Difference between revisions of "Turkey"

From armeniapedia.org
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 1: Line 1:
{| border="1" align=center width="100%" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="border:1px solid #aaa; border-collapse:collapse"
+
Turkey
|- bgcolor="#ECECEC"
+
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
! Capital
+
Jump to: navigation, search
! Center(s) of Armenian population
+
This article is about the Republic of Turkey. For the bird, see Turkey (bird). For other uses of "Turkey", see Turkey (disambiguation). See also Turk (disambiguation).
! № of [[Armenians]]
+
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
! Dialect(s) spoken
+
Republic of Turkey
! Further information
+
 
|-
+
Flag Emblem
| [[Ankara]]
+
| [[Istanbul]]
+
Motto
| 40,000 to 70,000
+
none
| [[Western Armenian]]
+
(Unofficial: "Yurtta Barış, Dünyada Barış"1
|
+
"Peace at Home, Peace in the World")
|}The Turks says Happy is the man who says "I am a Turk" means NE MUTLU TURKUM DIYENE...
+
Anthem
 +
İstiklâl Marşı
 +
Independence March
 +
 +
Capital Ankara
 +
39°55'48.00′N, 32°50′E
 +
Largest city Istanbul
 +
Official languages Turkish
 +
Government Parliamentary republic
 +
-  President Ahmet Necdet Sezer
 +
-  Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
 +
Succession to the Ottoman Empire2 
 +
-  War of Independence May 19, 1919 
 +
-  Formation of Parliament April 23, 1920 
 +
-  Declaration of Republic October 29, 1923 
 +
Area
 +
- Total 783,562 km² (37th)
 +
302,535 sq mi 
 +
- Water (%) 1.3
 +
Population
 +
-  2007 estimate 71,158,647 (17th3)  
 +
-  2000 census 67,803,927 
 +
-  Density 93 /km² (102nd3)
 +
240 /sq mi
 +
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 +
- Total $612.3 billion (17th)
 +
-  Per capita $9,107 (69th)
 +
GDP (nominal) 2007 IMF estimate
 +
-  Total $392,424 billion (18th)
 +
-  Per capita $5,408 (68th)
 +
Gini? (2003) 43.6 (medium) 
 +
HDI (2006) 0.7574 (medium) (92nd4)
 +
Currency New Turkish Lira5 (TRY)
 +
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 +
  -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
 +
Internet TLD .tr
 +
Calling code +90
 +
1 "Yurtta sulh, cihanda sulh" (original Turkish).
 +
2 Treaty of Lausanne (1923).  
 +
3 Population and population density rankings based on 2005 figures.  
 +
4 UN Nations HDI Report, page 284
 +
5 The New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası, YTL) replaced the old Turkish Lira on 1 January 2005.
  
Turkey, which encompases much of historic Armenia, today has a small Armenian community estimated at 40 to 70,000 remaining in [[Istanbul]] (formerly Constantinople), one small Armenian village of [[Vakifli]] at [[Musa Dagh]] (on the Med. Sea by [[Syria]]), some remaining settlements in [[Sasun]], and otherwise, with the exception of the [[Hamshen]] Armenians, virtually no other Armenians remain in Turkey.
 
  
Turkey's Armenians fall under the religious jurisdiction of the [[Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople]].
+
A graphical timeline is available here:
 +
History of the Republic of Turkey  
 +
Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (help·info)), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in southwest Asia and the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey borders eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest, Greece to the west, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan (the Nakhichevan exclave), and Iran to the east, Iraq and Syria to the southeast. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Black Sea to the north. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara, which is used by geographers to mark the border between Europe and Asia, thus making Turkey transcontinental.[1]
  
===Laws on Minority Foundations===
+
The region comprising modern Turkey has overseen the birth of major civilizations such as the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. Because of its strategic location, where two continents meet, Turkey's culture has a unique blend of Eastern and Western tradition, often described as a bridge between the two civilizations. A powerful regional presence from the Adriatic Sea to China in the Eurasian landmass between Russia and India, Turkey has come to acquire increasing strategic significance.[2][3]
Only 2,500 buildings:
 
  
According to the [[Treaty of Lausanne]], there are about nine or 10 non-Muslim minority communities in Turkey. They make up about 125,000 people: approximately 70,000 Armenians, 20,000 Jews, 10,000 Bahais, 3,000 Catholic Nasturis, 2,500 Greeks, 2,000 Jehovah's Witnesses, 1,500 Protestants and 100 Adventists. They have a total of 161 foundations.
+
Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I. Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West while continuing to foster relations with the Eastern world. It is a founding member of the United Nations,[4] the Organization of the Islamic Conference,[5] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development[6] and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe,[7] a member state of the Council of Europe since 1949,[8] and of NATO since 1952.[9] Since 2005, Turkey has been in accession negotiations with the European Union, having been an associate member since 1963.[10] Turkey is also a member of the G20, which brings together the 20 largest economies of the world.
  
The number of their properties that cause us problems is 2,471.
+
Contents [hide]
 +
1 Etymology
 +
2 History
 +
2.1 Pre-Turkic History of Anatolia
 +
2.2 Turks and the Ottoman Empire
 +
2.3 Republican era
 +
3 Government and politics
 +
4 Foreign relations
 +
5 Military
 +
6 Administrative divisions
 +
7 Geography and climate
 +
8 Economy
 +
9 Demographics
 +
10 Culture
 +
11 See also
 +
12 Notes
 +
13 References
 +
14 Further reading
 +
15 External links
 +
15.1 Government
 +
15.2 Public institutions
 +
15.3 Additional profiles
 +
15.4 Other
 +
  
Foundations for Greeks, Armenians, Jews and other non-Muslim minority groups have worked since Ottoman times to keep their places of worship up and running. These foundations had no limitations imposed on them during the Ottoman period but were forced to disclose the properties they own after the founding of the republic. Each disclosed the full extent of properties they owned.
 
  
Between 1936 and 1974 they faced no limitations. The funds they received were mostly bequeathed by members of their communities.
+
[edit] Etymology
 +
Main article: Name of Turkey
 +
The name for Turkey in the Turkish language, Türkiye, can be divided into two words: Türk, which means "strong" in Old Turkic and usually signifying the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of the Turkish or Turkic peoples,[11] a later form of "tu-kin", name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BC;[12] and the abstract suffix -iye, which means "owner" or "related to". The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Sky Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin "Turchia" (c. 1369).[12]
  
After the 1974 Cyprus military intervention, a decision by the Supreme Court of Appeals changed everything. It decided that these foundations had no legal authority and had to transfer all properties and funds they had received between 1936 and 1974.
 
  
The Treasury seized all the properties obtained between 1936 and 1974, either selling them off to others or keeping them. All objections raised by the foundations were rejected.
+
[edit] History
  
When Turkey applied to become a European Union member, everything changed. According to the Copenhagen Criteria, limitations imposed on the foundations had to be lifted. The properties seized needed to be returned. Ankara promised the EU that it would do so, or pay compensation. The amendment process of the foundations laws began but the bureaucracy resisted. Despite all the efforts of the Foreign Ministry and the EU General Secretariat, the revised law is still yet to pass.
+
[edit] Pre-Turkic History of Anatolia
 +
Main article: History of Anatolia
 +
 +
Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)The Anatolian peninsula (also called Asia Minor), comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continually inhabited regions in the world due to its location at the intersection of Asia and Europe. The earliest Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Hacilar (Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world.[13] The settlement of Troy starts in the Neolithic and continues into the Iron Age. Through recorded history, Anatolians have spoken Indo-European, Semitic and Kartvelian languages, as well as many languages of uncertain affiliation. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages have radiated.[14]
  
(The above information is from Mehmet Ali Birand's column in the Turkish Daily News on 2005/5/1)
+
 +
The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135 CEThe first major empire in the area was that of the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BCE. Subsequently, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE.[15] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia. The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenic periods.
  
On September 20, 2005, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled for the return of real estate belonging to minority foundations.
+
The west coast of Anatolia was meanwhile settled by the Ionians, one of the ancient Greek peoples. The entire area was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE.[16] Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which had succumbed to Rome by the mid-1st century BCE.[17] In 324 CE, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome (later Constantinople and Istanbul). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).[18]
  
In the first trial, Fener Greek Boy's School Foundation and Yedikule Surp Prigic Armenian Hospital Foundation demanded the return of properties, which they owned between 1936 and 1974, but which were handed over to their previous owners following a Court of Appeals' ruling in 1974. The decision will expectedly be announced in the upcoming months.
 
  
During yesterday's hearing at the ECHR, lawyers represent the foundations claimed that Turkey had violated one of the articles of European Convention on Human Rights concerning the protection of properties.
+
[edit] Turks and the Ottoman Empire
 +
Main articles: Turkic migration, History of the Turkish people, Seljuk Empire, and Ottoman Empire
 +
 +
The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (ca. 1680)The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Kinik Oğuz Turks who in the 9th century resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy.[19] In the 10th century, the Seljuks migrated from their ancestral homelands into the eastern Anatolian regions that had been an area of settlement for Oğuz Turkic tribes since the end of the first millennium.
  
In addition, they told me that the institutions defined as minority foundations by the Lausanne Treaty have the right to own property assets.
+
 +
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque) is one of the most famous architectural legacies of the Ottoman Empire.Following their victory over the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Turks began to abandon their nomadic roots in favour of a permanent role in Anatolia, bringing rise to the Seljuk Empire.[20] In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols and the power of the empire slowly disintegrated. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I was to evolve into the Ottoman Empire, thus filling the void left by the collapsed Seljuks and Byzantines.[21]
  
On the other side, Turkish legal representatives explained the necessary legal amendments were realized during Turkey's European Union (EU) process, including the development of the Foundations Bill, which is now pending in the Turkish Parliament.
+
The Ottoman Empire interacted with both Eastern and Western cultures throughout its 623-year history. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it was among the world's most powerful political entities, often locking horns with the powers of eastern Europe in its steady advance through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[3] Following years of decline, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I through the Ottoman-German Alliance in 1914, and was ultimately defeated. After the war, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman state through the Treaty of Sèvres.[21]
  
According to an arrangement dated 2002, religious minority foundations were entitled to own real estate.
 
  
The ECHR decision will determine the future of properties belonging to nearly 900 foundations, which changed hands following the decision by the Court of Appeals.
+
[edit] Republican era
 +
Main articles: History of the Republic of Turkey and Atatürk's reforms
 +
 +
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - Founder and first President of the Republic of TurkeyThe occupation of İstanbul and İzmir by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.[3] Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.[2] By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were repelled and the country saw the birth of the new Turkish state. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.[3]
  
Since the General Directorate of Foundations does not disclose the number of real estate handed over to third persons due to confidentiality, it is not exactly known how many foundations' properties will be affected by the ECHR decision.
+
Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first president and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[3] According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific name "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934.[2]
  
(Published: Wednesday, September 21, 2005 zaman.com)
+
Turkey entered World War II on the side of the Allies on February 23, 1945 as a ceremonial gesture and became a charter member of the United Nations in 1945.[4] Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale US military and economic support.[22]
  
----
+
After participating with United Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of intercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the subsequent Athens-inspired coup, Turkey intervened militarily in 1974. Nine years later Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established. TRNC is recognised only by Turkey.[23]
[[Armenian Assembly of America]]<br>
 
PRESS RELEASE<br>
 
September 14, 2005<br>
 
CONTACT: [[Christine Kojoian]]<br>
 
Email: ckojoian@aaainc.org
 
  
EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS CASE BEING CLOSELY MONITORED IN U.S. <br>
+
Following the end of the single-party period in 1945, the multi-party period witnessed tensions over the following decades, and the period between the 1960s and the 1980s was particularly marked by periods of political instability that resulted in a number of military coups d'états in 1960, 1971, 1980 and a post-modern coup d'état in 1997.[24] The liberalization of the Turkish economy that started in the 1980s changed the landscape of the country, with successive periods of high growth and crises punctuating the following decades.[25]
Key Committee To Hold Mark-Up On Genocide Resolution
 
  
Washington, DC - The European Court of Human Rights is expected to announce a decision next week on the property rights of minority foundations.  Specifically, the Court will adjudicate two cases filed by the Soorp Purgich Armenian Hospital Foundation and the Fener Greek Boys High School Foundation against Turkey.
 
  
In both cases, property gifted to the Armenian and Greek foundations were seized as the Turkish courts upheld orders declaring that the bequest violated a decree disallowing non-Moslems from donating real estate. If the court rules in favor of the foundations, hundreds of buildings seized in the past may be returned.
+
[edit] Government and politics
 +
Main articles: Politics of Turkey, Constitution of Turkey, and Elections in Turkey
 +
 +
The Grand Chamber of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in the capital, AnkaraTurkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism.[26] Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state. The current constitution was ratified by referendum in 1982 and has been amended numerous times in recent years.[27]
  
Earlier this year, Armenian Assembly Board Member and former Board of
+
The head of state is the President of the Republic and has a largely ceremonial role. The president is elected for a seven-year term by the parliament but is not required to be one of its members. The current President, Ahmet Necdet Sezer, was elected on May 16, 2000, after having served as the President of the Constitutional Court. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers that make up the government, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others.[27]
Directors Chairman [[Van Krikorian]] testified before the Helsinki
 
Commission on freedom of religion in Turkey with respect to the
 
Armenian Church and community. During his testimony Krikorian noted
 
that "for centuries, Armenians paid and in many places still pay a
 
high price for their Christianity," and that seizure and destruction
 
of Armenian Church property was commonplace. Krikorian noted that in
 
1914, in Turkey, there were approximately 5,000 Armenian Churches,
 
seminaries and schools registered by the Patriarchate and that today,
 
90 years after the [[Armenian Genocide]], there are less than 50 Armenian
 
Churches under the Patriarchate's jurisdiction. Krikorian also
 
pointed to the Soorp Purgich Armenian Hospital as example of how the
 
Treaty of Lausanne and other international standards for protecting
 
religious rights are not being upheld, and urged the Helsinki
 
Commission to play a critical leadership in addressing these issues.
 
  
Jeff King, President of International Christian Concern, who also
+
The Prime Minister is generally the head of the party that has won the elections and is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in his government. The current Prime Minister is the former mayor of İstanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose Islamic conservative AKP won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001, with 34% of the suffrage.[28][29] Neither the Prime Minister nor the Ministers have to be members of the parliament, but in most cases they are (one notable exception was Kemal Derviş, who was the Minister of State in Charge of Economy following the financial crisis of 2001;[30] he is currently the president of the UN Development Programme).[31]
testified before the Commission, called the expected decision by the
 
European Court "an opportunity to right a long-standing injustice and
 
an opportunity for Turkey to utilize this opportunity to strengthen
 
its commitment to democratic reforms and to uphold its international
 
obligations to protect its citizens."  International Christian Concern
 
(ICC) is a non-profit and interdenominational human rights
 
organization dedicated to assisting and sustaining Christians who are
 
victims of persecution and discrimination due to practicing their
 
faith.  ICC's website is www.persecution.org.
 
  
At the same time that the European Human Rights Court is considering
+
There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a five-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (İstanbul is divided into three electoral districts whereas Ankara and İzmir are divided into two each because of their large populations). To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, only parties that win at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament. As a result of this threshold, only two parties were able to obtain that right during the last elections in 2002.[32] Independent candidates may run; however, they must also win at least 10% of the vote in their circonscription to be elected.[33] Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. As of 2004, there were 50 registered political parties in the country, whose ideologies range from the far left to the far right.[33] The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether.[34][35]
this matter, in the United States, the House International Relations
 
Committee is scheduled to review another human rights issue;
 
affirmation of the Armenian Genocide. The Committee will mark-up
 
H. Res. 316, a bipartisan, pan-Armenian resolution, which reaffirms
 
the United States record on the Armenian Genocide, and was introduced
 
by Armenian Caucus Members George Radanovich (R-CA) and Adam Schiff
 
(D-CA), along with Caucus Co-Chairs Joe Knollenberg (R-MI) and Frank
 
Pallone (D-NJ).
 
