether this? Not manifestation whether this of regret on the loss of the skill of the creation of new? Is not monotony even and the consequence of refusal of the environmental understanding of architecture? Not detachment whether from this powerful source of variety and closing only in the sphere of internal "truthfulness" it did give birth to marketable external compositions, from where send blind copying, and stereotypes?
Not without reason some theorists of postmoderna began to assert that "tendency, by itself, toward the novelty - sickeningly". Let us say soft; before becoming unlike on others, it is first necessary to be to such, as all this law of nature it is expressed also in the skill, where "each face - type, but the at the same time and well-defined personality".
Not therefore whether now we ever more did begin to be turned to the masters of the past in the searches for the truths, lost by us?
Harmonic thinking in the architecture, similar to music - they be professional category, the required level for the creator. If architecture cannot be out of the accordion with the medium, then it is similar to man, it cannot but have the highest, spiritual special features, determined by the medium: ethnic, historical and finally national.
These categories compose our public memory, they help us to develop and to improve the culture since ancient times passed to us, traditions and ideology. Only one generation cannot create all this. Similarly how way into space, speaking figuratively, it began from the Stone Age, so also the achievement of contemporary construction skill they were based on the experience of all previous generations. Infinity of this process is determined by life for the creation, the estimation, the selection and the development.
Nature thus was ordered.
Not this whether is explained the fact that in the times of strange dominion and decline of its own culture Armenia - country of stone, it did construct from the raw material- brick? Refusal of the memory of the past can convert people into the essences, deprived of reason and of will, without to kind and tribe. And no pangs to the "novelty" can change the matter.
To the skill of architecture to characteristically wake up other, more elevated emotions, than surprise, although there are the skills, where this is considered the main thing. , for example, circus skill is such. In this connection is appropriate to recall words of one of the pioneers of "new architecture" Korbyuz'e, which was not been afraid to compare architect with the acrobat, whom
".. doverкt its life to the case, for which it in a constant danger for the life makes, which are uncommon and cost on the boundary of possible and even after it... It is ready to break to itself neck, the bone and to break... it belongs to another peace - the peace of acrobatics. It makes the things, which another make cannot "[ 51].
By this "novelty" was unequivocally determined the aesthetical criterion of entire epoch...
We in the larger measure are solidary with the theorists, who fight today for normativnost' of form and universality of architecture. These qualities organically emerge and are caused by environmental kontekstual'nost'yu in that wide understanding, about which we speak.
Finally, by apexes, as the peaks of skill, including architecture, should be recognized the works, which are generated by progressive public ideas and their vysokokhudozhestvennost'yu they raise people, they help it to live, and frequently and to survive in the times difficult for it.
These works of the highest discharge, as a rule, are international, first of all, by their national uniqueness.
We do not believe in the global integration of cultures. If this happens, then it will indicate catastrophe. We are convinced that national in its perfect manifestation is internationally and the property of all peoples.
Specifically, because of these qualities, possible under the conditions of socialist society, such works, as the Government House and the operatic theater Of tamanyana, together with the passionate in a revolutionary way- civil poetry Of charentsa, the radiant fabrics Of sar'yana and the "feast of music", as named B. asaf'ev music Of arama Of khachaturyana, helped to revive from the ashes Armenia.
And certainly, they do not possess the roots of national uniqueness, by their creative comprehension in the spirit of the age, navryad they could become the support of nation, glorify and call immense social changes in its life. By civilization and by heroic scale these buildings became the living platforms, which appeal to the life the there is no time exsanguinated people.
Against the background of these tasks, achieved by the means of skill, any deficiencies in the scientific-theoretical order seem small and they lose their value, and that, as this is not paradoxical, they pass into the discharge of merits, as this frequently we meet in the large skill!
The ideological basis of the society always fed any artistic concept: natural philosophy - antiquity, clericalism - the middle ages, humanism - revival, etc.
However, what does move the calls of refusal of the national uniqueness? In order to be brief, let us refer to the solution about the "dispatch" from the center of architectural "semifinished products" or the "mannequins", in the form of certain "prototypes, its kind of the prototypes", to which will have to dress the "clothing" of local architecture, thus "specifically completing in the spirit of local special features and traditions the appearance of buildings, already in the regional planning organizations" [ 52 ].
But indeed this is the highway of architecture. And the clearly already not newest western architecture, about which American critic Blake recognized that ".. iz in all, to what we learned in the newest architecture, tests maintained nothing ". And further: "the base, on which we created our peace, collapses; collapse together with it our ideas "[ 40]. Did not help the ethical value of the truthful expression of function and construction, equal sign between which and criteria of beauty they tried to place.
Causes bewilderment that persistence, with which nevertheless from time to time, placing this question it seems we want to attain refusal of the national uniqueness precisely in the architecture. We speak about this, since not in what other skill is encountered a similar posing of the question. Therefore with the proper caution it is desirable to propose to remove discussion of this question in the wide plan, since it is remembered that each time, when it arises, here, next to it appears as ominous shadow - its not less casuistic partner: "skill whether architecture?" Already not the fault whether of national uniqueness in all our failures? Does not interfere with indeed it other skills?
You will look, as we are cautious in the protection of the people trades Of palekha and Khokhlomy - in Russia, Kubachey and Balkhara - in Daghestan and many others the same relation requires in Armenia and the culture of stone, expressed as architecture.
A question of national uniqueness has special importance for our most multinational in the world country. By its problems they were nowhere occupied so for long as.
It cannot be said that all scientific-theoretical works in this region were unsuccessful. It is simple, another, more fundamental approach to the problem is required in the present stage.
Our country, by which go by the seventh ten, on the basis of the new social system, it is possible to say, created its own in a cultured way- psychological "gene pool", which serves the process of creating the united association. It is difficult to present Soviet culture without the clearly expressed national uniqueness in the creation of Sviridov and Khachaturyana, Sholokhov and Aytmatova, Sevaka and Gamzatova or, generally, the Russian theatrical skill and the ballet, the Georgian cinema, the Moldavian song and dancing folklore. All you will not transfer.
Only, architects, yet not all is obtained; therefore us should be placed on the service all means, capable of overcoming the monotony of form, and of not cutting step by step their roots.
Above we repeatedly consciously emphasized the value of the latitude of the range of "environmental kontekstual'nosti", counting to its sharply missing architecture in present development stage.
... the descent of water of Sevan of 50 years was ago considered the matter good, and today we otherwise estimate this.
The matter so cannot continue, since sometimes is brought the "Red Book", also, on the region of culture, into which, similar to rare animals or plants, will be carried the incoming at the face disappearances cultural values and tradition.
We are assured that the matter thus far will not reach. We is constructed only the section of bright highway in the future. They constructed it to us and they will construct after us.
To us it is important to understand its modest place in this infinite way.