Difference between revisions of "Istanbul"

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Yaklaşık 60.000 Ermeniler - hesaba ile [[Türkiye]] 'de büyük şehir, hemen hemen tüm ülkenin kalan Ermeniler. Seat İstanbul]] ve [[Ermeni Patrikliği'nin.
+
Largest city in [[Turkey]], with about 60,000 Armenians - which account for virtually all of the country's remaining Armenians. Seat of the [[Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople]].
  
=== Kumkapı ===
+
===Kumkapi===
  
1453 yılında fethi ardından Kumpaki alan başlıca tarafından iskân edilmiştir
+
Following the conquest in 1453 the Kumpaki area was mainly settled by
Müslüman olmayan Karamanlis ve on yedinci yüzyılda meşhur oldu
+
non-Muslim Karamanlis, and by the seventeenth century was famous
onun taverns için Türk yazar ve gezgin göre
+
for its taverns according to the Turkish writer and traveller
Evliya Çelebi. Onun çağdaş ve İstanbul'un bir tarih yazar,
+
Evliya celebi. His contemporary and author of a history of Istanbul,
Ereemya Çelebi Komurciyan, kayıtlar ilçe Yunan ve Ermeni
+
Ereemya Celebi Komurciyan, records the district's Greek and Armenian
kilise ve tahrip ateşler. İstanbul onun Topoğrafya, In
+
churches and fires which destroyed it. In his Topography of Istanbul,
Hovhannnesyan Kumkapı, kraliyet sarayı ve büyük evlerin açıklanır
+
Hovhannnesyan describes the grand houses of Kumkapi, a royal palace
Burada, katir Han (kentsel Kervansaray) ve çarşı.
+
here, katir Han (an urban kervansaray) and bazaar.
  
Little Kumkapı öncesi 19. yüzyılda binalar nedeniyle kalır
+
Little remains from the pre-19th century buildings of Kumkapi due
yangınlar, ancak bir ilçe olan meyhane ve balık için ünlü kalır
+
to fires, but it remains a district famous for its taverns and fish
restoranlar.
+
restaurants.
  
=== Grand Champs des Morts ===
+
===Grand Champs des Morts===
  
Fountain Magazine, NJ <br>
+
The Fountain Magazine, NJ<br>
31 Aralık 2004
+
Dec 31 2004
  
Ölüler İstanbul'un Vanished Şehir: Grand Champs des Morts
+
Istanbul's Vanished City of the Dead: The Grand Champs des Morts
  
İHTİYAÇ DÜZENLEME sadece parçalar Ermeniler alakalı kurtarmak için!
+
NEEDS EDITING to save only parts relevant to Armenians!!!
  
Beyin JOHNSON By
+
By Brain JOHNSON
  
zengin ve çeşitli mimarlık tarihinin yüzyıllar barındıran ile
+
With a rich and varied architecture embodying centuries of history,
İstanbul dünyanın en ünlü şehirlerinden biridir. Ayrıca
+
Istanbul is one of the world's most celebrated cities. Besides the
muhteşem anıtları ile, Bizans ve Osmanlı mirası klasik,
+
splendid monuments of its classical, Byzantine, and Ottoman heritage,
İstanbul'un mezarlıklar aynı zamanda ünlü katkıda bulunmuştur.
+
Istanbul's cemeteries have also contributed to its renown.
Tarihsel olarak, Eyüp, Üsküdar ve Grand muazzam nekropollerinden
+
Historically, the vast necropolises of Eyüp, Üsküdar, and the Grand
Champs des Morts Pera en dikkat çekmiştir. bu sırada
+
Champs des Morts in Pera have attracted the most notice. While the
İlk iki mezarlıkları hala bir ikinci dayandı sadece hayatta
+
first two cemeteries still survive, the latter endures only as a
bellek - seyahat hesapların sayfalarda açıklanan, eski resmedilen
+
memory - described in the pages of travel accounts, depicted on old
gravür ve haritalar ve tangibly bir saçılma anlaşılır
+
engravings and maps, and tangibly perceptible in a scattering of
bir zamanlar onun geniş coğrafyaya yayılmış süslemektedir mezar anıtları. Ancak, biraz üzerinde
+
funerary monuments that once graced its broad expanse. Yet, just over
yüz elli yıl önce, Grand Champs des Morts olarak var
+
a hundred and fifty years ago, the Grand Champs des Morts existed as
Dünyanın büyük nekropoller ile. Bir bölge nerede yaşıyor
+
one of the world's great necropolises. A realm where the living
ölü ile iç içe, bu ilgi ve hayal roused
+
intermingled with the dead, it roused the interest and imagination of
reform ve bir çağda İstanbul'a ziyaretçi, ve, daha önemlisi,
+
visitors to Istanbul, and, even more notably, in an age of reform and
değiştirmek ve çağdaş tasarımcılar için bir model ilham teklif
+
change, offered inspiration and a model for contemporary designers of
Batı Avrupa'da mezarlıkları.
+
cemeteries in Western Europe.  
  
geri on altıncı yüzyıldan kalma 1 Grand Champs des Morts oldu
+
Dating back to the sixteenth century,1 the Grand Champs des Morts was
İstanbul'un nekropoller arasında, mezar zemin ile benzersiz
+
unique among Istanbul's necropolises, with burial grounds for
yakın hem de İslam ve Hıristiyanlık takipçileri.
+
followers of both Islam and Christianity in close proximity.
Taksim az (site kabaca tarihinden itibaren nerede Atatürk Kültür
+
Beginning at Taksim (roughly on the site where the Atatürk Cultural
Merkezi artık) standları ve Gümüþsuyu ve eteklerinde aşağı uzanan
+
Center now stands) and extending down the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and
Yöre germe sırasında Fýndýklý, Müslümanların mezarları yatıyordu
+
Fýndýklý lay the graves of Muslims, while the area stretching
Harbiye kuzeye doğru ayrı bölüme için ayrıldı
+
northward toward Harbiye was divided into separate sections for the
Şehrin muhtelif Hıristiyan cemaatleri. İngiliz gezgin Julia
+
city's various Christian communities. The English traveler Julia
Pardoe 1836 yılında alanını anlatır:
+
Pardoe describes the site in 1836:  
  
baraka geçtikten sonra zemin ilk arsa, topçu [
+
The first plot of ground, after passing the barrack [the artillery
Taksim] at Selim III kışla, Franklar mezarını-tersane olduğunu;
+
barracks of Selim III at Taksim], is the grave-yard of the Franks;
ve burada Latince yazıtlar ile her tarafta karşılaşacaksınız;
+
and here you are greeted on all sides with inscriptions in Latin;
ruhları için dua etmeyi emir The Departed, geliştiği ve
+
injunctions to pray for the souls of the departed; flourishes of
Fransız duygu; calembourgs2 oyma sonsuz taş,
+
French sentiment; calembourgs2 graven into the everlasting stone,
gül ve Reine Marguerites ve tedavisi; özlü İngilizce kayıtların
+
treating of roses and reine Marguerites; concise English records of
doğum, ölüm, yaş ve hastalıkları; pişmanlık İtalyan elaborations
+
births, deaths, ages, and diseases; Italian elaborations of regret
ve umutsuzluk ve sıradan bir mezar-ground.3 tüm ortak yerler
+
and despair; and all the common-places of an ordinary burial-ground.3
  
  
Hemen Avrupa mezarlık bir çizgi olarak, bir
+
Immediately in a line with the European cemetery, is the
Ermenilerin mezar-zemin. Bu kalın-peopled nokta ve aynı
+
burial-ground of the Armenians. It is a thickly-peopled spot; and as
sen kokulu akasya ve yapraklı dallar ve altında dolaşmak
+
you wander beneath the leafy boughs of the scented acacias, and
mezarlar arasında iplik senin yol, sen bir özelliği ile vurdu vardır
+
thread your way among the tombs, you are struck by the peculiarity of
onların yazıtlar. Asil Ermeni karakteri derin oyma olduğunu
+
their inscriptions. The noble Armenian character is graven deeply
taş içine; isim ve tarih usulüne uygun ve hükümleri, ancak bu,
+
into the stone; name and date are duly set forth; but that which
render Ermeni levha. . . tuhaf ve farklı olan bir
+
renders an Armenian slab. . . peculiar and distinctive, is the
mezar ticaret veya meslek amblemi üzerine keskileme
+
chiseling upon the tomb the emblem of the trade or profession of the
rahmetli.
+
deceased.  
  