  
"The anticipated European Court action is one of many venues in which
+
The military has traditionally been a politically powerful institution, considered as the guardians of Atatürk's Republic. The protection of the Turkish Constitution and the unity of the country is given by law to the Turkish Armed Forces, and it therefore plays a formal political role via the National Security Council (NSC) as the guardian of the secular, unitary nature of the republic and the reforms of Atatürk.[24] Through the NSC, the army contributes to recommendations for defense policy against any threat to the country, including those pertaining to ethnic separatism or religious extremism. In recent years, reforms led to efforts to reduce the military's constitutional responsibilities, under the program of compliance with EU demands and an increased civilian presence on the NSC.[36] Despite its influence in civilian affairs and possibly because of it, the military owns strong unequivocal support from the nation and is considered to be the country's most trusted institution.[37]
Turkey's human and minority rights are being reviewed.  Tomorrow, the
 
House International Relations Committee will consider legislation,
 
which affirms the Armenian Genocide and the American role in alerting
 
the international community and launching an unprecedented
 
humanitarian campaign to save the survivors," said Armenian Assembly
 
Executive Director Bryan Ardouny. "Over the last weeks and months,
 
the community has rallied its support behind H. Res. 316 and we are
 
confident about tomorrow's mark-up," added Ardouny.
 
  
Editor's Note: The testimony of Van Krikorian and Jeff King before the
 
Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Commission)
 
regarding Religious Freedom in Turkey can be found at www.csce.org.
 
  
NR#2005-091
+
[edit] Foreign relations
 +
 +
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943Main articles: Foreign relations of Turkey and Accession of Turkey to the European Union
 +
Turkey's main political, economic and military relations have remained rooted within the West since the foundation of the republic and its membership to NATO in 1952.[22] Ankara became a crucial strategic ally in diverting Soviet forces from Central Europe and preventing their expansion into the Mediterranean. Though primarily a Western orientated actor in international affairs, Turkey also fostered relations with the Middle East, becoming the only NATO member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, as well as forging close relations with Israel.[38]
  
===50TH ANNIVERSARY OF POGROMS IN ISTANBUL===
+
The European Union remains Turkey's biggest trading partner, and the presence of a well-established Turkish diaspora in Europe has contributed to the development of extensive relations between the two over the years. Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe in 1949, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the EU) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, reached a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and has officially begun accession negotiations on October 3, 2005.[10] It is believed that the accession process will take at least 15 years because of Turkey's size and the depth of disagreements over certain issues.[39]
By Hakob Chakrian
 
  
AZG Armenian Daily #159<br>
+
Historically, relations with neighbouring Greece have known periods of tension. The long divided island of Cyprus and the disputes over the air and sea boundaries of the Aegean Sea remain the main issues of disagreement between the two neighbours.[40] Recently, the issue of Cyprus has become one of the main points of contention in Turkey's accession negotiations with the EU since Turkey is refusing to open its ports to Greek Cypriot traffic.[41] Nonetheless, following the consecutive earthquakes of 1999 in Turkey and Greece, and the prompt response of aid and rescue teams from both sides, the two nations have entered a much more positive period in their relations, with Greece actively supporting Turkey's candidacy to enter the European Union.[42]
07/09/2005
 
  
Turkish Papers Highlight the Event
+
Since the end of the Cold War, Turkey has been actively building relations with former communist countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, leading to many reciprocal investments and migratory currents between these states and Turkey.[43] However, Turkey's relations with neighbouring Armenia are still tense due to the ongoing stalemate in Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenia and Azerbaijan, a Turkic-speaking neighbour and ally of Turkey, and also due to the controversy surrounding the events of 1915–17, in which actions by the Ottoman Young Turks led to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of an estimated hundreds of thousands, up to 1.5 million, Armenians.[44] The Turkish government rejects the notion that these events constituted a genocide, and instead states the deaths, in the waning days of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, were a result of inter-ethnic strife, disease and famine.[45] Owing to its secular traditions, Turkey has always viewed suspiciously certain countries in the region and this has caused tensions in the past, particularly with its largest neighbour, Iran.[46]
  
With an aim to prevent future tragedies, all central Turkish newspapers
+
Even though Turkey participated in the NATO-led peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan after September 11, the Iraq War faced strong domestic opposition in Turkey. A government motion which would have allowed U.S. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's southeastern border couldn't reach the absolute majority of 276 votes needed for its adoption in the Turkish Parliament, the final tally being 264 votes for and 250 against.[47] This led to a cooling in relations between the U.S. and Turkey and fears that they may be damaged as a result of the situation in Iraq.[48] Turkey is particularly cautious about an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq; it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil, in which an estimated 37,000 people lost their lives, against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations, including the U.S. and the EU).[49][50] This led the Turkish government to put pressure on the U.S. to clamp down on insurgent training camps in northern Iraq, without much success.[46]
highlighted yesterday the events of September 6 1955 when authorities
 
in Istanbul organized massacres. On September 5, the eve of the
 
pogroms, a bomb went off in the house where Kemal Atatürk was born in
 
Thessalonica. The explosion only broke the windows of the house, and
 
Greek law enforcers detained law student at Thessalonica University,
 
Oktay Engin, and the guard of Turkish consulate.
 
  
The consulate was located right by the house. The arrested student,
 
Turkish agent as disclosed later, was soon released under Turkey's
 
diplomatic pressure and soon fled to Turkey. He was given a position
 
in Istanbul municipality and was appointed governor of Nevsehir
 
after graduation.
 
  
These facts make clear that the explosion in Thessalonica was a state
+
[edit] Military
organized provocation to open doors for pogroms of Greek, Armenian
+
Main articles: Turkish Armed Forces and Conscription in Turkey
and Jewish minorities of Turkey.
+
 +
TAI-built F-16 fighter jets belonging to various Turkish Air Force squadronsThe Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions.[51]
  
Turkish state radio aired the news of explosion at 1.30 pm local time.
+
The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President, and is responsible to the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament.[51] The actual Commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General Yaşar Büyükanıt, who succeeded General Hilmi Özkök on August 26, 2006.[52]
Istanbul-based Ekspres paper informed about the explosion at 4.30 pm
 
local time September 6. Representative of "Turkish republic of Northern
 
Cyprus", Kmail Onal, makes a statement on the pages of the paper,
 
"Those attacking our sanctities will pay high price". 2 hours later,
 
members of student unions and representatives of the "Turkish republic
 
of Northern Cyprus" gather at the square of Bera in Tksim. The mob
 
is armed with knives and bludgeons. The pogroms start after speeches.
 
  
The Turkish mob robs firstly the stores of the Greeks then churches
+
and homes killing residents and lynching Greek priests. Armenians
+
F-247 TCG Kemal Reis is a Salih Reis (MEKO 200TN II-B) class frigate of the Turkish NavyThe Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with a combined strength of 1,043,550 uniformed personnel serving in its five branches.[53][36] Every fit heterosexual male Turkish citizen is required to serve in the military for time periods ranging from three weeks to fifteen months, depending on his education and job location (homosexuals have the right to be exempt, if they so request).[54]
and Jews are not spared massacres, and the anti-Greek pogroms soon
 
flowed into massacre of all non-Muslims.
 
 
 
Greeks of Istanbul's considerably big Greek community headed for their
 
fatherland after the pogroms. Repatriation continued till 1960s. Today
 
there are only 2000 Greeks in Istanbul. The number of Armenians there
 
is around 50.000.
 
 
 
As there are almost no Greeks in Istanbul and the Jews are not
 
favorable to attack, Armenians, as a rule, suffer Turkish mob's
 
aggression. A cause is always at hand: recognition of the Armenian
 
Genocide in various parliaments and the Nagorno Karabakh issue.
 
 
 
The point here is that no matter how reformed Turkey becomes,
 
it still needs squaring off with its history. That history is
 
continuous. [[Armenian Genocide]] was carried out in days of the Young
 
Turks. The September 6 pogroms were carried out in modern Turkey
 
founded by Kemal Atatürk and in days of Adnan Menderes' Democratic
 
Party. Times are changing, self-consciousness of the Turks should
 
also change.
 
{{copy}}
 
 
 
New York Times<br>
 
Sept 23 2005
 
 
 
Photo Show on a Pogrom 50 Years Ago Is Itself Attacked by a Mob
 
 
 
ISTANBUL - Tucked away for more than 40 years, the 120 black-and-white photographs hanging in a gallery here have the stark appearance and potential emotional impact of evidence presented in a legal proceeding.
 
 
 
Karsi Gallery
 
 
 
One of the photographs from the Karsi Gallery collection, from 1955.
 
 
 
This article is exclusive to the Web. And that, it turns out, is what they are.
 
 
 
One image shows a mob outside a row of storefronts, with some people
 
watching passively and others cheering as a shop is ransacked. A
 
young man stands with his half-clenched fist raised in the air, as if
 
he is egging on the vandals; his other hand rests passively on his
 
hip, suggesting nonchalance. A boy stares up numbly, as if looking in
 
vain for answers. Above him, a man in the shell of the shop's wrecked
 
building heaves a baby carriage to the street below.
 
 
 
Fifty years ago this month, erroneous reports spread that Greeks had
 
set fire to the childhood home of Kemal Atatürk, modern Turkey's
 
founder, in Salonika, Greece. The rumors prompted an angry mob to
 
converge on Taksim Square in Istanbul for an anti-foreigner pogrom
 
that left thousands of houses and many hundreds of shops destroyed.
 
 
 
Gallery officials said about a dozen people were killed, but the
 
death toll has never been confirmed because of official secrecy.
 
Cemeteries were desecrated, dozens of churches were burned, and many
 
schools were plundered.
 
 
 
Fahri Coker, a former assistant military prosecutor, served as a
 
legal adviser to the military investigation of the events of Sept.
 
6-7, 1955, an inquiry that historians describe as a whitewash. Coker
 
had 250 photographs taken by foreign news photographers and
 
government employees, and even a few by Ara Guler, one of Turkey's
 
few internationally known photographers. Judge Coker held on to the
 
pictures and left word that they could be displayed only after his
 
death, which occurred in 2001.
 
 
 
To mark the 50-year anniversary of the long night of violence, Karsi,
 
a gallery in the Beyoglu neighborhood, where the pogrom occurred,
 
organized an exhibition of the photos to open on Sept. 6. Although
 
curators were no doubt aware that the pictures would arouse strong
 
feelings, given the emotion surrounding historical discussions in
 
Turkey, they have been surprised by the passions unleashed by the
 
show.
 
 
 
The Sept. 6 opening was disrupted by a group of nationalists who
 
entered the gallery, carrying a Turkish flag. Chanting slogans like
 
"Turkey, love it or leave it!," they vandalized some of the
 
photographs and tossed others out the window. They also threw eggs at
 
the pictures, leaving a vivid testimonial to how controversial free
 
expression remains in Turkey.
 
 
 
"We left it that way, but unfortunately, after a few days it started
 
to smell," Ozkan Taner, one of the gallery's directors, said of the
 
exhibition, which the gallery then cleaned and restored. It remains
 
on view through Sept. 26.
 
 
 
News of the attacks spread quickly to the front pages of the Turkish
 
papers and to television and radio news broadcasts, turning the show
 
into a national topic of conversation.
 
 
 
Attendance has been heavy, easily exceeding expectations. On a recent
 
day, dozens of people crowded into the gallery to study the images.
 
The pictures, as might be expected, show faces riven by anger and
 
fear, but the photos are also packed with small surprises.
 
 
 
One centers on the familiar monument at the center of Taksim Square,
 
so crowded with young protesters that some are falling off as others
 
rise to take their places. At the top of the image, a small group is
 
working to hoist the Turkish flag, while a young man in a crisp,
 
clean suit holds unsteadily over his head a small portrait of
 
Atatürk. But away from the monument, the people in the crowd turning
 
to face the photographer have blank, uncertain expressions, as if
 
they are as unnerved by the outpouring as many of the gallery's
 
visitors have been.
 
 
 
In the beginning, the photo exhibition was hailed as a major step
 
forward for a country trying to show a more democratic face in
 
preparation for possible membership in the European Union.
 
 
 
"For the first time in the history of Turkey, a shameful happening
 
has been brought out into the open," said Ishak Alaton, chairman of
 
the Alarko Holding company and a leader of Turkey's tiny population
 
of Jews. "September 6, 1955, was our Kristallnacht."
 
 
 
Ozcan Yurdalan, a freelance photographer here who took part in a
 
recent news conference denouncing the attacks on the exhibition, said
 
the straightforward documentary style of the photos made them more
 
disturbing.
 
 
 
"They show directly what they saw in life," he said. "If you take
 
straight photographs, they show the reality - the faces of the
 
people, some fearful, some thinking, Yeah, we are doing something
 
well against our enemy."
 
 
 
"The pictures showed me this is not the past," he said. "We are still
 
living in the same condition today. I am ashamed of that, and also
 
very fearful."
 
 
 
Greek-Turkish tensions over the future of Cyprus were running high in
 
1955, and the future of that island remains unresolved, threatening
 
to hold up Turkey's bid to begin negotiations to join the European
 
Union. More broadly, Western ideas of the rightful role of dissent
 
have made limited inroads in Turkey. The acclaimed author Orhan Pamuk
 
has been charged with "public denigrating of Turkish identity" for
 
telling a newspaper: "Thirty-thousand Kurds were killed here, one
 
million Armenians as well. And almost no one talks about it."
 
 
 
Mehmet Guleryuz, an Abstract Expressionist-style painter who helped
 
organize a protest against the attack on the exhibition, said: "We're
 
going through sensitive times. We have to have the ability to open up
 
hidden parts of our history and deal with it. We have to have the
 
ability to argue."
 
 
 
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/24/arts/extra/24pogr.html
 
 
 
{{copy}}
 
 
 
===Balakian Letter===
 
To the Editors:
 
 
 
Christopher de Bellaigue's "Left Out in Turkey" explores important
 
aspects of Turkey's long history of problems with its minority peoples
 
and Turkey's current efforts to improve its record, but in his
 
observations on Turkey's dealings with the Armenian genocide and its
 
aftermath, important facts are left out.
 
 
 
Although Mr. de Bellaigue notes that more than a dozen countries have
 
recognized the Armenian genocide (there are in fact twenty countries
 
that have done so), he fails to note how truculent the Turkish
 
government's response to this growing movement has been.
 
 
 
In asking the Turkish government to acknowledge its crimes against the
 
Armenians in 1915, the German Bundestag made perhaps the most thoughtful
 
and resonant statement to Turkey yet made by a governmental body. In its
 
resolution of June 15, the Bundestag "deplore[d] the deeds of the Young
 
Turk government in the Ottoman Empire which have resulted in the almost
 
total annihilation of the Armenians in Anatolia." Refusing to be
 
self-righteous (Germany was Turkey's World War I ally), the Bundestag
 
acknowledged its own crimes against the Armenian people and concluded
 
with a deeply democratic statement acknowledging "from its own national
 
experience how hard it is for every people to face the dark sides of its
 
past" and asserted "that facing one's own history fairly and squarely is
 
necessary" and is an essential part of "the European culture of
 
remembrance to which belongs the open discussion of the dark sides of
 
each national history."
 
