The Luwians played at least as important a role as the Hittites in the history of the ancient Near East during the second and first millennia BCE, but for various reasons they have been overshadowed by and even confused with their more famous relatives and neighbours. Redressing this imbalance, this volume by an international team of scholars offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art appraisal of the Luwians. A brief introduction sets the context and confronts the problem of defining "the Luwians". Following chapters describe their prehistory, history, writing and language, religion and material culture. The Luwians survived the end of the Hittite empire up until the Roman time and then were assymilated by the Greeks in the west and the Armenians in the east.