Türk mezarlık arkasındaki tepenin yamacı boyunca uzanan
+
The Turkish cemetery stretches along the slope of the hill behind the
baraka ve çok vadiye iniyor. Onun kalın-dikti
+
barrack, and descends far into the valley. Its thickly-planted
selvi yoğun bir gölge, form olan uzun boylu kafa taşları altında
+
cypresses form a dense shade, beneath which the tall head-stones
parıltı dışında beyaz ve korkunç. Koru patikalar tarafından kesilmiştir
+
gleam out white and ghastly. The grove is intersected by footpaths,
ve orada burada yeşil glade güneşiyle, gösteriş için sağlar
+
and here and there a green glade lets in the sunshine, to glitter
nice yaldızlı mezar üzerine. Dalma daha kalın karanlığa
+
upon many a gilded tomb. Plunge into the thick darkness of the more
kapalı noktalar ve bir an için neredeyse sizin stand düşünecek
+
covered spots, and for a moment you will almost think that you stand
Bazı harap kentin kalıntıları arasında. Sen çevrilidir ne
+
amid the ruins of some devastated city. You are surrounded by what
bir an için sayısız parçaları gibi görünen bazı güçlü
+
appears for an instant to be the myriad fragments of some mighty
bütün ama kasvet sen aldatmış - Bir ortasında bulunmaktadır
+
whole; but the gloom has deceived you - you are in the midst of a
Nekropol - The Dead.4 bir Şehir
+
Necropolis - a City of the Dead.4  
  
Genişlik ve Grand Champs des Morts doğal güzellik
+
The vastness and natural beauty of the Grand Champs des Morts
yabancı sakinleri ve İstanbul'a ziyaretçilerin ilgisini ele
+
captured the attention of foreign residents and visitors to Istanbul
benzer ve çok az seyahat hesapları ve geçmişten günlükler başarısız
+
alike, and few travel accounts and diaries from the past fail to
anma - bile sadece referans geçerken - mezarlık üzerinde
+
mention - even if only in passing reference - the cemetery on the
Pera eteklerinde. Grand Champs des Morts sunulan keskin
+
outskirts of Pera. The Grand Champs des Morts presented a sharp
olarak görev yoğun dolu şehir içi churchyards aksine
+
contrast to the densely packed inner-city churchyards which served as
böylece Avrupa şehirleri kadar birçok başlıca gömü alanına
+
the principal burial grounds in so many of Europe's cities up to the
On dokuzuncu yüzyıl. Bazı tarihçiler büyüklüğü dikkate rağmen
+
nineteenth century. Although some chroniclers considered the size of
Pera mezarlık yanı sıra büyük nekropoller sınırlayan diğer
+
the Pera cemetery, as well as the great necropolises bordering other
İstanbul, kentsel genişleme ve bir engel ilçelerinde
+
districts of Istanbul, a hindrance to urban expansion and
arazi gibi geniş, orman yolları geliştirilmesi, 5 avantaj
+
development,5 the advantage of such a spacious, sylvan tract of land
ölünün defin için de tanındı.
+
for burial of the dead was also recognized.  
  
Çok uzak olmayan bu [Taksim'den biz onlardan biri geniş İstinaden girdi]
+
Not far from this [Taksim] we entered upon one of those vast
biri en göze çarpan özelliklerinden form gömme-zemin
+
burying-grounds which form one of the most conspicuous features of
Her Türk şehri. . . Birkaç kelime. . . Ben devlet olabilir ki
+
every Turkish city. . . In a few words. . . I may state that the
mezarlık. . . Fazla 100 dönümlük bir alanı kaplar ve kalın
+
cemetery. . . covers an area of more than 100 acres, and that a thick
selvi orman (şeklinde kavak benzeyen, ama bir karanlık
+
forest of cypresses (resembling in shape the poplar, but with a dark
yapraklar) yeşil bir ciddi gölge, onu overspreads son derece
+
green foliage) overspreads it with a solemn shade, extremely
onun sıradan kullanır uygun. . 0,6
+
appropriate to its ordinary uses. . .6  
  
Batı Avrupa'da mezarlığı planlamacıları, üzerinde kamu çağrıları ile mahmuzlu
+
Cemetery planners in Western Europe, spurred on by public calls for
hijyen ve yerel mezar zemin görünümünü yenilik,
+
improvements to the hygiene and appearance of local burial grounds,
İstanbul'da emsal - yanı sıra Doğu ve diğer alanlarda gösterdi - in
+
cited precedents in Istanbul - as well as other areas of the East - in
onların çaba şehir içi churchyards kapatmak ve bunların yerine
+
their effort to close inner-city churchyards and replace them with
büyük, yerleşik alanları dışında daha yararlı mezarlıkları. Bu
+
larger, more salubrious cemeteries outside settled areas. This
reform süreci aslında Fransa'da sırasında başlayan onsekizinci
+
process of reform essentially began in France during the eighteenth
yüzyıl. Bu yazarlar tarafından natüralist gibi teşvik edildi
+
century. It was encouraged by authors such as the naturalist
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737-1814), kim, onun kutladı Études içinde
+
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737-1814), who, in his celebrated Études
de la Nature, ölü gömme Türk özel övdü
+
de la Nature, praised the Turkish custom of burying the dead in the
kırsal (bir gelenek de klasik antik ve gözlenen
+
countryside (a tradition also observed in classical antiquity and
çağdaş Çin) ve benzeri uygulanması önerilen
+
contemporary China) and recommended the implementation of similar
Paris uygulamaları. O `in gibi Elysees landscaped önerilen
+
practices in Paris. He proposed `landscaped Élysées as the
büyük ve güzel, ve kamu mezarlıklarının mezar yerinde
+
burial-place of the great and good, and public cemeteries
(Aslında ölmüş gömülmüş olacaktır ve bahçeler
+
(essentially landscaped gardens where the dead would be buried and,
refah izin verilirse, anıtlar) dikildi. . . Kamu mezarlıkların
+
if prosperity allowed, monuments erected). . . Public cemeteries
Kentin çevresinde ile ekili oluşturulmalıdır
+
should be created in the vicinity of the city, planted with
selvi, çam ve meyve ağaçları ve anıt dikildi böyle bir
+
cypresses, pines, and fruit-trees, and monuments erected in such a
ayar yalnızca derin manevi duygular ve ihale neden olabilir
+
setting could only induce profound moral feelings and tender
Onlardan ziyaret içinde melankolik. '7
+
melancholy in those who visited them.'7  
  
ölü atılması için geç 1700 olarak, yeni yöntem bulundu
+
By the late 1700s, new methods for disposing of the dead were of
Avrupa'nın büyük kentlerinin çoğunda mutlak zorunluluk değil, sadece
+
absolute necessity in most of Europe's major cities, and not simply
estetik amaçlar için değil, halk sağlığı korumak için. the doğru
+
for esthetic purposes, but for maintaining public health. Toward the
On sekizinci yüzyılın sonunda, Paris belediye aldı
+
end of the eighteenth century, the municipality of Paris took the
gibi eski mezar alanları, kapatarak ilk adımları eski
+
first steps by closing old burial grounds, such as the ancient
Cimetière des Innocents, ve dahil olmak üzere yeni mezarlıklar, kuran
+
Cimetière des Innocents, and establishing new cemeteries, including
ünlü Père-Lachaise, Montparnasse ve Montmartre erken
+
the famed Père-Lachaise, Montparnasse, and Montmartre early in the
Gelecek. eylem benzer bir ders biraz sonra Londra'da meydana
+
next. A similar course of action occurred somewhat later in London,
1832 yılında Kensal Green açılması ile başlayan, ilki
+
commencing with the opening of Kensal Green in 1832, the first of
yedi yeni özel mezarlıkların Önümüzdeki on yıl içinde kurulmuş
+
seven new private cemeteries founded over the next decade on the
1852 yılında city.8 Son eteklerinde, iç bütün mezarlıklar
+
outskirts of the city.8 Finally, in 1852, all graveyards inside the
şehir sınırları Büyükşehir yasası içine geçişini ile kapatıldı
+
city limits were closed with the passage into law of the Metropolitan
Mezar Yasası. O zamana kadar, Londra'nın churchyards, birçok kalma
+
Burial Act. By that time, London's churchyards, many dating from the
Orta Çağ, kritik bir durumda idi. Çağdaş dergi, The
+
Middle Ages, were in a critical state. One contemporary journal, The
Builder, 1843 yılında bu 50.000 organları yıllık tarihinde bir kazıklı söylediler
+
Builder, asserted in 1843 that 50,000 bodies yearly were piled one on
Bu kalabalık mezarları, diğer üst nereye - sola
+
top of the other in these overcrowded graveyards, where - left to
çürütmek ve rot - onlar exhalations dışarı verdi ve hava karardı
+
putrefy and rot - they gave out exhalations and darkened the air with
buharlar. Charles Dickens sinik IN korkunç durum tasvir
+
vapors. Charles Dickens cynically portrayed the grim situation in the
Uncommercial Traveller:
+
Uncommercial Traveller:  
  