  
Instead of heeding this advice, the Turkish government is going in the
+
In 1998, Turkey announced a program of modernization worth some US$31 billion over a ten year period in various projects including tanks, helicopters and assault rifles.[55] Turkey is also a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, gaining an opportunity to develop and influence the creation of the next generation fighter spearheaded by the United States.[56]
other direction. Turkey has made diplomatic threats and canceled
 
business contracts, pulled its embassy out of France (briefly) after the
 
French recognized the genocide in 2000, and scrapped state meetings with
 
Poland for the same reason this past April. Ankara is now threatening to  
 
pass resolutions about genocides they claim these countries have
 
committed. No countries' records are clean, but they will have to search
 
far back to get the Swedes and the Swiss on this.
 
  
Recently, Turkey's Ministry of Education ordered that the national
+
Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions, various missions in the former Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkey maintains 36,000 troops in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since 2001.[57][58] In 2006, the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700 ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the Israeli-Lebanon conflict.[59]
curriculum must teach students that there was no genocide committed
 
against the Armenians and that all such ideas are groundless. The
 
Turkish Historical Society, a state-controlled organization, published a
 
book, The Armenians: Expulsion and Migration, that was vigorously
 
promoted in Turkey and billed as the final word on the subject. Turkish  
 
historian Taner Akçam has called the book "a crime against scholarship"
 
in the recent issue of Journal of Genocide Research, because the authors
 
falsify the history of 1915 by altering the foreign office records of
 
the United States, France, Germany, and other countries whose records
 
testify to a systematic plan of race extermination.
 
  
The Ankara Chamber of Commerce spent an estimated $1 million concocting
 
a promotional DVD on Turkey, and paid the European edition of Time to
 
package it with the June 6 issue. The DVD contains an hour-long segment
 
that presents a counterfeit version of the events of 1915, blaming the
 
victims for their fate and absolving Turkey of any responsibility for
 
the eradication of the Armenians of Anatolia. In late June, in Bremen,
 
Germany, Turkish organizations opened an exhibit of photographs and
 
texts that purport Armenians massacred more than a half-million Turks.
 
This absurdity has become a claim of the Turkish government in recent
 
months. The International Association of Genocide Scholars
 
conservatively puts the Armenian death toll at over a million, while
 
many historians put it at 1.5 million. Several years ago, one could find
 
that Ankara would assent to 600,000 Armenian deaths, then it was
 
400,000, then 300,000, and now it's down to 200,000. Pretty soon no
 
Armenians will have died.
 
  
In the face of rational world opinion, might not this be a moment for
+
[edit] Administrative divisions
the Turkish government to pause and to be a bit self-evaluative? For it
+
Main articles: Regions of Turkey, Provinces of Turkey, Districts of Turkey, and List of cities in Turkey
is not only Armenians who are asking Turkey to face its past, but the
+
The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes; however, they do not represent an administrative structure. Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 923 districts.
mainstream scholarly and human rights culture, as well as numerous
 
governments. The International Association of Genocide Scholars (the
 
largest body of experts on the subject) recently sent an open letter to
 
Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan that summarizes the unambiguous scholarly
 
record on the Armenian genocide.
 
  
Serious democracy is rooted in free intellectual discourse, in educational curricula that are not directed by the government, and in a society's capacity for rigorous, critical self-evaluation in its public life. The good news is that a small but brave culture of Turkish scholars and writers has emerged in the past decade, like those who were in Istanbul to participate in the May 25 conference on the Armenian genocide that was sadly stopped when Turkish authorities called it treason. These writers are devoted to the serious study of the eradication of the Armenians in 1915, and if they are allowed to express themselves freely they might be able to lead their culture into a new age.
+
Provinces usually bear the same name as their provincial capitals, also called the central district; exceptions to this are the provinces of Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: İzmit) and Sakarya (capital: Adapazarı). Provinces with the largest populations are İstanbul (+10 million), Ankara (+4 million), İzmir (+3.4 million), Konya (+2.2 million), Bursa (+2.1 million) and Adana (+1.85 million).
  
Peter Balakian<br>
+
The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital İstanbul is the financial, economic and cultural heart of the country.[60] Other important cities include İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Trabzon, Malatya, Gaziantep, Erzurum, Kayseri, İzmit, Konya, Mersin, Eskişehir, Diyarbakır, Antalya and Samsun. An estimated 67% of Turkey's population live in urban centers.[61] In all, 12 cities have populations that exceed 500,000, and 48 cities have more than 100,000 inhabitants.
Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor of the Humanities<br>
 
Colgate University<br>
 
Hamilton, New York
 
  
http://www.nybooks.com/articles/18271
 
  
===Turkey's Brutal WWII-Era Wealth Tax===
 
  
Copyright © 2005 Tax Analysts<br>
+
AnkaraKırklareliEdirneTekirdağÇanakkaleBalıkesirBursaYalovaİstanbulKocaeliSakaryaDüzceZonguldakBoluBilecikEskişehirKütahyaManisaİzmirAydınMuğlaDenizliBurdurUşakAfyonIspartaAntalyaKonyaMersinKaramanAksarayKırşehirKırıkkaleÇankırıKarabükBartınKastamonuSinopÇorumYozgatNevşehirNiğdeAdanaHatayOsmaniyeK. MaraşKayseriSivasTokatAmasyaSamsunOrduGiresunErzincanMalatyaGaziantepKilisŞanlıurfaAdıyamanGümüşhaneTrabzonRizeBayburtErzurumArtvinArdahanKarsAğrıIğdırTunceliElazığDiyarbakırMardinBatmanSiirtŞırnakBitlisBingölMuşVanHakkari
Tax Notes International Magazine
+
Major cities:
  
September 5, 2005
+
İstanbul - 9,085,599
 +
Ankara - 3,540,522
 +
İzmir - 2,732,669
 +
Bursa - 1,630,940
 +
Adana - 1,397,853
 +
Konya - 1,294,817
 +
Gaziantep - 1,009,126
 +
Antalya - 936,330
 +
(Population figures are given according to the 2000 census)[62]
  
WORLDWIDE TAX OVERVIEW<br>
 
by Cathy Phillips, editor of Tax Notes International
 
  
The voluntary tax systems of the United States and many other countries
+
[edit] Geography and climate
aren't perfect, but they sure beat the heck out of the alternative.
+
Main articles: Geography of Turkey and Environmental issues in Turkey
Consider, for example, life under a regime where tax rates aren't made
 
public, assessments are arrived at in secret, and failure-to-comply
 
penalties include banishment to forced labor camps.
 
 
   
 
   
This week we present a fascinating article by DAVID JOULFAIAN on a
+
Resort town of Fethiye in the Muğla Province, on the Mediterranean coastlineThe territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape.[60] Turkey's area, inclusive of lakes, occupies 779,452 square kilometres (300,948  sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe,[60] thus making Turkey a transcontinental country. Turkey's size makes it the world's 37th-largest country (after Mozambique). It is somewhat bigger than Chile or the U.S. state of Texas. Turkey is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.[63]
wealth tax adopted by Turkey in 1942 that included all of the above
 
unpleasantries. In the midst of World War II, Turkish citizens also were
 
victims of a monstrous tax system that they were powerless to change.
 
Joulfaian describes the discriminatory nature of the wealth tax, a
 
lopsided levy shouldered by the minority Christian and Jewish
 
populations in the predominately Muslim nation, and the misguided fiscal
 
policies that allowed the tax to take root in the first place (p. 915).
 
  
...
+
The European section of Turkey, in the northwest, is Eastern Thrace, and forms the borders of Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country, Anatolia (also called Asia Minor), consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, in between the Köroğlu and East-Black Sea mountain range to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape, and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras, and contains Lake Van and Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at 5,165 metres (16,946 ft).[63][64]
  
THE ULTIMATE DEATH TAX (page 915)
+
Turkey is geographically divided into seven regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.[63]
  
Wealth taxes are common in many countries, and represent one of the
 
oldest forms of taxation. Local governments in the United States, for
 
instance, levy annual property taxes. Annual wealth taxes are levied in
 
several European countries as well. The estate tax is the only wealth
 
tax levied by the U.S. government and applies to wealth held at death.
 
The wealthy are at times also taxed at progressive tax rates on their
 
earnings in addition to being exposed to wealth taxes. Governments levy
 
those taxes to diversify their sources of revenues, augment and protect
 
the income tax base, and regulate the distribution of income and the
 
concentration of wealth. Governments may resort to additional taxes in
 
times of national emergency.
 
 
A general guiding principle for any tax system is that it should be
 
sufficiently transparent to enable a taxpayer to construct the size of
 
wealth or income subject to tax, as well as the ensuing tax liability.
 
For local property taxes, for instance, cities inform property owners of
 
the assessed value of their real estate and the amount of tax they owe.
 
For income and estate taxes, taxpayers report the amount of income
 
received and the size of terminal wealth to the government. Once the
 
taxable amount is established, a tax rate schedule is applied to
 
determine the tax liability. Taxpayers are able to appeal assessments
 
and are given adequate time to prepare their documents and make
 
provisions for paying the amounts owed.
 
 
   
 
   
A student of taxation may encounter many fascinating features of the
+
Mount Ağrı is the highest peak in Turkey at 5,165 m (16,946 ft) and is located in the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region.Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east, which caused a major earthquake in 1999.[65]
various taxes levied throughout history, dating back to ancient Egypt
 
and the Roman Empire. Yet no tax system rivals the peculiarities of a
 
tax employed in the middle of the 20th century. On the morning of
 
November 12, 1942, the citizens of Turkey woke up to the most draconian
 
wealth tax ever envisaged. While the tax in theory applied to the entire
 
predominantly Muslim nation, in practice much of its burden rested with
 
the minority Christian and Jewish communities who primarily resided in
 
Istanbul, formerly known as Constantinople. Neither the rate of taxation
 
nor the taxable base and its derivation were made public. Tax
 
assessments were arrived at in secret, and individuals were directed to
 
settle their government assessed liabilities within two weeks, without
 
any appeal provisions in place. The penalty for Christians and Jews who
 
failed to do so within a month was deportation to forced labor camps in
 
eastern Turkey in addition to having their property confiscated. The tax
 
was initially also extended to Christian and Jewish schools, as well as
 
to churches and synagogues, but not to Muslim institutions, because they
 
were owned or funded by the government. As documented by Faik Okte, the
 
Turkish Ministry of Finance official in charge of implementing the tax,
 
assessments were determined arbitrarily because the authorities lacked
 
information on the income and properties of the minority groups./1/
 
 
 
                    Table 1: Statutory Tax Rates
 
 
Provision                Applied to   Applied to
 
Rate on wartime profit    Muslim Turks    Non-Muslims
 
  12.5 percent    50.0 percent
 
Additional tax            zero            Up to 50 percent of personal wealth
 
 
Source: Faik Okte, The Tragedy of the Turkish Capital Tax.
 
 
 
Description of the Tax
 
  
The Turkish National Assembly passed the tax on November 11, 1942
+
The climate is a Mediterranean temperate climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet and cold winters, though conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the interior of Turkey a continental climate with distinct seasons. The central Anatolian Plateau is much more subject to extremes than coastal areas. Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 °C to −40 °C (−22 °F to -40 °F) can occur in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F). Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures generally above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimetres (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the most dry.[66]
(Law 4305/12.11.1942), and its decision to levy the tax was published
 
the next day in the government official newspaper, Resmi Gazete. The
 
details of the structure and inner workings of the tax were kept secret
 
by the government. The details, however, were revealed and made public
 
some five years after its enactment in a book authored in 1947 by Okte.
 
In that book Okte also traced the architects of the tax and named all
 
the governmental agencies and personnel engaged in administering the
 
tax.
 
 
In an otherwise officially secular state, taxpayers were classified
 
as Muslim and non-Muslim, denoted with the letters M and G,
 
respectively./2/ The latter included Jews and Christians, including
 
Armenians and Greeks. Assyrian Orthodox Christians also fell in that
 
class. An additional class of taxpayers were the Donme, denoted by D.
 
The Donme were Jews whose ancestors had converted to Islam in the 17th
 
century./3/ Like the Jews and Christians, the Donme were taxed at rates
 
higher than those that applied to Muslims. Foreigners were taxed at the
 
same rate as Muslim Turks.
 
 
During that period, Greeks were the largest minority group in Turkey,
 
and represented the heirs to Byzantium with Constantinople as its
 
capital. The Armenians originated from western Armenia or the eastern
 
half of Turkey, and represented the descendants of the first Christian
 
nation. The presence of the Jews also predates that of the Turks, whose
 
ranks had been augmented by Ladino Jews from Spain during the
 
Inquisition. The Assyrians are originally from southern Turkey and
 
modern-day Syria and Iraq; their presence also predates the arrival of
 
the Turks from central Asia. Combined, those non-Muslim groups made up
 
less than 1 percent of Turkey's population of 18 million in 1942.
 
 
The tax was initially envisaged as a tax on capital or wealth. It was
 
to apply to businesses and real estate (immovable property). By the time
 
it was enacted, it had expanded to include a tax on wages as well that
 
effectively applied only to non-Muslims in Istanbul. Taxpayers were
 
classified according to business type and property earnings. Within the
 
Ministry of Finance, once the size of income, wealth, and type of
 
enterprise were established internally, local assessment boards secretly
 
determined the amount owed by the taxpayer.
 
 
The Finance Ministry was responsible for setting the tax rates to be
 
used in computing tax assessments. Minorities were generally to be taxed
 
at 5 to 10 times the amount applied to Muslims with similar wealth.
 
Specifically, Muslims were to be taxed at the rate of 12.5 percent of
 
profits or earnings. In contrast, non-Muslims were to be statutorily
 
taxed at the rate of 50 percent of earnings plus an additional tax of up
 
to 50 percent of their wealth (Table 1)./4/ The reach of the tax also
 
extended to hospitals and educational institutions. The tax did not
 
extend to Muslim institutions, because they were owned or funded by the
 
government.
 
 
While internal "guidelines" set minimum and maximum limits, the local
 
boards at the Finance Ministry were free to choose any amount in
 
between. Indeed, they had complete discretion in setting assessments.
 
Information on income and wealth were obtained from Turkish national
 
banks, the Republican People's Party, and the Security Directorate,
 
which is equivalent to the U.S. FBI. Despite the lack of information on
 
the sources of wealth and income, taxpayer records were not requested or
 
considered when setting assessments.
 
  
  
Table 2: Initial Assessments in Istanbul (Constantinople)
+
[edit] Economy
+
Main articles: Economy of Turkey and Economic history of Turkey
Group                Number of Taxpayers                Amount (TRL millions)
 
                        Extraordinary Rich
 
Muslims                      460                                17.3
 
Non-Muslims                2,563                              190.0
 
                  Those With Earnings Statements
 
Muslims                      924                                3.1
 
Non-Muslims                1,259                                10.4
 
                    Profit Tax on Gross Earnings
 
Muslims                    2,589                                4.0
 
Non-Muslims                24,151                                72.8
 
                            Wage Earners
 
Muslims                      --                                  --
 
Non-Muslims                10,991                                6.9
 
 
   
 
   
+
Levent financial district as seen from the Sporcular Park, IstanbulFor most of its republican history, Turkey has adhered to a quasi-statist approach, with strict government controls over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. However, during the 1980s, Turkey began a series of reforms, initiated by Prime Minister Turgut Özal and designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.[25] The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake of that year),[67] and 2001,[68] resulting in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.[69] Lack of additional reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.[70]
Subtotal                  42,937                              304.5
 
Muslims                    3,973                                24.4
 
Non-Muslims                38,964                              280.1
 
 
Source: Faik Okte, The Tragedy of the Turkish Capital Tax.
 
  
The assessed tax was due in cash within 15 days from its published
+
Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the finance minister of the time, Kemal Derviş, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen. Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly-owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.[71]
date of December 17, 1942. Payments could be postponed for another 15
 
days, but would face a charge of up to 2 percent interest. If the tax
 
due was not fully settled within 30 days of assessment, the taxpayer's
 
property was to be confiscated. Furthermore, the taxpayer was to be sent
 
to a labor camp until his debt was discharged, under Regulation 21/19288
 
approved on January 12, 1943.
 
