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In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: Φρυγία) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. The Phrygian people settled in the area from c. 1200 BC, and established a kingdom in the 8th century BC. It was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC, then briefly conquered by its neighbor Lydia, before it passed successively into the Persian Empire of Cyrus, the empire of Alexander and his successors, was taken by the king of Pergamon, and eventually became part of the Roman Empire. The Phrygian language survived until about the 6th century AD.

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