Böyle garip churchyards Londra şehrinin gizlenen; churchyards
+
Such strange churchyards hide in the City of London; churchyards
bazen o kadar tamamen üzerine evler, çok küçük, çok sıra, çok sıkışık
+
sometimes so entirely pressed upon by houses, so small, so rank, so
sessiz, bu nedenle, hiç aşağıya baktığım birkaç kişi dışında unuttun
+
silent, so forgotten, except by the few people who ever look down
onların dumanlı pencere içlerine seçin. Ben içinden gözetleme bakılırsa
+
into them from their smokey windows. As I stand peeping in through
demir kapı ve raylar, ben uzakta, kabuk gibi paslı metal soyabilirsiniz
+
the iron gates and rails, I can peel the rusty metal off, like bark
Eski bir ağaçtan. Okunaksız mezar taşları hepsi yana yatmış olan
+
from an old tree. The illegible tombstones are all lopsided, the
gravemounds olan yağmurlar bir yüz yıl önce şekil kaybetti,
+
gravemounds lost their shape in the rains of a hundred years ago, the
Lombardiya Kavak ya da çınar ağacı bir kez drysalter kızı oldu
+
Lombardy Poplar or Plane-Tree that was once a drysalter's daughter
ve çok sayıda ortak councilmen, bu kodamanlar gibi ve solmuş olan
+
and several common-councilmen, has withered like those worthies, and
yaprakları yola altındaki toz vardır. Bulaşma yavaş Yıkımın
+
its departed leaves are dust beneath it. Contagion of slow ruin
yer çıkıntılar. . 0,9
+
overhangs the place . . .9  
  
Göz önüne alındığında kasvetli, içinde gömü alanlarının sağlıksız durum onların
+
Considering the dismal, unwholesome state of burial grounds in their
Kendi ülkelerinde, hiç merak Avrupalıların çoğu beliğ mumlu bir
+
own countries, it is no wonder that Europeans often waxed eloquent
İstanbul mezarlıkları, hayatın aura vurgulayarak hangi
+
about the cemeteries of Istanbul, highlighting the aura of life which
Onlar yol açmıştır. Julia Pardoe özellikle canlı açıklamasına teklifi
+
they engendered. Julia Pardoe offers a particularly vivid description
Osmanlı başkentinde meydana mezar alanlarının nerede mevcut
+
of the burial grounds in the Ottoman capital, where the present
nesil kolayca bu geçmişin ile birleşti.
+
generation readily merged with those of the past.
  
Türk] [ölüm üzerine sakin ve tutarsızlık olmayan bir görünüme sahiptir; yok
+
[The Turk] looks upon death calmly and without repugnance; he does
biz de eğilimli olduğu gibi hüzün ve korku fikirleri ile bağlayın değil
+
not connect it with ideas of gloom and horror, as we are too prone to
Avrupa'da yapmak, - o güneşli noktalar defnedilmesi yerlere yayılır - Doğum
+
do in Europe, - he spreads his burial places in the sunniest spots - on
onlar ışık içinde kalmış olan gülüyor tepeler ve armalar
+
the crests of the laughing hills, where they are bathed in the light
mavi gökyüzü; şehir, en kalabalık caddelerinden yanında nerede
+
of the blue sky; beside the crowded thoroughfares of the city, where
öldü, sanki, bir kez daha yaşayan yoğrulmuş - içinde
+
the dead are, as it were, once more mingled with the living, - in the
Boğaz yeşil köşe uzanan aşağı, neyin daha bencil
+
green nooks that stretch down to the Bosphorus, wherein more selfish
ruhlar veya villa, antlaşma imzalamaktan gurur duyuyorum bir bağ dikti var. O
+
spirits would have erected a villa, or have planted a vineyard. He
vefat nesil - o kendini tanımlar
+
identifies himself with the generation which has passed away - he is
onun yerine vermeye hazır olduğunu da onun own.10 kadar başarılı olabilir
+
ready to yield his place to that which is to succeed his own.10  
  
Avrupa mezarlık reformcular için, bu tür açıklamalar bir teklif
+
For the cemetery reformers of Europe, such descriptions offered an
daha sağlıklı arayışlarına ideal, estetik çekici
+
ideal in their quest for more wholesome, esthetically appealing
mezar zemin. in saçaklar üzerinde engebeli kırsal bulunan
+
burial grounds. Located in the hilly countryside on the fringes of
şehir, Grand Champs des Morts ve İstanbul'un diğer büyük
+
the city, the Grand Champs des Morts and Istanbul's other great
nekropoller edenler oluşturmak için çabaladı için bir model olarak hizmet yeni
+
necropolises served as a model for those who strove to create new
ölülerin sıhhi bertarafı için mezarlık yanı sıra sağlamak
+
cemeteries for the sanitary disposal of the dead, as well as provide
biri en ihale ifade etmek için sakin bir ortam
+
an idyllic environment for the expression of one's most tender
duygu ve derin duyguları. Çağdaş yazar Samuel Taylor
+
feelings and deepest sentiments. Contemporary author Samuel Taylor
Coleridge bile Türk mezar ve duygusal açıdan yorumladı
+
Coleridge even commented on the emotive aspect of Turkish burial
zeminler.
+
grounds.
  
Hiçbir şey ve yatıştırıcı etkileri isteyenler için özür yapabilirsiniz
+
Nothing can make amends for the want of the soothing influences of
doğa ve yenileme ve çürüme bu tür olmaması için
+
nature, and for the absence of those types of renovation and decay
hangi alanları ve ormanları ve ciddi fark teklif
+
which the fields and woods offer to the notice of the serious and
dalgın zihin. Bu duygular kuvvet hissetmek için izin bir adam
+
contemplative mind. To feel the force of this sentiment, let a man
sadece hayal olarak karşılaştırmak, çirkin şekilde hangi bizim
+
only compare in imagination, the unsightly manner in which our
anıtların birlikte meşgul içinde, gürültülü, kirli ve kalabalık
+
monuments are crowded together in the busy, noisy, unclean, and
hala inzivaya büyük bir şehrin neredeyse grassless kilise,
+
almost grassless churchyard of a large town, with the still seclusion
Bazı uzak bir yerde bir Türk mezarlığı ve henüz daha
+
of a Turkish cemetery in some remote place, and yet further
içinde olduğunu serviler koru kutsanmış embosomed.11 /
+
sanctified by the grove of cypresses in which it is embosomed.11 /  
  
Grand Champs des Morts ve Türk diğer Özgü referans
+
Specific reference to the Grand Champs des Morts and other Turkish
Archetypes Batı'da taklit etmek gibi mezarlıklarda da görünür
+
cemeteries as archetypes to imitate in the West also appear in the
John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), en birinin yazıları
+
writings of John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), one of the most
On dokuzuncu yüzyılın etkili mezarlık reformcular. Bir İskoç
+
influential cemetery reformers of the nineteenth century. A Scottish
peyzaj mimarı, Loudon o mezar gerekçesiyle gerektiğini önerdi
+
landscape gardener, Loudon proposed that burial grounds should be on
tehlikeye değil kent merkezlerinde yüksek yer, uzak yeterli
+
elevated ground, distant enough from urban centers as not to endanger
zaman ve azaltmak için yeterince yakın halk sağlığı, henüz
+
the health of the populace, yet near enough to lessen the time and
cenaze masraf ve mezarlar için yaşayan ziyaretleri teşvik
+
expense of funerals and encourage visits by the living to the tombs
ölü. Sitenin çekici kılmak için, o yana bir bahçe gibi
+
of the dead. To make the site attractive, he favored a garden-like
, Ayar ve ağaçları ve çeşitli tip dikim önerdi
+
setting, and suggested the planting of various types of trees and
çalılar. İstanbul'un nekropoller Bunlardan örnek modeller teklif
+
shrubs. Istanbul's necropolises offered exemplary models of these
ilkeleri, Loudon eserlerinde bunları açıklamaları alıntı
+
principles, and Loudon quoted descriptions of them in his works on
mezarlık planlama ve tasarım. `, Türk mezarlıkları bulunmaktadır
+
burial ground planning and design. `The Turkish cemeteries are
genellikle şehir dışına, yükselen zeminde, Sedir ile ekili,
+
generally out of the city, on rising ground, planted with cedars,
selvi, ve kimin derin yeşillik ve zarif kokulu çalı,
+
cypresses, and odoriferous shrubs, whose deep verdure and graceful
formları her meltemle eğilmesi yere, melankolik bir güzellik vermek
+
forms bending in every breeze give a melancholy beauty to the place,
ve heyecanlandırmak duygular çok hedefine hoş. '12
+
and excite sentiments very congenial to its destination.'12  
  