  
The Taxpayers
+
The GDP growth rate for 2005 was 7.4%,[72] thus making Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Turkey's GDP ranks 17th in the world, and Turkey is a member of G20 which brings together the 20 largest economies of the globe. Turkey's economy is no longer dominated by traditional agricultural activities in the rural areas, but more so by a highly dynamic industrial complex in the major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, along with a developed services sector. The agricultural sector accounts for 11.9% of GDP, whereas industrial and service sectors make up 23.7% and 64.5%, respectively.[61] The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2005, there were 24,124,501 visitors to the country, who contributed 18.2 billion USD to Turkey's revenues.[73] Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are construction, automotive industry, electronics and textiles.
  
By August 1943 the tax assessments stood at some TRL 335 million in
 
Istanbul alone, or about one-half the entire currency in circulation.
 
Indeed, those assessments represented as much as the entire budget
 
revenues of TRL 394.3 million for 1942 before enactment of the tax.
 
Table 2 provides a summary of the number of taxpayers assessed and the
 
amount of assessments in Istanbul. Some 42,937 taxpayers were assessed a
 
total of TRL 305 million, as shown in Table 2./5/ Of those, only 3,973
 
were Muslims, who were assessed a total of TRL 24.4 million. In other
 
words, minorities who made up less than 1 percent of the population were
 
assessed 93 percent of the liability. Table 3 further provides
 
assessments for churches, synagogues, and schools./6/
 
 
   
 
   
In a survey of foreign chambers of commerce at the time, C.L.
+
The currency of Turkey is the New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası - YTL)In recent years, the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency to cement the acquis of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. On January 1, 2005, the Turkish Lira was replaced by the New Turkish Lira by dropping off six zeroes (1 YTL= 1,000,000 TL).[74] As a result of continuing economic reforms, the inflation has dropped to 8.2% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10.3%.[75] With a per capita GDP (Nominal) of 5,062 USD, Turkey ranked 64th in the world in 2005. In 2004, it was estimated that 46.2% of total disposable income was received by the top 20% income earners, whilst the lowest 20% received 6%.[76]
Sulzberger, writing for The New York Times in 1943, documented the
 
discriminatory nature of the tax./7/ As illustrated in Table 4, the
 
effective rates of assessments that merchants faced varied considerably
 
from a low of under 5 percent for Muslims to over 150 percent for
 
Christian Greeks and Jews, to well over 200 percent for Christian
 
Armenians. Similarly, in one large enterprise, only 1.2 percent of the
 
Muslim employees were assessed compared with 96.1 percent for minority
 
citizens.
 
 
As illustrated by the head of the Finance Ministry and the person in
 
charge of implementing the tax, Faik Okte, assessments were determined
 
in arbitrary manners because the authorities lacked information on the
 
income and properties of the minority groups./8/ The arbitrary nature of
 
the tax is best illustrated in the treatment of the "extraordinary
 
rich." According to Okte, Mr. Bezmenler, whose ancestors converted from
 
Judaism to Islam in the 17th century and who was classified as a Donme,
 
was assessed TRL 1 million. In contrast, Dr. Cudi Birtek, an
 
extraordinarily wealthy Muslim, was assessed only TRL 25,000, a mere
 
fraction of the amount applied to the Donme./9/ In yet another example,
 
Osman Sakar, K.S. was originally assessed TRL 120,000. When Mr. Sakar
 
proved that he was a "pure Turk" or a Muslim, his tax liability was
 
adjusted downward to TRL 12,000 -- just 10 percent of the originally
 
published amount./10/ Those mistakes were not uncommon because all
 
citizens were forced to adopt Turkish-sounding surnames in 1935 and
 
because Turks have come to resemble more the Caucasians they conquered
 
and less their Asiatic ancestors from central Asia.
 
  
 +
Turkey's main trading partners are the European Union (52% of exports and 42% of imports as of 2005),[77] the United States, Russia and Japan. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.[78] In 2005, exports amounted to 73.5 billion USD while the imports stood at 116.8 billion USD, with increases of 16.3% and 19.7% compared to 2004, respectively.[77] For 2006, the exports amounted to 85.8 billion USD, representing an increase of 16,8% over 2005.[79]
  
Table 3: Tax Assessments of Minority Institutions
+
After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), Turkey succeeded in attracting 8.5 billion USD in FDI in 2005 and is expected to attract a higher figure in 2006.[80] A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey's EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to a rise in foreign investment.[71]
 
Christian and Jewish Institutions/*/    Number        Assessment (TRL)
 
Schools                                  88                227,550
 
Churches and Synagogues                  27                119,200
 
Hospitals                                  7                86,750
 
 
/*/ Zero assessment for Muslim institutions, which numbered in the thousands.
 
 
Source: Faik Okte, The Tragedy of the Turkish Capital Tax.
 
  
  
The discriminatory and confiscatory nature of this tax is also
+
[edit] Demographics
evident in the treatment of non-Muslim institutions. According to
+
Main articles: Demographics of Turkey, Turkish people, Immigration to Turkey, Religion in Turkey, and Secularism in Turkey
Sulzberger, a poorly equipped Armenian hospital in Istanbul, for
 
instance, was assessed TRL 39,000 compared with an assessment of TRL
 
2,500 for a modern and thriving American hospital. Muslim institutions
 
avoided taxation altogether./11/
 
 
   
 
   
Tax assessments were seriously flawed in particular because they
+
İstiklal Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim and TünelAs of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72.6 million with a growth rate of 1.5% per annum.[75][61] The Turkish population is relatively young, with 25.5% falling within the 0-15 age bracket.[81] According to statistics released by the government in 2005, life expectancy stands at 68.9 years for men and 73.8 years for women, for an overall average of 71.3 years for the populace as a whole.[82]
failed to consider any documents from the taxpayer. The tax due from a
 
Christian Armenian timber merchant, for instance, was three times his
 
entire fortune. The tax administrator informed him that his deportation
 
to the labor camp could not be prevented, even after all his wealth had
 
been confiscated./12/ At times the tax burden widely diverged in its
 
arbitrariness. A Jewish taxpayer had his tax assessment increased simply
 
because he argued with an assessor. In another example, a Christian
 
Armenian "was taxed excessively at the rate of TRL 400,000," reflecting
 
"the false allegation that he was the leader of the Armenian Tashnag
 
Society, an old member of the Union and Progress Party," better known in
 
the West as the Young Turk regime that governed Ottoman Turkey from 1909
 
through the end of World War I./13/ At the other extreme, another
 
Armenian was exempted from the labor camp because he had written
 
"favorable articles promoting Turkish interests in the French
 
press."/14/
 
 
The punitive nature of the tax was at times also extended to
 
foreigners. While foreigners were supposed to be taxed at the same low
 
rate as Muslims, many in fact were taxed at the higher rates that
 
applied to minority citizens. According to Faik Okte, the principal
 
administrator of the tax, that treatment was deliberate. He reports that
 
tax administrators were instructed to deny the foreigners' "privilege"
 
to Jews from the Axis states./15/ In addition, and under "the pretext of
 
the poor registration system," the property of Greeks and Armenians who
 
had acquired foreign citizenship was immediately auctioned off./16/
 
 
Of the first 45 deportees to labor camps, 21 were Jews, 13 were
 
Greeks, and 11 were Armenian. After the first deportation, it was
 
decided that the "elderly, women, the sick, foreign residents . . .
 
would not be exempted from the forced labor obligations."/17/ However,
 
there are no records of any women or foreigners ever sent to labor
 
camps.
 
  
 +
Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. The literacy rate is 95.3% for men and 79.6% for women, for an overall average of 87.4%.[83] This low figure is mainly due to prevailing feudal attitudes against women in the Arab- and Kurdish-inhabited southeastern provinces of the country.[84]
  
 +
Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone that is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity. Other major ethnic groups include the Kurds, Circassians, Roma, Arabs and the three officially-recognized minorities (per the treaty of Lausanne) of Greeks, Armenians and Jews. The largest non-Turkic ethnicity is the Kurds, a distinct ethnic group traditionally concentrated in the southeast of the country. Minorities other than the three official ones do not have any special group privileges, and while the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, it is to be noted that the degree of assimilation within various ethnic groups outside the recognized minorities is high, with the following generations adding to the melting pot of the Turkish main body. Within that main body, certain distinctions based on diverse Turkic origins could be made as well. Reliable data on the exact ethnic repartition of the population is not available, as the Turkish census figures do not include ethnic or racial figures.[85]
  
Table 4: Effective Tax Rates by Religious and Ethnic Affiliations
 
 
Merchants by Affiliation                    Tax Rates (percent)
 
Muslim                                            4.94
 
Greek Orthodox                                  156.00
 
Jewish                                          179.00
 
Christian Armenian                              232.00
 
 
   
 
   
Source: C.L. Sulzberger, "Turkish Tax Kills Foreign Business,"
+
Çiçek Pasajı (Flower Passage - also known by its French name Cité de Péra) is one of the many historic buildings that adorn Istiklal AvenueDue to a demand for an increased labour force in post-World War II Europe, many Turkish citizens emigrated to Western Europe (particularly West Germany), contributing to the creation of a significant diaspora. Recently, Turkey has also become a destination for numerous immigrants, especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the consequent increase of freedom of movement in the region. These immigrants generally migrate from the former Soviet Bloc countries, as well as neighbouring Muslim states, either to settle and work in Turkey or to continue their journey towards the European Union.[86]
The New York Times, Sept. 11, 1943.
 
 
 
  
Concluding Comment
 
 
Shortly after the government published its declaration to levy the
 
wealth tax, a Turkish professor contacted the Finance Ministry to
 
inquire about the details of the new tax. "Have you all gone mad?" was
 
his response after confirming that the new law did not provide for
 
appeals nor did it indicate rate of taxation./18/ Despite its insanity,
 
the tax shook the economy to its foundations.
 
 
   
 
   
Many Muslims were enriched by acquiring non-Muslim property at
+
Whirling Dervishes perform at the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Central Anatolia region.Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey. Reliable figures for the linguistic repartition of the populace are not available for reasons similar to those cited above.[85] Nevertheless, the public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in local languages and dialects of Arabic, Bosnian, Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week.[87]
bargain prices. However, those fire sales, or outright "confiscation" by
 
state-owned enterprises, often hindered economic growth and
 
entrepreneurship. Consider the case of the Banzilar and Benjamen
 
Company, a shipping company owned by two Jews that was forced to turn
 
over all of its five ships to the state-owned Maritime Lines in lieu of
 
taxes totaling TRL 1.6 million. Despite the rising value of ships and
 
Turkey's vast needs, those ships, which were productively employed by
 
their previous owners, remained idle at port./19/ In another example,
 
the majority of textile factory owners at the time were either Jewish or
 
Donme converts from Judaism. Yet, after World War II and repeal of the
 
tax, non-Muslim textile start-ups came to a screeching halt./20/
 
 
The Turkish wealth tax was advanced as part of a strategy to control
 
prices during the inflationary early years of World War II. The thinking
 
was that the forced sale of property and inventory within a fortnight of
 
the assessments would depress prices. Yet not only did that misguided
 
strategy fail to depress prices, the discriminatory nature of the tax
 
and the taxation of an entrepreneurial group to certain bankruptcy led
 
to a serious loss of confidence in the state and rattled financial
 
markets for years to come.
 
  
 +
Nominally, 99.0% of the Turkish population is Muslim, of whom a majority belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. A sizeable minority of the population is affiliated with the Alevi sect.[88] The mainstream Hanafite school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through the Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Religious Affairs Directorate), which controls all mosques and Muslim clerics. The remainder of the population belongs to other beliefs, particularly Christian denominations (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac Orthodox), Judaism, Yezidism and Atheism.[89]
  
FOOTNOTES
+
There is a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. Even though the state has no official religion nor promotes any, it actively monitors the area between the religions. The constitution recognises freedom of religion for individuals, whereas religious communities are placed under the protection of the state; but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party, for instance) or establish faith-based schools. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties.[26] Turkey prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both genders in government buildings, schools, and universities;[90] the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights as "legitimate" in Leyla Şahin v. Turkey on November 10, 2005.[91]
  
/1/ Faik Okte, The Tragedy of the Turkish Capital Tax, translated
 
from the Turkish Varlik Vergisi Faciasi by Geoffrey Cox, Croom Helm,
 
1987.
 
 
/2/ G denotes Gayrimuslim, or "other than Muslim" in Turkish,
 
borrowed from the Arabic ghayr Muslim.
 
 
/3/ The Donme, which means "apostates" in Turkish, are the followers
 
of the mystic Shabbetai Tzvi who converted to Islam on September 16,
 
1666. Tzvi was arrested in Constantinople on December 30, 1665, after he
 
announced that he would seize the crown of the Ottoman sultan and
 
reestablish the kingdom of Israel.
 
 
/4/ Okte, supra note 1, at 43. The wage tax was set at TRL 500 for
 
those with monthly wages under TRL 100, TRL 750 for those with wages of
 
TRL 101 to TRL 500, and so on.
 
 
/5/ Plus another TRL 30 million when taxpayers with omitted
 
affiliation are considered. See Okte, supra note 1, at 48.
 
 
/6/ Okte, supra note 1, at 60.
 
 
/7/ C.L. Sulzberger, "Turkish Tax Kills Foreign Business," The New
 
York Times, Sept. 11, 1943, p. 7, column 1.
 
 
/8/ Okte, supra note 1, at 33.
 
 
/9/ Id. at 47.
 
 
/10/ Id. at 62.
 
  
/11/ Sulzberger, supra note 7.
+
[edit] Culture
+
Main articles: Culture of Turkey, Arts in Turkey, Sports in Turkey, Turkish literature, and Ottoman architecture
/12/ Okte, supra note 1, at 69.
 
 
/13/ Id. at 47.
 
 
/14/ Id. at 74.
 
 
/15/ Id. at 37.
 
 
/16/ Id. at 57.
 
 
/17/ Id. at 72.
 
 
/18/ Id. at 29.
 
 
/19/ Id. at 95.
 
 
   
 
   
/20/ See Edward C. Clark, "The Emergence of Textile Manufacturing
+
Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Literature
Entrepreneurs in Turkey: 1804-1968" (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton
+
A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oğuz Turkic and Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures), and Western culture and traditions which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and continues today. This mix is a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.[92][93] As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the methods of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into the fine arts, such as museums, theatres, and architecture. Because of different historical factors playing an important role in defining the modern Turkish identity, Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be "modern" and Western, combined with the necessity felt to maintain traditional religious and historical values.[92]
University, 1969).
 
  
{{copy}}
+
Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences. Many schools of music are popular throughout Turkey, from "arabesque" to hip-hop genres, as a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe, and thus contributing to a blend of Central Asian Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music.[94] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Arabic and, especially, Persian literature during most of the Ottoman era, though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the effect of both Turkish folk and Western literary traditions became increasingly felt. The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the work of Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[95]
  
===[[Conference: Ottoman Armenians During the Decline of the Empire]]===
+
 +
Waterfront houses in Arnavutköy, IstanbulArchitectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries. In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey, many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture, with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions, are to be found throughout the country, as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles, and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings like the Blue Mosque and the Dolmabahçe Palace are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers, all of them representing different traditions.[96]
  
===Armenian Schools===
+
The most popular sport in Turkey by far is football, with certain professional and national matches drawing tens of millions of viewers on television.[97] Nevertheless, other sports such as basketball and motor sports (following the inclusion of İstanbul Park on the Formula 1 racing calendar) have also become popular recently. The traditional Turkish national sport has been the Yağlı güreş (Oiled Wrestling) since Ottoman times.[98]
16 ARMENIAN SCHOOLS IN TURKEY OPENS FIRST SEMESTER
 
  
Journal of Turkish Weekly
 
Sept 23 2005
 
  
ISTANBUL - The new education period has been started. The minority
+
[edit] See also
schools also opened the education session. There are 16 Armenian
+
Turkey Portal
schools with 3219 students and 412 teachers. Many more Armenian
 
students attend the 'normal' schools.
 
  
This year about 454 children were registered to the Armenian
 
kindergartens. 2107 students were registered to the primary and
 
secondary schools. 658 Armenian students were registered to the
 
Armenian high schools.
 
  
Apart from the normal courses, the Turkish Armenian schools also give
 
Armenian language and Armenian religion courses to their students.
 
  
Patriarch Mesrop II, religious leader of Turkish Armenians, said that
 
the Armenian language courses and Armenian culture courses in these
 
schools are crucial to maintain the existence of Armenian minority
 
in Turkey. The main problem of the Armenian population in Turkey is
 
voluntary 'assimilation'. Many Armenians do not attend the Armenian
 
Church and Armenian schools. Another problem is the mixed marriages.
 
  
There are about 100.000 Armenians in Istanbul and they have all
+
[show]v • d • eTurkey-related topics
the rights to take education in their own schools. Apart from the
+
People | Biographies Turkic peoples · Turkish people · People of Turkey | Atatürk · İsmet İnönü · Bülent Ecevit
Armenian schools there are Armenian health institutions, sport clubs
+
History Sultanate of Rûm · Anatolian Turkish Beyliks · Ottoman Empire (Rise • Growth • Stagnation • Decline • Dissolution) · Republican history (War of Independence • Single-party period • Multi-party period) · Military history · Constitutional history · Economic history · Timeline
and cultural-social organizations. Moreover 3 Armenian newspaper are
+
Politics and government Republic of Turkey · President · Prime Minister · Parliament · Political parties · Elections · Foreign relations · Military · Secularism
published in Istanbul.
+
Legal system Constitution · Constitutional Court · Law enforcement
 +
Geography | Tourism Anatolia · Regions · Provinces · Districts · Cities · Environment · Mountains · Islands · Rivers · Turkish Riviera
 +
Economy | Transport Industries · Companies · Stock Exchange · Central Bank · Banks · EU Customs Union · Southeastern Anatolia Project · New lira | Railways · Aviation
 +
Demographics Turkish language · Education · Religion · Turkish diaspora · Immigration · Human rights  
 +
Culture Architecture · Art · Cinema · Cuisine · Dance · Festivals · Folklore · Holidays · Literature · Music · Sport · Theatre
 +
Media Newspapers · Radio stations · Television
 +
Symbols Emblem · Flag · National anthem
 +
Turkey portal
  
Apart from the Turkish Armenians, more than 50. 000 Armenians come
 
to ýstanbul to work from Armenia.
 
  
Armenian Schools in Istanbul and Student Numbers:
+
[edit] Notes
 +
^ Sabancı University (2005). Geography of Turkey. Sabancı University. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
 +
^ a b c Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7011-1. 
 +
^ a b c d e Jay Shaw, Stanford; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5212-9163-1. 
 +
^ a b United Nations (2006-07-03). Growth in United Nations membership (1945–2005). United Nations. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
 +
^ Organisation of the Islamic Conference (2006). OIC Membership. OIC. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
 +
^ OECD (2006). OECD membership. OECD. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
 +
^ Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (2005). OSCE Participating states. OSCE. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
 +
^ Council of Europe (2006-10-27). Turkey and the Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
 +
^ NATO. Greece and Turkey accede to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. NATO. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
 +
^ a b Turkish Secretariat of European Union Affairs. Chronology of Turkey-EU relations. Turkish Secretariat of European Union Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
 +
^ American Heritage Dictionary (2000). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition - "Turk". Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ a b Douglas Harper (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary - "Turk". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ Thissen, Laurens (2001-11-23). "Time trajectories for the Neolithic of Central Anatolia" (PDF). CANeW - Central Anatolian Neolithic e-Workshop. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
 +
^ Balter, Michael (2004-02-27). "Search for the Indo-Europeans: Were Kurgan horsemen or Anatolian farmers responsible for creating and spreading the world's most far-flung language family?". Science 303 (5662): 1323. 
 +
^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 2000 – 1000 B.C. in Timeline of Art History.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
 +
^ Hooker, Richard (1999-06-06). Ancient Greece: The Persian Wars. Washington State University, WA, United States. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
 +
^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 1000 B.C. - 1 A.D. in Timeline of Art History.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
 +
^ Daniel C. Waugh (2004). Constantinople/Istanbul. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
 +
^ Wink, Andre (1990). Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09249-8. 
 +
^ Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1981-4098-3. 
 +
^ a b Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. ISBN 0-6880-3093-9. 
 +
^ a b Huston, James A. (1988). Outposts and Allies: U.S. Army Logistics in the Cold War, 1945-1953. Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 0-9416-6484-8. 
 +
^ "Timeline: Cyprus", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-12-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-25. 
 +
^ a b Hale, William Mathew (1994). Turkish Politics and the Military. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4150-2455-2. 
 +
^ a b Nas, Tevfik F. (1992). Economics and Politics of Turkish Liberalization. Lehigh University Press. ISBN 0-9342-2319-X. 
 +
^ a b Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5. 
 +
^ a b Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2001-10-17). Turkish Constitution. Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
 +
^ "Turkey's old guard routed in elections", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-11-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ James Arnold. "Analysis: Turkey's year of crisis", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-02-21. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ "Profile: Kemal Derviş", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-08-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ "UN post for Turkish ex-minister", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2005-04-27. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ Roger Hardy. "Turkey leaps into the unknown", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-11-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ a b Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2004-08-24). Political Structure of Turkey. Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
 +
^ "Euro court backs Turkey Islamist ban", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2001-07-31. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ "Turkey's Kurd party ban criticised", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2003-03-14. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ a b Mark Mardell. "Turkish army keeps eye on politicians", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-11-07. Retrieved on 2006-12-16. 
 +
^ Aydınlı, Ersel; Nihat Ali Özcan and Dogan Akyaz (2006). "The Turkish Military's March Toward Europe". Foreign Affairs (Jan/Feb). 
 +
^ "Israel and Turkey: An intriguing alliance", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2001-08-08. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
 +
^ European Commission (2006-10-15). Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
 +
^ "Greece, Turkey defuse crash row", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-05-23. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
 +
^ Mark Mardell. "Turkey's EU membership bid stalls", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
 +
^ "Greece backs EU on Turkey, Balkan states", Kathimerini Online Edition, 2006-12-16. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
 +
^ Bal, Idris (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era. Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-5811-2423-6. 
 +
^ Sarah Rainsford. "Fears of Turkey's 'invisible' Armenians", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-06-22. Retrieved on 2006-12-30. 
 +
^ "Q&A Armenian 'genocide'", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-10-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. 
 +
^ a b K. Gajendra Singh (2004-08-03). Turkey and Iran coming closer. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
 +
^ Louis Meixler, Associated Press writer. "Turkish Parliament Rejects U.S. Plan to Send 62,000 Combat Troops to Turkey for Iraq War", Free Republic, 2003-03-01. Retrieved on 2006-12-24. 
 +
^ Steven A. Cook; Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall (2006-06-15). Generating Momentum for a New Era in U.S.-Turkey Relations (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
 +
^ Pam O'Toole. "Turkey's fears of Kurdish resurgence", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2003-03-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
 +
^ "PKK 'behind' Turkey resort bomb", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2005-07-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
 +
^ a b Turkish General Staff (2006). Turkish Armed Forces Defense Organization. Turkish Armed Forces. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
 +
^ "Turkish general vows to rout PKK", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-08-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-08. 
 +
^ Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.23 (2005)
 +
^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs - Asylum and Migration Division (July 2001). Turkey/Military service (PDF). UNHCR. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.22 (2005)
 +
^ US Department of Defense (2002-07-11). DoD, Turkey sign Joint Strike Fighter Agreement. US Department of Defense. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.23 (2005)
 +
^ Turkish General Staff (2006). Brief History of ISAF. Turkish Armed Forces. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
 +
^ "Turkish troops arrive in Lebanon", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-10-20. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
 +
^ a b c US Library of Congress. Geography of Turkey. US Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
 +
^ a b c World Bank (2006-08-13). Turkey at a glance (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
 +
^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2000). 2000 Census, population by provinces and districts (XLS). Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
 +
^ a b c Turkish Ministry of Tourism (2005). Geography of Turkey. Turkish Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
 +
^ NASA - Earth Observatory (2001). Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı), Turkey. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ Brief Seismic History of Turkey. University of South California, Department of Civil Engineering. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
 +
^ Turkish State Meteorological Service (2006). Climate of Turkey. Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ "Turkish quake hits shaky economy", British Broadcasting Corporation, 1999-08-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. 
 +
^ "'Worst over' for Turkey", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-02-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. 
 +
^ World Bank (2005). Turkey Labor Market Study (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
 +
^ (2002) OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform - Turkey: crucial support for economic recovery : 2002. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 92-64-19808-3. 
 +
^ a b Jorn Madslien. "Robust economy raises Turkey's hopes", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-11-02. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. 
 +
^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2006-12-11). GNP and GDP as of September 2006 (DOC). Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
 +
^ Anadolu Agency (AA). "Tourism statistics for 2005", Hürriyet, 2006-01-27. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. 
 +
^ "Turkey knocks six zeros off lira", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2004-12-31. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. 
 +
^ a b World Bank (2005). Data and Statistics for Turkey. World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
 +
^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2006-02-27). The result of Income Distribution. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
 +
^ a b Turkish Statistical Institute (2006-11-30). Foreign Trade Statistics as of October 2006. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
 +
^ Bartolomiej Kaminski; Francis Ng (2006-05-01). Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets. World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ Turkish Exporters Assembly. "Exports for 2006 stand at 85.8 billion USD", Hürriyet, 2007-01-01. Retrieved on 2007-01-01. 
 +
^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (2006). Foreign Direct Investments in Turkey by sectors. Central Bank of Turkey. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
 +
^ Intute (2006-07). Turkey - Population and Demographics. Intute. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
 +
^ Anadolu Agency (AA). "Life expectancy has increased in 2005 in Turkey", Hürriyet, 2006-12-03. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. 
 +
^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2004-10-18). Population and Development Indicators - Population and education. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
 +
^ Jonny Dymond. "Turkish girls in literacy battle", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2004-10-18. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. 
 +
^ a b Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-8535-9509-8. 
 +
^ Kemal Kirisci (November 2003). Turkey: A Transformation from Emigration to Immigration. Center for European Studies, Bogaziçi University. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
 +
^ Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2003). Historical background of radio and television broadcasting in Turkey. Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
 +
^ Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8. 
 +
^ United Nations Population Fund (2006). Turkey - A Brief Profile. United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
 +
^ "The Islamic veil across Europe", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-11-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. 
 +
^ European Court of Human Rights (2005-11-10). Leyla Şahin v. Turkey. ECHR. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
 +
^ a b Kaya, Ibrahim (2003). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-8532-3898-7. 
 +
^ Royal Academy of Arts (2005). Turks - A Journey of a Thousand Years: 600 - 1600. Royal Academy of Arts. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
 +
^ Çinuçen Tanrıkorur. The Ottoman music. www.turkmusikisi.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
 +
^ "Pamuk wins Nobel Literature prize", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-10-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. 
 +
^ Goodwin, Godfrey (2003). A History of Ottoman Architecture. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-5002-7429-0. 
 +
^ Burak Sansal (2006). Sports in Turkey. allaboutturkey.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
 +
^ Burak Sansal (2006). Oiled Wrestling. allaboutturkey.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  
Aramyan: 142 students.
+
[edit] References
 
+
History
Bezciya: 161 students.
+
Wink, Andre (1990). Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09249-8.
 
+
Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1981-4098-3.
Bomonti Mihtaryan: 40 students.
+
Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. ISBN 0-6880-3093-9. 
 
+
Jay Shaw, Stanford; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5212-9163-1. 
Kalfayan: 101 students.
+
Finly, Carter Vaughn (2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1951-7726-6. 
 
+
Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7011-1.
Dadyan: 411 students.
+
Politics
 
+
Hale, William Mathew (1994). Turkish Politics and the Military. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4150-2455-2.
Esayan: 313 students.
+
Rubin, Barry M.; Heper, Metin (2002). Political Parties in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7146-5274-1.
 
+
Foreign relations and military
Getronagan: 211 students.
+
Huston, James A. (1988). Outposts and Allies: U.S. Army Logistics in the Cold War, 1945-1953. Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 0-9416-6484-8.
 
+
Bal, Idris (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era. Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-5811-2423-6.
Karagozyan: 175 students.
+
Rubin, Barry; Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2003). Turkey and the European Union: Domestic Politics, Economic Integration, and International Dynamics. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7146-5402-7. 
 
+
Steven A. Cook; Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall (2006-06-15). Generating Momentum for a New Era in U.S.-Turkey Relations (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
Levon Vartuhyan: 123 students.
+
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs - Asylum and Migration Division (July 2001). "Turkey/Military service" (PDF). UNHCR.
 
+
Geography and climate
Ferikoy: 237 students.
+
Turkish State Meteorological Service (2006). Climate of Turkey. Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.  
 
+
Economy
Pangalti Mihtaryan: 362 students.
+
Nas, Tevfik F. (1992). Economics and Politics of Turkish Liberalization. Lehigh University Press. ISBN 0-9342-2319-X.
 
+
(2002) OECD Reviews of Regulatory Refom - Turkey: crucial support for economic recovery : 2002. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 92-64-19808-3.
Sahakyan: 400 students.
+
Bartolomiej Kaminski; Francis Ng (2006-05-01). Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.  
 
+
World Bank (2005). Turkey Labor Market Study (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.  
Samatya Anarat Higutyun: 74 students.
+
Demographics
 
+
Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5.
Ortakoy Tarkmancats: 143 students.
+
Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-8535-9509-8.
 
+
Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.
Tibrevank: 78 students.
+
Turkish Statistical Institute (2000). 2000 Census, population by provinces and districts (XLS). Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.  
 
+
Culture
Yesilkoy: 248 students.
+
Kaya, Ibrahim (2003). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-8532-3898-7.
 
+
Goodwin, Godfrey (2003). A History of Ottoman Architecture. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-5002-7429-0.
JTW, with Agos and Bolsohays.
+
 
 
http://www.turkishweekly.net/news.php?id=19975
 
 
 
{{copy}}
 
 
 
 
 
===EU Entry: Turkey must recognise genocide===
 
 
 
The Daily Telegraph, UK<br>
 
(Filed: 28/09/2005)
 
 
 
Turkey has rejected demands by the European Parliament that it recognise the
 
killing of Armenians as genocide before it can join the EU.
 
 
 
Armenians say that up to 1.5 million of their people were slaughtered in
 
mass killings under the Ottoman Empire in 1915.
 
 
 
But the Turkish government insists that the killing of Armenians was not a
 
systematic genocide. They maintain that a smaller number of Armenians died,  
 
and that they perished unintentionally because of exposure, famine and
 
disease.
 
 
 
The request has angered Ankara, and the Turkish prime minister immediately
 
rejected the resolution.
 
"That resolution is not binding. It does not matter whether they took such a
 
decision or not. We will continue on our way," Recep Tayyip Erdogan told
 
private CNN-Turk television.
 
 
 
{{copy}}
 
 
 
==Situation of Armenians==
 
FOR TURKEY'S ARMENIANS, PAINFUL PAST IS MUTED
 
By Anne Barnard
 
 
 
Boston Globe, MA
 
Nov 30 2006
 
 
 
ISTANBUL -- When Mesrob II, the Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul and
 
All Turkey, meets today with Pope Benedict XVI, the one topic he says
 
he definitely won't bring up is the one that most intensely interests
 
his people around the world: the Armenian genocide.
 