doğanın ortasında İstanbul'un mezarlık yeri dışında
+
Besides the location of Istanbul's cemeteries in the midst of nature
ve yaşam yaşama kaldırılır, yerel gelenek
+
and removed from the habitations of the living, the local tradition
Tek interments de Avrupa gözlemciler etkiledi. Olarak Julia
+
of single interments also impressed European observers. As Julia
Pardoe, ölülerin bir kez laid rahatsız değildi kalır demişti
+
Pardoe remarked, the remains of the dead were not disturbed once laid
bir uygulama hem Müslüman ve Hıristiyan mezar takip dinlenme için
+
to rest, a practice followed in both the Muslim and Christian burial
Grand Champs des Morts gerekçesiyle. `Hayır ve gömme Vardır
+
grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts. `There is no burying and
Aynı yerde, aynı bizimle reburying. Kalıntıları ayrıldı
+
reburying on the same spot, as with us. The remains of the departed
kutsaldır. '13 yer Avrupalılar - büyük ölçüde nedeniyle tezat olarak
+
are sacred.'13 In stark contrast, Europeans - largely due to space
onların yoğun nüfuslu şehirlerde kısıtlamalar - düzenli açıldı
+
restrictions in their heavily populated cities - regularly opened
Mevcut mezar ve yeni kadavra ile dolu, nokta bu
+
existing graves and filled them with new cadavers, to the point that
Bazı churchyards tehlikeli çukurlar, ciddi tehlikeye oldu
+
some churchyards became pestilential pits, seriously endangering
halk sağlığı. Geç onsekizinci yüzyılın bu sağlıksız By
+
public health. By the late eighteenth century these unsanitary
koşullar dayanılmaz hale gelmişti. etkisi ile
+
conditions had become intolerable. Through the influence of
çoğu mezar uygulamalarından ilham aldı reformcular,
+
reformers, many of whom took inspiration from the burial practices of
Osmanlılar, yeni yasalar yöntemleri düzenleyen tesis edildi
+
the Ottomans, new laws were instituted regulating methods of
ölülerin olunuz. Bir Fransız kararname 1804 yılında, örneğin, geçti
+
disposing of the dead. A French decree passed in 1804, for instance,
ölüler kadar yığılı olduğunu sık mezarları, yasak mezar
+
prohibited burial in common graves, where the dead were stacked up
bir other.14 yerine üstüne her kadavra toprağa verilecek edildi
+
one on top of the other.14 Instead, each cadaver was to be buried in
kendi alanı, belirli bir derinliğe kadar kazdılar ve ayrılmış diğer
+
its own space, dug to a specific depth and separated from other
bir dizi mesafe, defin için bir yöntem sonunda kabul tarafından mezar
+
graves by a set distance, a method of sepulture eventually adopted in
diğer Avrupa ülkelerinde de.
+
other European countries as well.  
  
Osmanlı mezar uygulamaları devamını Ancak, benzersiz sosyal yaşam daha
+
More than Ottoman burial practices, however, the unique social life
hangi İstanbul'un mezarlık çevresinde Grand özellikle dönüyordu
+
which revolved around Istanbul's cemeteries, especially in the Grand
Champs des Morts, yabancıların ilgi uyandırdı. Hem Müslüman
+
Champs des Morts, aroused the interest of foreigners. Both Muslim and
Şehrin Hıristiyan sakinleri için farklı ritüeller takip
+
Christian inhabitants of the city followed distinct rituals for
tüm dini algılamasına kendi ölü ve aileleri hatırlama
+
remembering their dead, and families of all religious persuasions
kendi mezar alanına, bakımı yapılacak düzenli ziyaretler
+
made regular visits to their respective burial grounds, maintaining
Onları önce yaşadıkları nesiller ile bağlantısını tıklayın. Hoş
+
their link with the generations which had preceded them. The pleasant
mezarlıkların (yerlerin çevresinde önlemek için Avrupa'nın
+
surroundings of the cemeteries (places to avoid in Europe's
belediyeler) bu birliğin teşvik ayrıldı.
+
municipalities) encouraged this communion with the departed.
Ayrıca, büyük nekropoller yerler için istirahat daha bulundu
+
Moreover, the great necropolises were more than resting places for
ölü. `Champs des Morts, 'Julia Pardoe,` anlatıyor gibi bir
+
the dead. `The Champs des Morts,' as Julia Pardoe recounts, `is the
bütün halkın gezinti - Türk, Frank, Yunan ve Ermeni. .
+
promenade of the whole population - Turk, Frank, Greek, and Armenian. .
. '15 Bu Hoppala bir yere veya bir alanı olarak yerli biliniyordu
+
.'15 It was known to the locals as a place of keyif, or an area
kolaylığı ve enjoyment.16 Geniş, ferah, yeşil ile bağlı ve
+
connected with ease and enjoyment.16 Spacious, fresh, green, and in
Pera, mezar yerleşim mahalleye yakın
+
close proximity to the residential quarters of Pera, the burial
zemin park bir tür olarak hizmet - dinlenme ve çekici bir alan
+
ground served as a kind of parkland - an attractive area of rest and
İstanbul halkı için gevşeme.
+
relaxation for the populace of Istanbul.  
  
ne olursa olsun onlar bu ziyaretlerde görüş ile, belli ki
+
With whatever views they pay these visits, it is certain that the
gömme-zemin onlar çok harcamak en sevdikleri tatil beldesi, bir
+
burying-ground is their favorite resort, where they spend many of
bunların yedek saat. Tüm aileler, veliler ve küçük çocuklar, olabilir
+
their spare hours. Whole families, parents and little children, may
sessizlik ve ciddiyet, veya bir mezar çevresinde toplanan görülebilir
+
be seen gathered around a tomb in silence and seriousness, or in
ve neşeli sohbet animasyonlu. Tüm gömme-gerekçesiyle, Türk,
+
animated and joyous converse. All the burying-grounds, Turkish,
, Yahudi ve Hıristiyan, resort.17 kamu şefi yerlerdir
+
Jewish, and Christian, are chief places of public resort.17  
  
Grand Champs des Morts bile tepeye bir kafe vardı
+
The Grand Champs des Morts even had a cafe at the crest of the hill
Dolmabahçe, bakan nerede müşterilerin olabilir süre Günün
+
overlooking Dolmabahçe, where customers could while away the day
sigara su boruları, Türk kahvesi içme ve at bakan
+
smoking water pipes, drinking Turkish coffee, and gazing out at the
the distance.18 geziciliği içinde Boğaz'ın köpüklü suları
+
sparkling waters of the Bosphorus in the distance.18 Itinerant
satıcıları, mezarlığın üzerinden içecekler sunan gezindi
+
vendors also wandered through the cemetery, offering refreshments to
ziyaretçi. Su satıcıları genellikle ardından, büyük taşıma takip
+
visitors. Water sellers usually followed in their wake, carrying huge
damlama kavanoz ve farklı ağlama buz hazırsındır bağırarak su!
+
dripping jars and shouting their distinctive cry buz gibi su!
(Buz gibi su), 19 o veya gezinme susuzluk gidermek için hazır
+
(ice-cold water),19 ready to quench the thirst of those strolling or
mezarlar arasında uzanmanız.
+
lounging among the tombs.  
  
Ancak, Avrupalılar için belki de en ilginç görüş kamu edildi
+
Yet, perhaps the most fascinating sight for Europeans were the public
fuarlar Nekropol düzenlenen. Daha adil bir yer için daha
+
fairs held in the necropolis. More than just a place for
anma, sessiz tefekkür ve yaslanmak, Grand Champs des
+
commemoration, quiet contemplation, and repose, the Grand Champs des
Morts da canlı festivaller ve kutlamalar yerdi. Bu tür
+
Morts was also the site of lively festivals and celebrations. On such
durumlarda, gömü alanına - öncelikle bu Hıristiyanların - edildi
+
occasions, the burial grounds - primarily those of the Christians - were
şenlik ve eğlence bir animasyonlu gözlük dönüştürülmüştür. Julia
+
transformed into an animated spectacle of gaiety and amusement. Julia
Pardoe rengarenk detay yaşayanlar için böyle bir fête açıklanır
+
Pardoe describes in colorful detail one such fête for the living
ölülerin anıtları arasında.
+
amongst the monuments of the dead.  
  
Ben zaten başka kayıtsızlık, konuştum mutlak değilse
+
I have already spoken elsewhere of the indifference, if not absolute
zevk olan nüfusu ile sık sık Doğu onların
+
enjoyment with which the inhabitants of the East frequent their
gerekçelerle gömme; ama daha bu festival vesilesiyle
+
burying grounds; but on the occasion of this festival I was more
her zamankinden daha ölçüde etkiledi bu da yapılır ekledi. Bütün
+
impressed than ever by the extent to which it is carried. The whole
Hıristiyan mezarlığı adil bir görünümünü üstlenmişti. . .
+
of the Christian cemetery had assumed the appearance of a fair. . .
  
  
Mezar taşları, salıncaklar - Divanlarda desteklenen direkleri steadied
+
Grave-stones steadied the poles which supported the swings - divans,
konforlu yastıklar ile, ama basma kaplı overlaid
+
comfortably overlaid with cushions, were but chintz-covered
pişirmek oyuğundan kazdık mezarları - The kibaub tüccarlar yaptıkları
+
sepulchers - the kibaub merchants had dug hollows to cook their
mezarların sığınak altında dainties ve sigara kabinleri vardı
+
dainties under the shelter of the tombs, and the smoking booths were
bolca sandalye ve masalar aynı geniş atık itibaren birlikte
+
amply supplied with seats and counters from the same wide waste of
ölüm.
+
death.  
  
Her yüz metre ki ileri, sahne daha çarpıcı oldu.
+
Every hundred yards that we advanced, the scene became more striking.
küçücük çadırlarda Bir uzun çizgi geçici bir sokak kurdu
+
One long line of diminutive tents formed a temporary street of
yeme-evler, orada kibaubs, pillauf vardı, börek, turşu
+
eating-houses; there were kibaubs, pillauf, fritters, pickled
sebze, çorba, rulo ince otlar, sosis, kızarmış Dolgulu
+
vegetables, soups, rolls stuffed with fine herbs, sausages, fried
Her kaliteli balık, ekmek, ve tüm boyutları kek. . . .
+
fish, bread of every quality, and cakes of all dimensions. . . .  
  
Orada burada düz bir mezar fancifully kaplı altın işlemeli
+
Here and there a flat tomb, fancifully covered with gold-embroidered
mendil, şekerleme ile kaplamak ve meyve korunmuş;
+
handkerchiefs, was overspread with sweetmeats and preserved fruits;
Bu rakip işyerlerinin ortasında, erkek grupları ise
+
while in the midst of these rival establishments, groups of men were
bir daire içinde, her yerde küçük bir gölge elde edilebilir, oturmuş
+
seated in a circle, wherever a little shade could be obtained,
Ile sessizlik içinde uzun boru sigara onların küçücük
+
smoking their long pipes in silence, with their diminutive
kahve fincan yere yanlarında oturan. Ahşap köşk
+
coffee-cups resting on the ground beside them. The wooden kiosk
Boğaz taşkın kalabalıktı ve birçok parti rahatça oldu
+
overhanging the Bosphorus was crowded; and many a party was snugly
akasya arasında, sırtlarına mezarlar karşı istirahat ile niched
+
niched among the acacias, with their backs resting against the tombs,
onların feet.20 ve güneş titreşen
+
and the sunshine flickering at their feet.20  
  
  
Kuşkusuz, Avrupalılar ve alemlerinin birleştirerek şaşırdılar
+
Undoubtedly, Europeans were amazed by the merging of the realms of
yaşayan ve İstanbul'un Grand Champs des meydana geldi ölü
+
the living and the dead that occurred at Istanbul's Grand Champs des
Morts, nerede, Fransız elçilik üyesi Charles Pertusier belirttiği gibi,
+
Morts, where, as French embassy member Charles Pertusier remarked,
`Edenler sevinç lirik şarkılar ve rahatsız değildir ağlamak
+
`those who weep are not disturbed by the lyric songs of joy, and
o kim o kim ağlamaya hiç dikkat gülerim. '21 Ziyaret - çok
+
those who laugh pay no attention to those who weep.'21 Visiting - much
daha az çekici kişinin zevk - mezar gerekçesiyle neredeyse olurdu
+
less taking one's pleasure in - burial grounds would have been almost
Batı'da akıl almaz. Ancak, ilk yarısında
+
inconceivable in the West. However, in the first half of the
Ondokuzuncu yüzyılda, bu zaten kapatma ile değiştirmek başlamıştı
+
nineteenth century, this had already begun to change with the closing
şehir içi churchyards ve mezarlıkların kurulması üzerinde
+
of inner-city churchyards and the creation of cemeteries on the
Avrupa'da kentsel alanların çevre. zengin ile Ekili
+
periphery of urban areas in Europe. Planted with a rich variety of
ağaçlar ve çalılar, mezar gerekçesiyle Paris ve Londra'da kuruldu
+
trees and shrubs, the burial grounds founded in Paris and London
Bu dönemde belirgin biçimde yeni bir tarz oluşturdu. Aslında
+
during this era constituted a distinctly new style. Essentially
mezar bahçeleri, onlar mezarlıklar ve parklands her iki yaptı.
+
funerary gardens, they served both as cemeteries and parklands.
Pere Lachaise, Montmartre, Kensal Green, ve gibi Burial gerekçesiyle
+
Burial grounds such as Pere Lachaise, Montmartre, Kensal Green, and
Highgate doğal güzellikleri ile ünlü oldu ve edildi
+
Highgate became renowned for their natural beauty, and were
yas tutanlar anmak isteyen uğrak - bugün gibi çok - her iki tarafından
+
frequented - much like today - both by mourners wishing to commemorate
ölü gibi ziyaretçiler meditasyon ve sakin bir yer arayan
+
the dead as well as visitors seeking a quiet spot for meditation and
yaslanmak.
+
repose.  
  
İronik olarak, Avrupalılar bile on dokuzuncu yüzyılda olduğu gibi açılış edildi
+
Ironically, even as Europeans in the nineteenth century were opening
Yeni mezar gerekçesiyle İstanbul bölümlerine gelen modelleri etkilenmiş
+
new burial grounds influenced by models from Istanbul, sections of
Hangi onlar ilham elde ettiği çok mezarlıkları
+
the very cemeteries from which they had derived inspiration
(Grand Champs des Morts bölümleri dahil) kaybetti ediliyordu
+
(including portions of the Grand Champs des Morts) were being lost in
hızlı kentsel gelişme sonrasında. Bu seyri sırasında
+
the wake of rapid urban development. During the course of this
dönüşüm - isteği şehrin yeniden tarafından geçirdi
+
transformation - spurred on by a desire to rebuild the city in
çağdaş Batı moda - bu birçok kaçınılmaz oldu
+
contemporary Western fashion - it was inevitable that many of
İstanbul'un eski gömü alanına boyutu, azaltmak istiyorsunuz ya da gözden kaybolmak
+
Istanbul's old burial grounds would lessen in size, or vanish
harita tamamen. Kentin eşsiz öyle çok oldu onun
+
completely from the map. The city was unique in that so many of its
hemen çevresi, ölü için büyük nekropoller tarafından alınmış bir
+
immediate environs were taken up by vast necropolises for the dead, a
üzerinde farklı bir izlenim bıraktı göze çarpan özelliği, yabancı
+
conspicuous feature which left a distinct impression on foreign
Stephen Olin, 1853 yılında kaybı demişti gibi gezginler,
+
travelers, such as Stephen Olin, who in 1853 remarked on the loss of
kentsel büyüme sonrasında mezarlıkları.
+
the cemeteries in the wake of urban growth.  
  
Gerçekten de öyle bir boşluk İstanbul çevresinde ölü ayrılmış oldu, büyük
+
Indeed, so vast a space has been devoted to the dead around Istanbul,
Bu artık mümkün onların mesken kutsallığına saygı duymaktır
+
that it is no longer possible to respect the sanctity of their abode
büyük ölçüde yaşama kolaylık ve engel olmadan
+
without interfering greatly with the convenience of the living, and
umumi tuvalet bile tüm kurban. kenti olarak Sınırsız
+
even the entire sacrifice of public convenience. Immense as the city
Ben çok çok daha fazla yer mezarlar ve işgal emin am
+
is, I am quite sure that much more ground is occupied by tombs and
canlıların yaşama tarafından daha mezar. Bütün ülke hakkında
+
graves than by the habitations of the living. The whole country about
Konstantinopolis, İşkodra ve Pera bu şekilde ve işgal edilen geniş bir
+
Constantinople, Scutari, and Pera is occupied in this way, and a vast
mezar sayısı ve gömme gerekçesiyle surlar içinde içine alınır. Içinde
+
number of tombs and burying grounds are enclosed within the walls. In
oluşturan yollar, sokaklar, ve binada, artık mümkün
+
forming roads, streets, and in building, it is no longer possible to
onları yedek ve bir çoğu Caddeleri veya kaldırımları yapılmış üzerine Basamaklı
+
spare them, and one often treads upon causeways or pavements made of
Heykel mezar taşları ve monuments.22
+
sculptured grave-stones and monuments.22  
  
  
1840 ve 1910, İstanbul alanında kuzeye uzanan arasında
+
Between 1840 and 1910, the area of Istanbul stretching northward from
Taksim ½ iþli açık kırsal yoğun dönüştü
+
Taksim to ½iþli was transformed from open countryside to densely
meskun konut yerleşim. Erken on dokuzuncu yüzyıl haritaları
+
inhabited residential settlement. Early nineteenth-century maps of
İstanbul'da bu yönde tarafından alınan çok alanın gösterisi
+
Istanbul show much of the area in this direction taken up by the
ile Grand Champs des Morts olmayan Müslüman mezar alanları,
+
non-Muslim burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts, with the
genişleme ana rotanın yolunda Frenk bölümü doğrudan.
+
Frankish section directly in the path of the main route of expansion.
Zaten, 1842 yılına kadar bu mezarlık, bir de aşağı whittled ediliyordu
+
Already, by 1842, this burial ground was being whittled down, as a
Rahip William Goodell tarafından çağdaş hesap kanıtlıyor. One of
+
contemporary account by Reverend William Goodell attests. One of the
İstanbul'da Ermenilere Amerikan Board misyonu kurucuları,
+
founders of the American Board mission to the Armenians at Istanbul,
Goodell onun dokuz yaşındaki oğlu Konstantin Washington için kaybetmişti
+
Goodell had lost his nine-year-old son, Constantine Washington, to
1841 yılında mide tifo ve bir Frenk bölümünde gömdüler
+
gastric typhoid in 1841 and buried him in the Frankish section of the
Grand Champs des Morts.
+
Grand Champs des Morts.  
  