 
 
Getting Turkey and the rest of the world to acknowledge the slaughter
 
of more than 1 million Armenians in the early 20th century, many by
 
troops of the collapsing Ottoman Empire, is a cherished goal of the
 
Armenian diaspora. The visit from the spiritual leader of 1 billion
 
Roman Catholics might seem the perfect opportunity not only to draw
 
attention to the problems of the tiny Christian minority here, but
 
also to ask the pontiff to press Turkey for an apology.
 
 
 
But for about 68,000 Turkish citizens of Armenian descent, who --
 
along with 20,000 to 30,000 people from neighboring Armenia who
 
have migrated here in search of jobs -- make up by far the largest
 
Christian community in Turkey, the situation is much more complicated,
 
even dangerous.
 
 
 
Armenians here must balance a deep need to preserve the memory of the
 
killings, known in Armenian as metz yeghern, or "the big calamity,"
 
with safeguarding the small community that remains, which to them means
 
avoiding conflict with the Muslim Turk majority or the nationalist
 
government. Turkish citizens who mention the killings -- including
 
Orhan Pamuk, the Turkish author who won the Nobel Prize this year --
 
have been charged with the crime of "insulting Turkishness," and risk
 
fines, jail sentences, and even death threats.
 
 
 
The Armenian community is treading cautiously around the pope's
 
visit. Leaders are seeking his support on general issues of religious
 
expression; during his first two days Benedict has already stressed
 
the importance of religious freedom. But they are being careful not to
 
embrace too closely a pontiff widely seen by Muslims as having insulted
 
Islam -- and they are avoiding any public reference to the genocide.
 
 
 
Many Armenians here say they have chosen to leave the past buried --
 
or partly buried -- in order to press for more immediate benefits.
 
 
 
They want to persuade the government to ease onerous restrictions,
 
such as laws that ban Christians from bequeathing land to the church or
 
running independent seminaries to train priests. And they want to live
 
in peace with the rest of this country of nearly 80 million people,
 
about 99 percent of whom are Muslim and overwhelmingly ethnically
 
Turkish.
 
 
 
Mesrob, the leader of the Armenian Orthodox Church here, is a case in
 
point. Speaking the confident English he perfected at Memphis State
 
University, he chose his words carefully in an hourlong conversation
 
with three foreign reporters.
 
 
 
Asked whether he would discuss the genocide with the pope, he said
 
he never brings up "local issues" with visiting dignitaries. Asked
 
whether he could state for the record that a genocide took place,
 
he fixed a reporter with a friendly gaze and was silent for a long
 
moment. Then he said, "I acknowledge that people were killed."
 
 
 
But Mesrob, 50, spoke more readily when asked what had happened to
 
his own family at the time. His grandfather's six brothers were all
 
deported from the town of Izmit, during a time when many Armenians
 
were shipped off to the Syrian desert. His grandfather, who escaped to
 
Istanbul and became a baker, never heard from them again. He assumed
 
most of them died.
 
 
 
Mesrob's parents and grandparents never told him the details. "They
 
never talked about it. They didn't want us to be at odds with our
 
Muslim neighbors," he said.
 
 
 
"There is no family that didn't share this situation," said Navart
 
Beren, 51, an administrator at St. Mary's Church, across the street
 
from the patriarch's residence on a winding street near the Sea of
 
Marmara, where she was attending Mass last Sunday. Her parents were
 
close-mouthed, too, she said: "They didn't want us to carry revenge
 
in our hearts."
 
 
 
"All that is in the past," said her friend Margarit Nalbantkazar, 52.
 
 
 
"But this did happen: My husband's father was 8 or 9 years old. He
 
saw them take his father by hitting him on the back of the head with
 
a gun. . . . They never saw him again."
 
 
 
Murat Belge, a Turkish academic who runs the publishing house that
 
prints Pamuk's books, explained why Armenians inside Turkey walk such
 
a fine line between forgetting and accusing.
 
 
 
Told of the patriarch's comments, Belge said: "If he had said there was
 
an Armenian genocide, it's very likely that he would be assassinated
 
by some fascists, the patriarchate would be burned, and Armenians
 
leading their daily lives would be shot by unknown people."
 
 
 
Turkey has always insisted that the deaths, most of them in 1915,
 
were part of a war in which a beleaguered Ottoman Empire was facing
 
Armenian rebels allied with its enemies, which included the United
 
States, Britain, and Russia.
 
 
 
But most historians agree that Armenians were systematically killed
 
and driven out. The subject is extremely sensitive in Turkey because
 
many of the military leaders of the dying Ottoman Empire went on to
 
found the secular Turkish republic in 1923.
 
 
 
Also in the 1920s, hundreds of thousands of Greek Orthodox Christians
 
were forced to leave Turkey as smaller numbers of Muslims were forced
 
out of Greece, under the agreement that established the Greek and
 
Turkish borders. Today, Christians make up less than 1 percent of
 
the population.
 
 
 
US policy on the Armenian deaths is to respect the position of Turkey,
 
an important NATO ally, though the 1.2 million Armenians in America
 
fiercely lobby Congress to recognize the genocide.
 
 
 
Pope John Paul II called the events a genocide in a 2000 document,
 
and in 2001 visited a memorial to the victims in Yerevan, Armenia's
 
capital. In a speech there, he avoided the term genocide but adopted
 
the Armenian phrase "big calamity."
 
 
 
The Vatican has given no indication of whether Benedict will mention
 
the issue.
 
 
 
Mesrob said he hoped the pope's visit would improve interfaith
 
relations, but whether it does "depends on what kind of language he's
 
going to use," he added with a chuckle. He said the pope's September
 
remarks, quoting a Byzantine ruler's criticism of Islam as violent,
 
"jeopardized" Christian minorities.
 
 
 
A metal detector and security checkpoint stand outside Mesrob's ornate
 
residence, and security will be extra tight during the pope's visit,
 
he said.
 
 
 
Mesrob said Turks do not bear all responsibility for the killings
 
of Armenians but have "the most important responsibility" because
 
"they were ruling the country." He said many people believe "ethnic
 
cleansing" was carried out to "remove Christians from public life."
 
 
 
When asked if Armenians in Turkey have a ceremony or memorial site to
 
commemorate the killings, he said that they do not, but that people
 
remember the date April 24, 1915, when Armenian intellectuals in
 
Istanbul were rounded up and deported, as a kind of "beheading of
 
the community."
 
 
 
Mesrob dismissed recent allegations that he forbids church officials
 
to speak of the killings. "It's not a question of silence," he said.
 
 
 
"How can you make friends with someone if you confront them?"
 
 
 
Instead, he recommends cultural exchanges between Armenia and Turkey
 
to pave the way for an honest discussion of the events, he said. In
 
the meantime, he said, when foreign governments raise the issue,
 
ethnic Armenians in Turkey get nervous.
 
 
 
Aida Barsegian, 56, a house cleaner who moved here from Armenia,
 
said it didn't help when France passed a law last month declaring it
 
a crime to deny the genocide. "If they care so much, they should open
 
the borders of France and let us find work there," she said after
 
lighting candles at the church. "Here they give me work."
 
 
 
{{copy}}
 
 
 
==Policy towards Armenia==
 
Yerevan Sees No Change In Turkish Policy<br>
 
By [[Emil Danielyan]], RFE/RL[http://www.armenialiberty.org/armeniareport/report/en/2007/01/F5D680BF-ADD8-457B-8733-F55CEE1F8A71.asp]
 
 
 
Official Yerevan indicated on Friday that the Turkish government is sticking to its preconditions for normalizing relations with Armenia despite domestic calls for a policy change that followed the shock killing of a respected Turkish-Armenian journalist.
 
 
 
A spokesman for the Armenian Foreign Ministry said Deputy Foreign Minister Arman Kirakosian, who attended Dink’s funeral on Tuesday, met with a senior Turkish diplomat in Istanbul to discuss “possibilities of registering progress in Turkish-Armenian relations.
 
 
 
“Differences in the parties’ positions on the discussed issues remain,” the official, Vladimir Karapetian, told RFE/RL, commenting on the meeting. Armenia hopes that Turkey “will take steps” to bridge those differences, he said.
 
 
 
The outpouring of sympathy in Turkey for the slain editor of the bilingual “Agos” weekly fueled talk of a possible softening of the long-standing Turkish policy towards Armenia. Turkish media commentators have urged Ankara to stop linking the establishment of diplomatic relations and reopening of the Turkish-Armenian border with the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and the decades-long campaign for international recognition of the 1915 Armenian genocide.
 
 
 
While in Istanbul, Kirakosian reaffirmed his country’s readiness to normalize bilateral ties “without any preconditions.” “This is what Hrant Dink was working for and talking about,” he was reported to say.
 
 
 
But Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul made it clear on Wednesday that Yerevan should first “review its negative feelings against us and should not make unjust demands.” "We do not believe we can launch diplomatic ties by setting aside allegations of genocide," said another Turkish diplomat quoted by AFP news agency.
 
 
 
Neither official mentioned the other Turkish precondition: a solution to the Karabakh conflict acceptable to Azerbaijan, Turkey’s main regional ally.
 
 
 
{{rferl}}
 
 
 
==Timeline==
 
* Jan. 19, 2007: [[Hrant Dink]], editor of the Turkish-Armenian newspaper [[Agos]], is slain by a gunman in Istanbul.
 
 
 
* Dec. 19, 2006: Writer Ipek Calislar acquitted of insulting Turkey's founder, [[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk]], in a biography in which she said Atatürk dressed as a woman to escape an assassination attempt.
 
  
* Nov. 1, 2006: Archaeologist Ilmiye Cig acquitted of inciting religious hatred by claiming that Islamic-style head scarves were first used more than 5,000 years ago by priestesses initiating young men into sex.
 
  
* Sept. 21, 2006: Author [[Elif Safak]] acquitted of "insulting Turkishness" for her fictional characters' statements about the killings of Armenians.
+
[edit] Further reading
 +
Mango, Andrew (2004). The Turks Today. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7615-2. 
 +
Pope, Hugh; Pope, Nicole (2004). Turkey Unveiled. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7581-4.
  
* July 27, 2006: Writer and journalist Perihan Magden acquitted of turning people against military service by defending a conscientious objector in her weekly magazine column.
+
[edit] External links
 +
Find more information on Turkey by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
 +
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 +
Textbooks from Wikibooks
 +
Quotations from Wikiquote
 +
Source texts from Wikisource
 +
Images and media from Commons
 +
News stories from Wikinews
 +
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  
* July 11, 2006: A court confirmed a six-month sentence imposed on Dink for "attempting to influence the judiciary" after his newspaper ran articles criticizing a law that makes it a crime to "insult Turkishness."
+
[edit] Government
 +
Presidency of the Republic
 +
The Grand National Assembly
 +
The Prime Minister's Office
 +
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
 +
Ministry of Interior Affairs
 +
Turkish Armed Forces
 +
Ministry of Defense
 +
Ministry of Culture and Tourism
  
* Feb. 7, 2006: A trial adjourned for five prominent Turkish journalists charged with insulting the country's courts by criticizing the court-ordered closure of an academic conference on the Armenian issue. Two nationalist lawyers are removed after a fight breaks out in the courtroom.
+
[edit] Public institutions
 +
Directorate General of Press and Information
 +
Turkish Statistical Institute
 +
Central Bank
 +
Treasury
 +
Competition Authority
 +
Undersecretariat of Customs
 +
National Intelligence Organisation
 +
State Planning Organisation
 +
Turkish Standards Institution
 +
The Scientific and Technological Research Council
  
* Jan. 23, 2006: A court drops charges of "insulting Turkishness" against author [[Orhan Pamuk]] on a technicality. Pamuk was charged after discussing the deaths of Armenians in Turkey with a Swiss newspaper. He won the Nobel Prize for literature later in the year.
+
[edit] Additional profiles
 +
by the BBC News
 +
by the CIA Factbook
 +
by the Economist
 +
by the US Department of State
  
==External links==
+
[edit] Other
*[http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/5503/ Armenians of Istanbul]
+
Turkey travel guide from Wikitravel

Revision as of 16:10, 27 May 2007

Turkey From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Republic of Turkey. For the bird, see Turkey (bird). For other uses of "Turkey", see Turkey (disambiguation). See also Turk (disambiguation). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Republic of Turkey

Flag Emblem

Motto none (Unofficial: "Yurtta Barış, Dünyada Barış"1 "Peace at Home, Peace in the World") Anthem İstiklâl Marşı Independence March

Capital Ankara 39°55'48.00′N, 32°50′E Largest city Istanbul Official languages Turkish Government Parliamentary republic

-  President Ahmet Necdet Sezer 
-  Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 

Succession to the Ottoman Empire2

-  War of Independence May 19, 1919  
-  Formation of Parliament April 23, 1920  
-  Declaration of Republic October 29, 1923  

Area

-  Total 783,562 km² (37th)

302,535 sq mi

-  Water (%) 1.3 

Population

-  2007 estimate 71,158,647 (17th3) 
-  2000 census 67,803,927  
-  Density 93 /km² (102nd3)

240 /sq mi GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate

-  Total $612.3 billion (17th) 
-  Per capita $9,107 (69th) 

GDP (nominal) 2007 IMF estimate

-  Total $392,424 billion (18th) 
-  Per capita $5,408 (68th) 

Gini? (2003) 43.6 (medium) HDI (2006) 0.7574 (medium) (92nd4) Currency New Turkish Lira5 (TRY) Time zone EET (UTC+2)

-  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) 

Internet TLD .tr Calling code +90 1 "Yurtta sulh, cihanda sulh" (original Turkish). 2 Treaty of Lausanne (1923). 3 Population and population density rankings based on 2005 figures. 4 UN Nations HDI Report, page 284 5 The New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası, YTL) replaced the old Turkish Lira on 1 January 2005.


A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (help·info)), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in southwest Asia and the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey borders eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest, Greece to the west, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan (the Nakhichevan exclave), and Iran to the east, Iraq and Syria to the southeast. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Black Sea to the north. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara, which is used by geographers to mark the border between Europe and Asia, thus making Turkey transcontinental.[1]

The region comprising modern Turkey has overseen the birth of major civilizations such as the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. Because of its strategic location, where two continents meet, Turkey's culture has a unique blend of Eastern and Western tradition, often described as a bridge between the two civilizations. A powerful regional presence from the Adriatic Sea to China in the Eurasian landmass between Russia and India, Turkey has come to acquire increasing strategic significance.[2][3]

Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I. Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West while continuing to foster relations with the Eastern world. It is a founding member of the United Nations,[4] the Organization of the Islamic Conference,[5] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development[6] and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe,[7] a member state of the Council of Europe since 1949,[8] and of NATO since 1952.[9] Since 2005, Turkey has been in accession negotiations with the European Union, having been an associate member since 1963.[10] Turkey is also a member of the G20, which brings together the 20 largest economies of the world.

Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Pre-Turkic History of Anatolia 2.2 Turks and the Ottoman Empire 2.3 Republican era 3 Government and politics 4 Foreign relations 5 Military 6 Administrative divisions 7 Geography and climate 8 Economy 9 Demographics 10 Culture 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links 15.1 Government 15.2 Public institutions 15.3 Additional profiles 15.4 Other


[edit] Etymology Main article: Name of Turkey The name for Turkey in the Turkish language, Türkiye, can be divided into two words: Türk, which means "strong" in Old Turkic and usually signifying the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of the Turkish or Turkic peoples,[11] a later form of "tu-kin", name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BC;[12] and the abstract suffix -iye, which means "owner" or "related to". The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Sky Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin "Turchia" (c. 1369).[12]


[edit] History

[edit] Pre-Turkic History of Anatolia Main article: History of Anatolia

Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)The Anatolian peninsula (also called Asia Minor), comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continually inhabited regions in the world due to its location at the intersection of Asia and Europe. The earliest Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Hacilar (Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world.[13] The settlement of Troy starts in the Neolithic and continues into the Iron Age. Through recorded history, Anatolians have spoken Indo-European, Semitic and Kartvelian languages, as well as many languages of uncertain affiliation. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages have radiated.[14]


The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135 CEThe first major empire in the area was that of the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BCE. Subsequently, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE.[15] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia. The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenic periods.