18 Şubat 1842. encroachments yüzünden. . . üzerine Frank
+
February 18, 1842. On account of the encroachments. . . on the Frank
zemin gömme, ben sevgili çocuğun vücut çıkarmak zorunda kaldı.
+
burying ground, I had to remove the body of our beloved boy. The
mezar. . . derin ve kazdık olmuştu tabut pek nemli oldu.
+
grave . . . had been dug deep, and the coffin was scarcely damp.
Her şey tatlı ve sessizdi. biz hazırladık yeni mezar
+
Every thing was sweet and still. The new grave which we have prepared
Birkaç çubuklar uzak da derin ve kuru olduğunu ve orada biz, vücut koydu
+
a few rods distant was also deep and dry; and there we laid the body,
Sakin yatakta dirilişi sabaha kadar dinlenmek için. Sevgili
+
to rest in its quiet bed till the resurrection morning. Beloved
çocuk, veda! 23
+
child, farewell!23  
  
Ancak, küçük Constantinus'un huzur çok daha az sürdü
+
However, little Constantine's tranquility lasted far less than
Yine inşaat bir telaş rahatsız beklenen erken
+
expected, disturbed again by a flurry of construction in the early
anayola Taksim arasında çalışan genişletilmesi de dahil olmak üzere 1860,
+
1860s, including the widening of the main road running from Taksim to
Pangaltý. Temmuz 1863 yılında, kalan bir düzine Amerikalılar fazla
+
Pangaltý. In July 1863, the remains of more than a dozen Americans,
Bu Constantine Washington Goodell in, dahil mezardan edildi
+
including those of Constantine Washington Goodell, were exhumed from
Grand Champs des Morts eski Frank mezarlık. Onlar
+
the old Frankish burial ground in the Grand Champs des Morts. They
Birlikte onların mezar işaretleri ile taşındı yeni bir Protestan
+
were transferred, along with their grave markers, to a new Protestant
Feriköy de mezarlık - Sultan I. Abdülmecit emriyle oluşturulan
+
cemetery in Feriköy - created by order of Sultan Abdülmecit I in the
1850'ler - yeniden interment.24 arazi eski mezar tarafından işgal için
+
1850s - for re-interment.24 The land occupied by the former burial
zemin modern Batılı anlamda bir kamusal park (içine) dönük bir
+
ground was turned into a public park (in a modern Western sense), a
Proje sonunda daha sonra Taksim açılmasıyla birlikte altı yıl tamamlandı
+
project finally completed six years later with the opening of Taksim
Bahçe 1.869,25 içinde
+
Garden in 1869.25  
  
Taksim çevresindeki kentsel çevre sonraki genişletilmiş olarak
+
As the urban environment around Taksim expanded in succeeding
yıllardır, Grand Champs des Morts da diğer mezar alanına
+
decades, the other burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts also
kayboldu. Bu serinin kuzeyinde yatıyordu Ermeni mezarlığı
+
disappeared. The Armenian cemetery, which lay to the north of the
Frenk mezarlık, hala 1925-26 üzerinde belirlenen oldu
+
Frankish burial ground, was still delineated on the 1925-26
İstanbul Pervititch Sigorta haritalar, ama eski `ibareli-Cimetière
+
Pervititch insurance maps of Istanbul, but labeled as `ex-Cimetière
Armenien, 'görünüşte böyle olması kalktığı gösteren aktif bir
+
Armenien,' apparently indicating that it had ceased to be an active
defin yeri. olan Müslüman mezar gerekçesiyle çoğu
+
place of interment. Most of the Muslim burial grounds which had
Gümüþsuyu eteklerinde ve Fýndýklý kaplı zaten tarafından ortadan kaybolmuştu
+
covered the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and Fýndýklý had already vanished by
Birinci Dünya Savaşı; bir hava fotoğrafı balon dan alındığı
+
the First World War; an aerial photograph taken from a balloon at
O zamanlar küçük bir bölümünü gösterir - belirgin kalın bir yama gibi
+
that time shows a small portion - evident as a thick patch of
selvi - hala Taksim arasındaki tepenin yan yayılan
+
cypresses - still straddling the side of the hill between the Taksim
Kışla Gumussuyu.26 kıt bir askeri hastanede kalır
+
barracks an the military hospital in Gumussuyu.26 The scant remains
bir zamanlar büyük bir nekropol tarafından ortadan kalkıncaya cekti
+
of the once great necropolis would cease to exist by the
orta century.27 yirminci
+
mid-twentieth century.27  
  
büyük mezarlık olarak Bu arada küçüldü - uğruna feda
+
All the while, as the great cemetery shrank - sacrificed for the sake
kamu Kolaylık - Avrupa'nın reformcular dönüşüm edildi
+
of public convenience - reformers in Europe were transforming the
yaşam mekansal ilişki ve ölü Batı'da.
+
spatial relationship of the living and dead in the West. The
On dokuzuncu yüzyılda Avrupa mezar yenilikçi bir kavram tanık
+
nineteenth century witnessed an innovative concept in European burial
geniş getirilmesi, muhteşem ile zemin tasarımı,
+
ground design, with the introduction of expansive, magnificently
peyzajlı mezarlıkları. Sakin ve güzel, onlar yaptı
+
landscaped cemeteries. Serene and picturesque, they served as
birçok kasaba ve şehir ek kamu parkları. küçük, Oysa
+
additional public parks in many towns and cities. Whereas the small,
önceki yaştan zararlı churchyards, shunned olmuştu yeni
+
noxious churchyards of previous ages had been shunned, the new
nekropoller rahatlatıcı bir veya yürüyüş için ideal bir yer olarak kabul edildi
+
necropolises were considered an ideal place for a relaxing stroll or
aile gezisi değil, normal hac Bir site ödemek için söz
+
family outing, not to mention a site of regular pilgrimage to pay
saygı iyi ölü ekledi. Özel ve tutum bu değişim
+
respects to the well-loved dead. This shift in custom and attitude
reform onlarca yıl, en doruk noktası olan - oldu hayır küçük
+
was the culmination of several decades of reform, which - to no small
ölçüde - diğer topraklarda gömme gelenekleri esinle
+
extent - was inspired by the traditions of sepulture in other lands,
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu da dahil olmak üzere. Dikkat çekici, bir seferde iken Osmanlı
+
including the Ottoman empire. Remarkably, at a time when the Ottomans
aktif Avrupa'dan bir fikir ve kurumların borçlanma edildi
+
were actively borrowing ideas and institutions from Europe in an
çaba imparatorluğu modernleştirmek için, mezar kendi asırlık gümrük
+
effort to modernize the empire, their centuries-old customs of burial
ölü ve anma hayati bir sosyal önceden yakıt oldu
+
and commemoration of the dead helped fuel a vital social advance in
Çok ülkelerin rehberlik baktı. Aynı zamanda,
+
the very countries they looked to for guidance. At the same time,
Batı tarafından Osmanlı başkentinde kentsel gelişim, etkili
+
urban development in the Ottoman capital, influenced by Western
modelleri, Grand Champs des Morts kapanmasına - neden İstanbul'un
+
models, led to the closure of the Grand Champs des Morts - Istanbul's
`City of the Dead," verdiğini dünyaca tanınan bir nekropol
+
`City of the Dead,' a world-renowned necropolis which had provided
ilham, ideal olarak, mezarlığında reformcular için
+
inspiration, as well as an ideal, for the cemetery reformers of
Avrupa.
+
Europe.  
  
Dipnotlar
+
Footnotes
  
1 ile bazı hesapları, Grand Champs des de erken interments
+
1 By some accounts, the earliest interments at the Grand Champs des
Morts tarih c. için 1560, İstanbul ile kalmış oldu şiddetli
+
Morts date to c. 1560, when Istanbul was struck with a severe
veba salgını ve Taksim çevresindeki açık alanlar için kullanılan
+
epidemic of plague, and the open fields around Taksim were used to
ölü çok sayıda gömmek; görmek İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, sv
+
bury the great numbers of dead; see Istanbul Ansiklopedisi, s.v.
`Ermeni Mezarliklari. ' Hollandalı bir doktor, Willem bir mezar taşı
+
`Ermeni Mezarliklari.' The tombstone of a Dutch physician, Willem
Quackelbeen, 1561 yılında hastalığa bağlı ölüm, fiziksel teklifi
+
Quackelbeen, who died of the disease in 1561, offers physical
Bu varsayım kanıtı. Şu anda Roma bulunur
+
evidence of this conjecture. It is currently located in the Roman
Feriköy, büyük ihtimalle nakledildi de Katolik mezarlık
+
Catholic cemetery at Feriköy, where it was most likely transferred
Grand Champs des Morts of Frank bölümünde kapalı zaman
+
when the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts closed in the
mid-1800s, Groot de AH görmek, Archivum İstanbul Eski Hollanda Graves
+
mid-1800s, see A.H. de Groot, Old Dutch Graves at Istanbul, Archivum
Ottomanicum 5 (1973): 6. Robert Walsh, British için papaz
+
Ottomanicum 5 (1973): 6. Robert Walsh, chaplain to the British
Büyükelçiliği İstanbul 1830'larda, anılarında o anlattı
+
Embassy at Istanbul in the 1830s, recounted in his memoirs that the
Frank mezarlık içinde eski mezar işareti olarak bu
+
earliest grave-marker in the Frankish burial ground was that of
Ludovicus Chizzolo bir Cizvit için 1585 yılında görmek veba dayanamadı
+
Ludovicus Chizzolo, a Jesuit who succumbed to the plague in 1585, see
R. Walsh, İstanbul'a bir Residence, vol. 2 (London: Richard
+
R. Walsh, A Residence at Constantinople, vol. 2 (London: Richard
Bentley, 1838), 441.
+
Bentley, 1838), 441.  
2 Calembourg: bir cinas veya kelimeleri oynarlar.
+
2 Calembourg: a pun, or play on words.  
3 Julia Pardoe, Sultan, 4 ed City. (Londra: George
+
3 Julia Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 4th ed. (London: George
Routledge and Sons, 1854), 51.
+
Routledge and Sons, 1854), 51.  
4 agy., 53-54.
+
4 Ibid., 53-54.  
5 Örneğin, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, 1717, yazma
+
5 For instance, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, writing in 1717,
yorumladı: `Burada gömme alanları (yani, İstanbul) yaklaşık
+
commented: `The burying fields about it (i.e., Istanbul) are
kesinlikle çok tüm şehir daha büyüktür. `Tis şaşırtıcı ne
+
certainly much larger than the whole city. `Tis surprising what a
Arazinin büyük anlaşma Türkiye'de bu şekilde kaybolur. Bazen gördüm
+
vast deal of land is lost this way in Turkey. Sometimes I have seen
Çok önemsiz ait birkaç mil yerlerde gömme
+
burying places of several miles, belonging to very inconsiderable
köy. . . . ' Bak Hans-Peter Laqueur, `Orient Mezarlıklar ve
+
villages. . . .' See Hans-Peter Laqueur, `Cemeteries in Orient and
Batı: Tarihsel Gelişimi, 'Cimetières et Geleneklerde
+
Occident: The Historical Development,' in Cimetières et Traditions
 