The west coast of Anatolia was meanwhile settled by the Ionians, one of the ancient Greek peoples. The entire area was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE.[16] Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which had succumbed to Rome by the mid-1st century BCE.[17] In 324 CE, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome (later Constantinople and Istanbul). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).[18]


[edit] Turks and the Ottoman Empire Main articles: Turkic migration, History of the Turkish people, Seljuk Empire, and Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (ca. 1680)The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Kinik Oğuz Turks who in the 9th century resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy.[19] In the 10th century, the Seljuks migrated from their ancestral homelands into the eastern Anatolian regions that had been an area of settlement for Oğuz Turkic tribes since the end of the first millennium.


The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque) is one of the most famous architectural legacies of the Ottoman Empire.Following their victory over the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Turks began to abandon their nomadic roots in favour of a permanent role in Anatolia, bringing rise to the Seljuk Empire.[20] In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols and the power of the empire slowly disintegrated. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I was to evolve into the Ottoman Empire, thus filling the void left by the collapsed Seljuks and Byzantines.[21]

The Ottoman Empire interacted with both Eastern and Western cultures throughout its 623-year history. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it was among the world's most powerful political entities, often locking horns with the powers of eastern Europe in its steady advance through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[3] Following years of decline, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I through the Ottoman-German Alliance in 1914, and was ultimately defeated. After the war, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman state through the Treaty of Sèvres.[21]


[edit] Republican era Main articles: History of the Republic of Turkey and Atatürk's reforms

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - Founder and first President of the Republic of TurkeyThe occupation of İstanbul and İzmir by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.[3] Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.[2] By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were repelled and the country saw the birth of the new Turkish state. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.[3]

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first president and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[3] According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific name "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934.[2]

Turkey entered World War II on the side of the Allies on February 23, 1945 as a ceremonial gesture and became a charter member of the United Nations in 1945.[4] Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale US military and economic support.[22]

After participating with United Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of intercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the subsequent Athens-inspired coup, Turkey intervened militarily in 1974. Nine years later Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established. TRNC is recognised only by Turkey.[23]

Following the end of the single-party period in 1945, the multi-party period witnessed tensions over the following decades, and the period between the 1960s and the 1980s was particularly marked by periods of political instability that resulted in a number of military coups d'états in 1960, 1971, 1980 and a post-modern coup d'état in 1997.[24] The liberalization of the Turkish economy that started in the 1980s changed the landscape of the country, with successive periods of high growth and crises punctuating the following decades.[25]


[edit] Government and politics Main articles: Politics of Turkey, Constitution of Turkey, and Elections in Turkey

The Grand Chamber of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in the capital, AnkaraTurkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism.[26] Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state. The current constitution was ratified by referendum in 1982 and has been amended numerous times in recent years.[27]

The head of state is the President of the Republic and has a largely ceremonial role. The president is elected for a seven-year term by the parliament but is not required to be one of its members. The current President, Ahmet Necdet Sezer, was elected on May 16, 2000, after having served as the President of the Constitutional Court. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers that make up the government, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others.[27]

The Prime Minister is generally the head of the party that has won the elections and is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in his government. The current Prime Minister is the former mayor of İstanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose Islamic conservative AKP won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001, with 34% of the suffrage.[28][29] Neither the Prime Minister nor the Ministers have to be members of the parliament, but in most cases they are (one notable exception was Kemal Derviş, who was the Minister of State in Charge of Economy following the financial crisis of 2001;[30] he is currently the president of the UN Development Programme).[31]

There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a five-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (İstanbul is divided into three electoral districts whereas Ankara and İzmir are divided into two each because of their large populations). To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, only parties that win at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament. As a result of this threshold, only two parties were able to obtain that right during the last elections in 2002.[32] Independent candidates may run; however, they must also win at least 10% of the vote in their circonscription to be elected.[33] Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. As of 2004, there were 50 registered political parties in the country, whose ideologies range from the far left to the far right.[33] The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether.[34][35]

The military has traditionally been a politically powerful institution, considered as the guardians of Atatürk's Republic. The protection of the Turkish Constitution and the unity of the country is given by law to the Turkish Armed Forces, and it therefore plays a formal political role via the National Security Council (NSC) as the guardian of the secular, unitary nature of the republic and the reforms of Atatürk.[24] Through the NSC, the army contributes to recommendations for defense policy against any threat to the country, including those pertaining to ethnic separatism or religious extremism. In recent years, reforms led to efforts to reduce the military's constitutional responsibilities, under the program of compliance with EU demands and an increased civilian presence on the NSC.[36] Despite its influence in civilian affairs and possibly because of it, the military owns strong unequivocal support from the nation and is considered to be the country's most trusted institution.[37]


[edit] Foreign relations

Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943Main articles: Foreign relations of Turkey and Accession of Turkey to the European Union Turkey's main political, economic and military relations have remained rooted within the West since the foundation of the republic and its membership to NATO in 1952.[22] Ankara became a crucial strategic ally in diverting Soviet forces from Central Europe and preventing their expansion into the Mediterranean. Though primarily a Western orientated actor in international affairs, Turkey also fostered relations with the Middle East, becoming the only NATO member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, as well as forging close relations with Israel.[38]

The European Union remains Turkey's biggest trading partner, and the presence of a well-established Turkish diaspora in Europe has contributed to the development of extensive relations between the two over the years. Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe in 1949, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the EU) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, reached a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and has officially begun accession negotiations on October 3, 2005.[10] It is believed that the accession process will take at least 15 years because of Turkey's size and the depth of disagreements over certain issues.[39]

Historically, relations with neighbouring Greece have known periods of tension. The long divided island of Cyprus and the disputes over the air and sea boundaries of the Aegean Sea remain the main issues of disagreement between the two neighbours.[40] Recently, the issue of Cyprus has become one of the main points of contention in Turkey's accession negotiations with the EU since Turkey is refusing to open its ports to Greek Cypriot traffic.[41] Nonetheless, following the consecutive earthquakes of 1999 in Turkey and Greece, and the prompt response of aid and rescue teams from both sides, the two nations have entered a much more positive period in their relations, with Greece actively supporting Turkey's candidacy to enter the European Union.[42]

Since the end of the Cold War, Turkey has been actively building relations with former communist countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, leading to many reciprocal investments and migratory currents between these states and Turkey.[43] However, Turkey's relations with neighbouring Armenia are still tense due to the ongoing stalemate in Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenia and Azerbaijan, a Turkic-speaking neighbour and ally of Turkey, and also due to the controversy surrounding the events of 1915–17, in which actions by the Ottoman Young Turks led to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of an estimated hundreds of thousands, up to 1.5 million, Armenians.[44] The Turkish government rejects the notion that these events constituted a genocide, and instead states the deaths, in the waning days of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, were a result of inter-ethnic strife, disease and famine.[45] Owing to its secular traditions, Turkey has always viewed suspiciously certain countries in the region and this has caused tensions in the past, particularly with its largest neighbour, Iran.[46]

Even though Turkey participated in the NATO-led peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan after September 11, the Iraq War faced strong domestic opposition in Turkey. A government motion which would have allowed U.S. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's southeastern border couldn't reach the absolute majority of 276 votes needed for its adoption in the Turkish Parliament, the final tally being 264 votes for and 250 against.[47] This led to a cooling in relations between the U.S. and Turkey and fears that they may be damaged as a result of the situation in Iraq.[48] Turkey is particularly cautious about an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq; it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil, in which an estimated 37,000 people lost their lives, against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations, including the U.S. and the EU).[49][50] This led the Turkish government to put pressure on the U.S. to clamp down on insurgent training camps in northern Iraq, without much success.[46]


[edit] Military Main articles: Turkish Armed Forces and Conscription in Turkey

TAI-built F-16 fighter jets belonging to various Turkish Air Force squadronsThe Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions.[51]

The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President, and is responsible to the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament.[51] The actual Commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General Yaşar Büyükanıt, who succeeded General Hilmi Özkök on August 26, 2006.[52]


F-247 TCG Kemal Reis is a Salih Reis (MEKO 200TN II-B) class frigate of the Turkish NavyThe Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with a combined strength of 1,043,550 uniformed personnel serving in its five branches.[53][36] Every fit heterosexual male Turkish citizen is required to serve in the military for time periods ranging from three weeks to fifteen months, depending on his education and job location (homosexuals have the right to be exempt, if they so request).[54]

In 1998, Turkey announced a program of modernization worth some US$31 billion over a ten year period in various projects including tanks, helicopters and assault rifles.[55] Turkey is also a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, gaining an opportunity to develop and influence the creation of the next generation fighter spearheaded by the United States.[56]

Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions, various missions in the former Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkey maintains 36,000 troops in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since 2001.[57][58] In 2006, the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700 ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the Israeli-Lebanon conflict.[59]


[edit] Administrative divisions Main articles: Regions of Turkey, Provinces of Turkey, Districts of Turkey, and List of cities in Turkey The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes; however, they do not represent an administrative structure. Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 923 districts.

Provinces usually bear the same name as their provincial capitals, also called the central district; exceptions to this are the provinces of Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: İzmit) and Sakarya (capital: Adapazarı). Provinces with the largest populations are İstanbul (+10 million), Ankara (+4 million), İzmir (+3.4 million), Konya (+2.2 million), Bursa (+2.1 million) and Adana (+1.85 million).

The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital İstanbul is the financial, economic and cultural heart of the country.[60] Other important cities include İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Trabzon, Malatya, Gaziantep, Erzurum, Kayseri, İzmit, Konya, Mersin, Eskişehir, Diyarbakır, Antalya and Samsun. An estimated 67% of Turkey's population live in urban centers.[61] In all, 12 cities have populations that exceed 500,000, and 48 cities have more than 100,000 inhabitants.


AnkaraKırklareliEdirneTekirdağÇanakkaleBalıkesirBursaYalovaİstanbulKocaeliSakaryaDüzceZonguldakBoluBilecikEskişehirKütahyaManisaİzmirAydınMuğlaDenizliBurdurUşakAfyonIspartaAntalyaKonyaMersinKaramanAksarayKırşehirKırıkkaleÇankırıKarabükBartınKastamonuSinopÇorumYozgatNevşehirNiğdeAdanaHatayOsmaniyeK. MaraşKayseriSivasTokatAmasyaSamsunOrduGiresunErzincanMalatyaGaziantepKilisŞanlıurfaAdıyamanGümüşhaneTrabzonRizeBayburtErzurumArtvinArdahanKarsAğrıIğdırTunceliElazığDiyarbakırMardinBatmanSiirtŞırnakBitlisBingölMuşVanHakkari Major cities:

İstanbul - 9,085,599 Ankara - 3,540,522 İzmir - 2,732,669 Bursa - 1,630,940 Adana - 1,397,853 Konya - 1,294,817 Gaziantep - 1,009,126 Antalya - 936,330 (Population figures are given according to the 2000 census)[62]


[edit] Geography and climate Main articles: Geography of Turkey and Environmental issues in Turkey

Resort town of Fethiye in the Muğla Province, on the Mediterranean coastlineThe territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape.[60] Turkey's area, inclusive of lakes, occupies 779,452 square kilometres (300,948 sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe,[60] thus making Turkey a transcontinental country. Turkey's size makes it the world's 37th-largest country (after Mozambique). It is somewhat bigger than Chile or the U.S. state of Texas. Turkey is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.[63]

The European section of Turkey, in the northwest, is Eastern Thrace, and forms the borders of Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country, Anatolia (also called Asia Minor), consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, in between the Köroğlu and East-Black Sea mountain range to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape, and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras, and contains Lake Van and Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at 5,165 metres (16,946 ft).[63][64]

Turkey is geographically divided into seven regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.[63]


Mount Ağrı is the highest peak in Turkey at 5,165 m (16,946 ft) and is located in the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region.Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east, which caused a major earthquake in 1999.[65]

The climate is a Mediterranean temperate climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet and cold winters, though conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the interior of Turkey a continental climate with distinct seasons. The central Anatolian Plateau is much more subject to extremes than coastal areas. Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 °C to −40 °C (−22 °F to -40 °F) can occur in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F). Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures generally above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimetres (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the most dry.[66]


[edit] Economy Main articles: Economy of Turkey and Economic history of Turkey

Levent financial district as seen from the Sporcular Park, IstanbulFor most of its republican history, Turkey has adhered to a quasi-statist approach, with strict government controls over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. However, during the 1980s, Turkey began a series of reforms, initiated by Prime Minister Turgut Özal and designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.[25] The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake of that year),[67] and 2001,[68] resulting in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.[69] Lack of additional reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.[70]

Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the finance minister of the time, Kemal Derviş, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen. Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly-owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.[71]

The GDP growth rate for 2005 was 7.4%,[72] thus making Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Turkey's GDP ranks 17th in the world, and Turkey is a member of G20 which brings together the 20 largest economies of the globe. Turkey's economy is no longer dominated by traditional agricultural activities in the rural areas, but more so by a highly dynamic industrial complex in the major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, along with a developed services sector. The agricultural sector accounts for 11.9% of GDP, whereas industrial and service sectors make up 23.7% and 64.5%, respectively.[61] The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2005, there were 24,124,501 visitors to the country, who contributed 18.2 billion USD to Turkey's revenues.[73] Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are construction, automotive industry, electronics and textiles.


The currency of Turkey is the New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası - YTL)In recent years, the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency to cement the acquis of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. On January 1, 2005, the Turkish Lira was replaced by the New Turkish Lira by dropping off six zeroes (1 YTL= 1,000,000 TL).[74] As a result of continuing economic reforms, the inflation has dropped to 8.2% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10.3%.[75] With a per capita GDP (Nominal) of 5,062 USD, Turkey ranked 64th in the world in 2005. In 2004, it was estimated that 46.2% of total disposable income was received by the top 20% income earners, whilst the lowest 20% received 6%.[76]

Turkey's main trading partners are the European Union (52% of exports and 42% of imports as of 2005),[77] the United States, Russia and Japan. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.[78] In 2005, exports amounted to 73.5 billion USD while the imports stood at 116.8 billion USD, with increases of 16.3% and 19.7% compared to 2004, respectively.[77] For 2006, the exports amounted to 85.8 billion USD, representing an increase of 16,8% over 2005.[79]

After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), Turkey succeeded in attracting 8.5 billion USD in FDI in 2005 and is expected to attract a higher figure in 2006.[80] A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey's EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to a rise in foreign investment.[71]


[edit] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Turkey, Turkish people, Immigration to Turkey, Religion in Turkey, and Secularism in Turkey

İstiklal Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim and TünelAs of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72.6 million with a growth rate of 1.5% per annum.[75][61] The Turkish population is relatively young, with 25.5% falling within the 0-15 age bracket.[81] According to statistics released by the government in 2005, life expectancy stands at 68.9 years for men and 73.8 years for women, for an overall average of 71.3 years for the populace as a whole.[82]

Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. The literacy rate is 95.3% for men and 79.6% for women, for an overall average of 87.4%.[83] This low figure is mainly due to prevailing feudal attitudes against women in the Arab- and Kurdish-inhabited southeastern provinces of the country.[84]

Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone that is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity. Other major ethnic groups include the Kurds, Circassians, Roma, Arabs and the three officially-recognized minorities (per the treaty of Lausanne) of Greeks, Armenians and Jews. The largest non-Turkic ethnicity is the Kurds, a distinct ethnic group traditionally concentrated in the southeast of the country. Minorities other than the three official ones do not have any special group privileges, and while the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, it is to be noted that the degree of assimilation within various ethnic groups outside the recognized minorities is high, with the following generations adding to the melting pot of the Turkish main body. Within that main body, certain distinctions based on diverse Turkic origins could be made as well. Reliable data on the exact ethnic repartition of the population is not available, as the Turkish census figures do not include ethnic or racial figures.[85]


Çiçek Pasajı (Flower Passage - also known by its French name Cité de Péra) is one of the many historic buildings that adorn Istiklal AvenueDue to a demand for an increased labour force in post-World War II Europe, many Turkish citizens emigrated to Western Europe (particularly West Germany), contributing to the creation of a significant diaspora. Recently, Turkey has also become a destination for numerous immigrants, especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the consequent increase of freedom of movement in the region. These immigrants generally migrate from the former Soviet Bloc countries, as well as neighbouring Muslim states, either to settle and work in Turkey or to continue their journey towards the European Union.[86]


Whirling Dervishes perform at the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Central Anatolia region.Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey. Reliable figures for the linguistic repartition of the populace are not available for reasons similar to those cited above.[85] Nevertheless, the public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in local languages and dialects of Arabic, Bosnian, Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week.[87]

Nominally, 99.0% of the Turkish population is Muslim, of whom a majority belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. A sizeable minority of the population is affiliated with the Alevi sect.[88] The mainstream Hanafite school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through the Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Religious Affairs Directorate), which controls all mosques and Muslim clerics. The remainder of the population belongs to other beliefs, particularly Christian denominations (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac Orthodox), Judaism, Yezidism and Atheism.[89]

There is a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. Even though the state has no official religion nor promotes any, it actively monitors the area between the religions. The constitution recognises freedom of religion for individuals, whereas religious communities are placed under the protection of the state; but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party, for instance) or establish faith-based schools. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties.[26] Turkey prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both genders in government buildings, schools, and universities;[90] the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights as "legitimate" in Leyla Şahin v. Turkey on November 10, 2005.[91]


[edit] Culture Main articles: Culture of Turkey, Arts in Turkey, Sports in Turkey, Turkish literature, and Ottoman architecture

Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Literature A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oğuz Turkic and Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures), and Western culture and traditions which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and continues today. This mix is a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.[92][93] As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the methods of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into the fine arts, such as museums, theatres, and architecture. Because of different historical factors playing an important role in defining the modern Turkish identity, Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be "modern" and Western, combined with the necessity felt to maintain traditional religious and historical values.[92]

Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences. Many schools of music are popular throughout Turkey, from "arabesque" to hip-hop genres, as a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe, and thus contributing to a blend of Central Asian Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music.[94] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Arabic and, especially, Persian literature during most of the Ottoman era, though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the effect of both Turkish folk and Western literary traditions became increasingly felt. The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the work of Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[95]


Waterfront houses in Arnavutköy, IstanbulArchitectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries. In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey, many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture, with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions, are to be found throughout the country, as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles, and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings like the Blue Mosque and the Dolmabahçe Palace are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers, all of them representing different traditions.[96]

The most popular sport in Turkey by far is football, with certain professional and national matches drawing tens of millions of viewers on television.[97] Nevertheless, other sports such as basketball and motor sports (following the inclusion of İstanbul Park on the Formula 1 racing calendar) have also become popular recently. The traditional Turkish national sport has been the Yağlı güreş (Oiled Wrestling) since Ottoman times.[98]


[edit] See also

Turkey Portal 



[show]v • d • eTurkey-related topics People | Biographies Turkic peoples · Turkish people · People of Turkey | Atatürk · İsmet İnönü · Bülent Ecevit History Sultanate of Rûm · Anatolian Turkish Beyliks · Ottoman Empire (Rise • Growth • Stagnation • Decline • Dissolution) · Republican history (War of Independence • Single-party period • Multi-party period) · Military history · Constitutional history · Economic history · Timeline Politics and government Republic of Turkey · President · Prime Minister · Parliament · Political parties · Elections · Foreign relations · Military · Secularism Legal system Constitution · Constitutional Court · Law enforcement Geography | Tourism Anatolia · Regions · Provinces · Districts · Cities · Environment · Mountains · Islands · Rivers · Turkish Riviera Economy | Transport Industries · Companies · Stock Exchange · Central Bank · Banks · EU Customs Union · Southeastern Anatolia Project · New lira | Railways · Aviation Demographics Turkish language · Education · Religion · Turkish diaspora · Immigration · Human rights Culture Architecture · Art · Cinema · Cuisine · Dance · Festivals · Folklore · Holidays · Literature · Music · Sport · Theatre Media Newspapers · Radio stations · Television Symbols Emblem · Flag · National anthem Turkey portal


[edit] Notes ^ Sabancı University (2005). Geography of Turkey. Sabancı University. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. ^ a b c Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7011-1. ^ a b c d e Jay Shaw, Stanford; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5212-9163-1. ^ a b United Nations (2006-07-03). Growth in United Nations membership (1945–2005). United Nations. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. ^ Organisation of the Islamic Conference (2006). OIC Membership. OIC. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. ^ OECD (2006). OECD membership. OECD. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. ^ Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (2005). OSCE Participating states. OSCE. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. ^ Council of Europe (2006-10-27). Turkey and the Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. ^ NATO. Greece and Turkey accede to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. NATO. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. ^ a b Turkish Secretariat of European Union Affairs. Chronology of Turkey-EU relations. Turkish Secretariat of European Union Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. ^ American Heritage Dictionary (2000). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition - "Turk". Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ a b Douglas Harper (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary - "Turk". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ Thissen, Laurens (2001-11-23). "Time trajectories for the Neolithic of Central Anatolia" (PDF). CANeW - Central Anatolian Neolithic e-Workshop. Retrieved on 2006-12-21. ^ Balter, Michael (2004-02-27). "Search for the Indo-Europeans: Were Kurgan horsemen or Anatolian farmers responsible for creating and spreading the world's most far-flung language family?". Science 303 (5662): 1323. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 2000 – 1000 B.C. in Timeline of Art History.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 2006-12-21. ^ Hooker, Richard (1999-06-06). Ancient Greece: The Persian Wars. Washington State University, WA, United States. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 1000 B.C. - 1 A.D. in Timeline of Art History.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 2006-12-21. ^ Daniel C. Waugh (2004). Constantinople/Istanbul. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. ^ Wink, Andre (1990). Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09249-8. ^ Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1981-4098-3. ^ a b Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. ISBN 0-6880-3093-9. ^ a b Huston, James A. (1988). Outposts and Allies: U.S. Army Logistics in the Cold War, 1945-1953. Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 0-9416-6484-8. ^ "Timeline: Cyprus", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-12-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-25. ^ a b Hale, William Mathew (1994). Turkish Politics and the Military. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4150-2455-2. ^ a b Nas, Tevfik F. (1992). Economics and Politics of Turkish Liberalization. Lehigh University Press. ISBN 0-9342-2319-X. ^ a b Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5. ^ a b Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2001-10-17). Turkish Constitution. Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved on 2006-12-16. ^ "Turkey's old guard routed in elections", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-11-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ James Arnold. "Analysis: Turkey's year of crisis", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-02-21. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ "Profile: Kemal Derviş", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-08-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ "UN post for Turkish ex-minister", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2005-04-27. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ Roger Hardy. "Turkey leaps into the unknown", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-11-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ a b Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2004-08-24). Political Structure of Turkey. Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ "Euro court backs Turkey Islamist ban", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2001-07-31. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ "Turkey's Kurd party ban criticised", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2003-03-14. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ a b Mark Mardell. "Turkish army keeps eye on politicians", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-11-07. Retrieved on 2006-12-16. ^ Aydınlı, Ersel; Nihat Ali Özcan and Dogan Akyaz (2006). "The Turkish Military's March Toward Europe". Foreign Affairs (Jan/Feb). ^ "Israel and Turkey: An intriguing alliance", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2001-08-08. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ European Commission (2006-10-15). Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ "Greece, Turkey defuse crash row", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-05-23. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ Mark Mardell. "Turkey's EU membership bid stalls", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ "Greece backs EU on Turkey, Balkan states", Kathimerini Online Edition, 2006-12-16. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ Bal, Idris (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era. Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-5811-2423-6. ^ Sarah Rainsford. "Fears of Turkey's 'invisible' Armenians", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-06-22. Retrieved on 2006-12-30. ^ "Q&A Armenian 'genocide'", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-10-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. ^ a b K. Gajendra Singh (2004-08-03). Turkey and Iran coming closer. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ Louis Meixler, Associated Press writer. "Turkish Parliament Rejects U.S. Plan to Send 62,000 Combat Troops to Turkey for Iraq War", Free Republic, 2003-03-01. Retrieved on 2006-12-24. ^ Steven A. Cook; Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall (2006-06-15). Generating Momentum for a New Era in U.S.-Turkey Relations (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ Pam O'Toole. "Turkey's fears of Kurdish resurgence", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2003-03-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ "PKK 'behind' Turkey resort bomb", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2005-07-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. ^ a b Turkish General Staff (2006). Turkish Armed Forces Defense Organization. Turkish Armed Forces. Retrieved on 2006-12-15. ^ "Turkish general vows to rout PKK", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-08-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-08. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.23 (2005) ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs - Asylum and Migration Division (July 2001). Turkey/Military service (PDF). UNHCR. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.22 (2005) ^ US Department of Defense (2002-07-11). DoD, Turkey sign Joint Strike Fighter Agreement. US Department of Defense. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.23 (2005) ^ Turkish General Staff (2006). Brief History of ISAF. Turkish Armed Forces. Retrieved on 2006-12-16. ^ "Turkish troops arrive in Lebanon", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-10-20. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. ^ a b c US Library of Congress. Geography of Turkey. US Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. ^ a b c World Bank (2006-08-13). Turkey at a glance (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2000). 2000 Census, population by provinces and districts (XLS). Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. ^ a b c Turkish Ministry of Tourism (2005). Geography of Turkey. Turkish Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. ^ NASA - Earth Observatory (2001). Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı), Turkey. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ Brief Seismic History of Turkey. University of South California, Department of Civil Engineering. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. ^ Turkish State Meteorological Service (2006). Climate of Turkey. Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ "Turkish quake hits shaky economy", British Broadcasting Corporation, 1999-08-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ "'Worst over' for Turkey", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2002-02-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ World Bank (2005). Turkey Labor Market Study (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. ^ (2002) OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform - Turkey: crucial support for economic recovery : 2002. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 92-64-19808-3. ^ a b Jorn Madslien. "Robust economy raises Turkey's hopes", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-11-02. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2006-12-11). GNP and GDP as of September 2006 (DOC). Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. ^ Anadolu Agency (AA). "Tourism statistics for 2005", Hürriyet, 2006-01-27. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. ^ "Turkey knocks six zeros off lira", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2004-12-31. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. ^ a b World Bank (2005). Data and Statistics for Turkey. World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2006-02-27). The result of Income Distribution. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. ^ a b Turkish Statistical Institute (2006-11-30). Foreign Trade Statistics as of October 2006. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. ^ Bartolomiej Kaminski; Francis Ng (2006-05-01). Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets. World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ Turkish Exporters Assembly. "Exports for 2006 stand at 85.8 billion USD", Hürriyet, 2007-01-01. Retrieved on 2007-01-01. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (2006). Foreign Direct Investments in Turkey by sectors. Central Bank of Turkey. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ Intute (2006-07). Turkey - Population and Demographics. Intute. Retrieved on 2006-12-10. ^ Anadolu Agency (AA). "Life expectancy has increased in 2005 in Turkey", Hürriyet, 2006-12-03. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2004-10-18). Population and Development Indicators - Population and education. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. ^ Jonny Dymond. "Turkish girls in literacy battle", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2004-10-18. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. ^ a b Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-8535-9509-8. ^ Kemal Kirisci (November 2003). Turkey: A Transformation from Emigration to Immigration. Center for European Studies, Bogaziçi University. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. ^ Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2003). Historical background of radio and television broadcasting in Turkey. Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved on 2006-08-10. ^ Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8. ^ United Nations Population Fund (2006). Turkey - A Brief Profile. United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. ^ "The Islamic veil across Europe", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-11-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. ^ European Court of Human Rights (2005-11-10). Leyla Şahin v. Turkey. ECHR. Retrieved on 2006-11-30. ^ a b Kaya, Ibrahim (2003). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-8532-3898-7. ^ Royal Academy of Arts (2005). Turks - A Journey of a Thousand Years: 600 - 1600. Royal Academy of Arts. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ Çinuçen Tanrıkorur. The Ottoman music. www.turkmusikisi.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ "Pamuk wins Nobel Literature prize", British Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-10-12. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ Goodwin, Godfrey (2003). A History of Ottoman Architecture. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-5002-7429-0. ^ Burak Sansal (2006). Sports in Turkey. allaboutturkey.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. ^ Burak Sansal (2006). Oiled Wrestling. allaboutturkey.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.

[edit] References History Wink, Andre (1990). Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09249-8. Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1981-4098-3. Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. ISBN 0-6880-3093-9. Jay Shaw, Stanford; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5212-9163-1. Finly, Carter Vaughn (2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1951-7726-6. Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7011-1. Politics Hale, William Mathew (1994). Turkish Politics and the Military. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4150-2455-2. Rubin, Barry M.; Heper, Metin (2002). Political Parties in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7146-5274-1. Foreign relations and military Huston, James A. (1988). Outposts and Allies: U.S. Army Logistics in the Cold War, 1945-1953. Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 0-9416-6484-8. Bal, Idris (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era. Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-5811-2423-6. Rubin, Barry; Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2003). Turkey and the European Union: Domestic Politics, Economic Integration, and International Dynamics. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7146-5402-7. Steven A. Cook; Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall (2006-06-15). Generating Momentum for a New Era in U.S.-Turkey Relations (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs - Asylum and Migration Division (July 2001). "Turkey/Military service" (PDF). UNHCR.

Geography and climate 

Turkish State Meteorological Service (2006). Climate of Turkey. Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. Economy Nas, Tevfik F. (1992). Economics and Politics of Turkish Liberalization. Lehigh University Press. ISBN 0-9342-2319-X. (2002) OECD Reviews of Regulatory Refom - Turkey: crucial support for economic recovery : 2002. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 92-64-19808-3. Bartolomiej Kaminski; Francis Ng (2006-05-01). Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. World Bank (2005). Turkey Labor Market Study (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. Demographics Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5. Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-8535-9509-8. Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8. Turkish Statistical Institute (2000). 2000 Census, population by provinces and districts (XLS). Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. Culture Kaya, Ibrahim (2003). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-8532-3898-7. Goodwin, Godfrey (2003). A History of Ottoman Architecture. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-5002-7429-0.


[edit] Further reading Mango, Andrew (2004). The Turks Today. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7615-2. Pope, Hugh; Pope, Nicole (2004). Turkey Unveiled. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7581-4.

[edit] External links Find more information on Turkey by searching Wikipedia's sister projects

Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary 
Textbooks from Wikibooks 
Quotations from Wikiquote 
Source texts from Wikisource 
Images and media from Commons 
News stories from Wikinews 
Learning resources from Wikiversity 

[edit] Government Presidency of the Republic The Grand National Assembly The Prime Minister's Office Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Interior Affairs Turkish Armed Forces Ministry of Defense Ministry of Culture and Tourism

[edit] Public institutions Directorate General of Press and Information Turkish Statistical Institute Central Bank Treasury Competition Authority Undersecretariat of Customs National Intelligence Organisation State Planning Organisation Turkish Standards Institution The Scientific and Technological Research Council

[edit] Additional profiles by the BBC News by the CIA Factbook by the Economist by the US Department of State

[edit] Other Turkey travel guide from Wikitravel