Funéraires dans le Monde Islamique (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu
 
Funéraires dans le Monde Islamique (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu
Basýmevi, 1996), 2: 3.
+
Basýmevi, 1996), 2: 3.  
6 Amerikalı, 1831 yılında Türkiye'nin Eskizler ve 1832 (New York: J. & J.
+
6 An American, Sketches of Turkey in 1831 and 1832 (New York: J. & J.
Harper, 1833), 158.
+
Harper, 1833), 158.  
7 James Curl Stevens, Ölüm Victoria Kutlaması (Stroud,
+
7 James Stevens Curl, The Victorian Celebration of Death (Stroud,
Gloucestershire: Sutton Yayıncılık Ltd), 17.
+
Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd.), 17.  
8 Bu West Norwood (1837); Highgate (1839); Brompton dahil
+
8 These included West Norwood (1837); Highgate (1839); Brompton,
Nunhead ve Abney Park (1840) ve Tower Hamlets (1841).
+
Nunhead, and Abney Park (1840); and Tower Hamlets (1841).  
9 Charles Dickens, Uncommercial Traveller (London: 1860 Oxford)
+
9 Charles Dickens, The Uncommercial Traveller (London: Oxford, 1860)
233.
+
233.  
10 Pardoe, Sultan, 36 City.
+
10 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 36.  
Laying Out On 11 John Claudius Loudon, `Dikim ve Yönetme
+
11 John Claudius Loudon, `On the Laying Out, Planting, and Managing
Mezarlıklar ve Churchyards İyileştirme gör. ' Gardener's
+
of Cemeteries and on the Improvement of Churchyards.' The Gardener's
Dergi, 1843, s. 100.
+
Magazine, 1843, p. 100.  
12 agy., 405.
+
12 Ibid., 405.  
13 Pardoe, Sultan, 50 City.
+
13 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50.  
14 Thomas A. Kselman, Ölüm ve Modern Fransa'da Afterlife,
+
14 Thomas A. Kselman, Death and the Afterlife in Modern France,
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993, 169-70.
+
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993, 169-70.  
15 Pardoe, Sultan, 50 City.
+
15 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50.  
16 Charles White, 1844 yılında Türkler, vol İç Manners. 1
+
16 Charles White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, vol. 1
(Londra: Henry Colburn, 1846), 15-16.
+
(London: Henry Colburn, 1846), 15-16.  
17 Stephen Olin, Yunanistan ve Haliç (New York: Carlton &
+
17 Stephen Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn (New York: Carlton &
Philips, 1854), 249.
+
Philips, 1854), 249.  
18 Pardoe, Sultan, 51 Şehri.
+
18 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 51.  
19 White, 1844 yılında Türklerin Yurtiçi Manners, 1: 15-16.
+
19 White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, 1: 15-16.  
20 Pardoe, Sultan, 134-35 Şehri.
+
20 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 134-35.  
21 Petusier ileri devletleri: `Bu doğru bir fikir oluşturmak
+
21 Petusier further states: `To form a correct idea of these
heterojen sahneleri, biz
+
heterogeneous scenes, we
gereken yerde olmak, hiçbir açıklama onlara adalet yapabilirsiniz için; ve
+
must be on the spot, for no description can do justice to them; and
bile, bizim, ilk kez onları görmek, göründüğü gibi tam bir
+
even when we see them, for the first time, it appears such a complete
illüzyon, ki scarsely gerçekler gebe olabilir. ' Bkz: Charles
+
illusion, that we can scarsely conceive its reality.' See Charles
Petusier içinde Picturesque Gezinti Yerleri ve İstanbul ve yakın
+
Petusier, Picturesque Promenades in and near Constantinople and on
Boğaz (Londra Waters: Sir Richard Phillips ve Co,
+
the Waters of the Bosphorus (London: Sir Richard Phillips and Co.,
1820), 96.
+
1820), 96.  
22 Olin, Yunanistan ve Haliç, 219.
+
22 Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn, 219.  
23 E.D.G. Başbakan, Anıları Rev William Goodell, D.D. (Robert Carter
+
23 E.D.G. Prime, Memoirs of Rev. William Goodell, D.D. (Robert Carter
ve Brothers, 1876), 275.
+
and Brothers, 1876), 275.  
Feriköy Protestan Mezarlığı'na 24 Mezar Kayıt Defteri, hayır. 331-343,
+
24 Burial Registry of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, no. 331-343,
Feriköy Protestan Mezarlığı'na, İstanbul 1863, Yönetim Kurulu,
+
1863, Governing Board of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, Istanbul,
Türkiye.
+
Turkey.  
25 Zeynep Çelik, İstanbul Remaking, Seattle ve Londra:
+
25 Zeynep Çelik, The Remaking of Istanbul, Seattle and London:
Washington Üniversitesi Yayınları, 1986, 69.
+
University of Washington Press, 1986, 69.  
26 Bu görüntünün bir kopyasını için, bkz: Çelik Gülersoy, Taksim: Bir Meydanýn
+
26 For a copy of this image, see Çelik Gülersoy, Taksim: Bir Meydanýn
Hikayesi (İstanbul: <stanbul Kitaplýý, 1986), 37.
+
Hikayesi (Istanbul: ‹stanbul Kitaplýý, 1986), 37.  
Grand Champs des olan Frank bölümünden 27 Bazı mezar taşları
+
27 Some tombstones from the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des
Morts hala Protestan ve Katolik mezarlıklarda hayatta
+
Morts still survive in the Protestant and Catholic cemeteries in
onlar sonra nakledilen İstanbul'un Feriköy semtinde,
+
Istanbul's Feriköy district, where they were transferred after the
Eski mezarlık orta 1800'lerin kapalı.
+
old burial ground closed in the mid-1800s.
  
 
http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=fa10d4e718&k=507&780881237&show=part1
 
http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=fa10d4e718&k=507&780881237&show=part1
  
((Kopya))
+
{{copy}}

Revision as of 01:43, 18 May 2010

Largest city in Turkey, with about 60,000 Armenians - which account for virtually all of the country's remaining Armenians. Seat of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Kumkapi

Following the conquest in 1453 the Kumpaki area was mainly settled by non-Muslim Karamanlis, and by the seventeenth century was famous for its taverns according to the Turkish writer and traveller Evliya celebi. His contemporary and author of a history of Istanbul, Ereemya Celebi Komurciyan, records the district's Greek and Armenian churches and fires which destroyed it. In his Topography of Istanbul, Hovhannnesyan describes the grand houses of Kumkapi, a royal palace here, katir Han (an urban kervansaray) and bazaar.

Little remains from the pre-19th century buildings of Kumkapi due to fires, but it remains a district famous for its taverns and fish restaurants.

Grand Champs des Morts

The Fountain Magazine, NJ
Dec 31 2004

Istanbul's Vanished City of the Dead: The Grand Champs des Morts

NEEDS EDITING to save only parts relevant to Armenians!!!

By Brain JOHNSON

With a rich and varied architecture embodying centuries of history, Istanbul is one of the world's most celebrated cities. Besides the splendid monuments of its classical, Byzantine, and Ottoman heritage, Istanbul's cemeteries have also contributed to its renown. Historically, the vast necropolises of Eyüp, Üsküdar, and the Grand Champs des Morts in Pera have attracted the most notice. While the first two cemeteries still survive, the latter endures only as a memory - described in the pages of travel accounts, depicted on old engravings and maps, and tangibly perceptible in a scattering of funerary monuments that once graced its broad expanse. Yet, just over a hundred and fifty years ago, the Grand Champs des Morts existed as one of the world's great necropolises. A realm where the living intermingled with the dead, it roused the interest and imagination of visitors to Istanbul, and, even more notably, in an age of reform and change, offered inspiration and a model for contemporary designers of cemeteries in Western Europe.

Dating back to the sixteenth century,1 the Grand Champs des Morts was unique among Istanbul's necropolises, with burial grounds for followers of both Islam and Christianity in close proximity. Beginning at Taksim (roughly on the site where the Atatürk Cultural Center now stands) and extending down the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and Fýndýklý lay the graves of Muslims, while the area stretching northward toward Harbiye was divided into separate sections for the city's various Christian communities. The English traveler Julia Pardoe describes the site in 1836:

The first plot of ground, after passing the barrack [the artillery barracks of Selim III at Taksim], is the grave-yard of the Franks; and here you are greeted on all sides with inscriptions in Latin; injunctions to pray for the souls of the departed; flourishes of French sentiment; calembourgs2 graven into the everlasting stone, treating of roses and reine Marguerites; concise English records of births, deaths, ages, and diseases; Italian elaborations of regret and despair; and all the common-places of an ordinary burial-ground.3


Immediately in a line with the European cemetery, is the burial-ground of the Armenians. It is a thickly-peopled spot; and as you wander beneath the leafy boughs of the scented acacias, and thread your way among the tombs, you are struck by the peculiarity of their inscriptions. The noble Armenian character is graven deeply into the stone; name and date are duly set forth; but that which renders an Armenian slab. . . peculiar and distinctive, is the chiseling upon the tomb the emblem of the trade or profession of the deceased.

The Turkish cemetery stretches along the slope of the hill behind the barrack, and descends far into the valley. Its thickly-planted cypresses form a dense shade, beneath which the tall head-stones gleam out white and ghastly. The grove is intersected by footpaths, and here and there a green glade lets in the sunshine, to glitter upon many a gilded tomb. Plunge into the thick darkness of the more covered spots, and for a moment you will almost think that you stand amid the ruins of some devastated city. You are surrounded by what appears for an instant to be the myriad fragments of some mighty whole; but the gloom has deceived you - you are in the midst of a Necropolis - a City of the Dead.4

The vastness and natural beauty of the Grand Champs des Morts captured the attention of foreign residents and visitors to Istanbul alike, and few travel accounts and diaries from the past fail to mention - even if only in passing reference - the cemetery on the outskirts of Pera. The Grand Champs des Morts presented a sharp contrast to the densely packed inner-city churchyards which served as the principal burial grounds in so many of Europe's cities up to the nineteenth century. Although some chroniclers considered the size of the Pera cemetery, as well as the great necropolises bordering other districts of Istanbul, a hindrance to urban expansion and development,5 the advantage of such a spacious, sylvan tract of land for burial of the dead was also recognized.

Not far from this [Taksim] we entered upon one of those vast burying-grounds which form one of the most conspicuous features of every Turkish city. . . In a few words. . . I may state that the cemetery. . . covers an area of more than 100 acres, and that a thick forest of cypresses (resembling in shape the poplar, but with a dark green foliage) overspreads it with a solemn shade, extremely appropriate to its ordinary uses. . .6

Cemetery planners in Western Europe, spurred on by public calls for improvements to the hygiene and appearance of local burial grounds, cited precedents in Istanbul - as well as other areas of the East - in their effort to close inner-city churchyards and replace them with larger, more salubrious cemeteries outside settled areas. This process of reform essentially began in France during the eighteenth century. It was encouraged by authors such as the naturalist Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737-1814), who, in his celebrated Études de la Nature, praised the Turkish custom of burying the dead in the countryside (a tradition also observed in classical antiquity and contemporary China) and recommended the implementation of similar practices in Paris. He proposed `landscaped Élysées as the burial-place of the great and good, and public cemeteries (essentially landscaped gardens where the dead would be buried and, if prosperity allowed, monuments erected). . . Public cemeteries should be created in the vicinity of the city, planted with cypresses, pines, and fruit-trees, and monuments erected in such a setting could only induce profound moral feelings and tender melancholy in those who visited them.'7

By the late 1700s, new methods for disposing of the dead were of absolute necessity in most of Europe's major cities, and not simply for esthetic purposes, but for maintaining public health. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, the municipality of Paris took the first steps by closing old burial grounds, such as the ancient Cimetière des Innocents, and establishing new cemeteries, including the famed Père-Lachaise, Montparnasse, and Montmartre early in the next. A similar course of action occurred somewhat later in London, commencing with the opening of Kensal Green in 1832, the first of seven new private cemeteries founded over the next decade on the outskirts of the city.8 Finally, in 1852, all graveyards inside the city limits were closed with the passage into law of the Metropolitan Burial Act. By that time, London's churchyards, many dating from the Middle Ages, were in a critical state. One contemporary journal, The Builder, asserted in 1843 that 50,000 bodies yearly were piled one on top of the other in these overcrowded graveyards, where - left to putrefy and rot - they gave out exhalations and darkened the air with vapors. Charles Dickens cynically portrayed the grim situation in the Uncommercial Traveller:

Such strange churchyards hide in the City of London; churchyards sometimes so entirely pressed upon by houses, so small, so rank, so silent, so forgotten, except by the few people who ever look down into them from their smokey windows. As I stand peeping in through the iron gates and rails, I can peel the rusty metal off, like bark from an old tree. The illegible tombstones are all lopsided, the gravemounds lost their shape in the rains of a hundred years ago, the Lombardy Poplar or Plane-Tree that was once a drysalter's daughter and several common-councilmen, has withered like those worthies, and its departed leaves are dust beneath it. Contagion of slow ruin overhangs the place . . .9

Considering the dismal, unwholesome state of burial grounds in their own countries, it is no wonder that Europeans often waxed eloquent about the cemeteries of Istanbul, highlighting the aura of life which they engendered. Julia Pardoe offers a particularly vivid description of the burial grounds in the Ottoman capital, where the present generation readily merged with those of the past.

[The Turk] looks upon death calmly and without repugnance; he does not connect it with ideas of gloom and horror, as we are too prone to do in Europe, - he spreads his burial places in the sunniest spots - on the crests of the laughing hills, where they are bathed in the light of the blue sky; beside the crowded thoroughfares of the city, where the dead are, as it were, once more mingled with the living, - in the green nooks that stretch down to the Bosphorus, wherein more selfish spirits would have erected a villa, or have planted a vineyard. He identifies himself with the generation which has passed away - he is ready to yield his place to that which is to succeed his own.10

For the cemetery reformers of Europe, such descriptions offered an ideal in their quest for more wholesome, esthetically appealing burial grounds. Located in the hilly countryside on the fringes of the city, the Grand Champs des Morts and Istanbul's other great necropolises served as a model for those who strove to create new cemeteries for the sanitary disposal of the dead, as well as provide an idyllic environment for the expression of one's most tender feelings and deepest sentiments. Contemporary author Samuel Taylor Coleridge even commented on the emotive aspect of Turkish burial grounds.

Nothing can make amends for the want of the soothing influences of nature, and for the absence of those types of renovation and decay which the fields and woods offer to the notice of the serious and contemplative mind. To feel the force of this sentiment, let a man only compare in imagination, the unsightly manner in which our monuments are crowded together in the busy, noisy, unclean, and almost grassless churchyard of a large town, with the still seclusion of a Turkish cemetery in some remote place, and yet further sanctified by the grove of cypresses in which it is embosomed.11 /

Specific reference to the Grand Champs des Morts and other Turkish cemeteries as archetypes to imitate in the West also appear in the writings of John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), one of the most influential cemetery reformers of the nineteenth century. A Scottish landscape gardener, Loudon proposed that burial grounds should be on elevated ground, distant enough from urban centers as not to endanger the health of the populace, yet near enough to lessen the time and expense of funerals and encourage visits by the living to the tombs of the dead. To make the site attractive, he favored a garden-like setting, and suggested the planting of various types of trees and shrubs. Istanbul's necropolises offered exemplary models of these principles, and Loudon quoted descriptions of them in his works on burial ground planning and design. `The Turkish cemeteries are generally out of the city, on rising ground, planted with cedars, cypresses, and odoriferous shrubs, whose deep verdure and graceful forms bending in every breeze give a melancholy beauty to the place, and excite sentiments very congenial to its destination.'12

Besides the location of Istanbul's cemeteries in the midst of nature and removed from the habitations of the living, the local tradition of single interments also impressed European observers. As Julia Pardoe remarked, the remains of the dead were not disturbed once laid to rest, a practice followed in both the Muslim and Christian burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts. `There is no burying and reburying on the same spot, as with us. The remains of the departed are sacred.'13 In stark contrast, Europeans - largely due to space restrictions in their heavily populated cities - regularly opened existing graves and filled them with new cadavers, to the point that some churchyards became pestilential pits, seriously endangering public health. By the late eighteenth century these unsanitary conditions had become intolerable. Through the influence of reformers, many of whom took inspiration from the burial practices of the Ottomans, new laws were instituted regulating methods of disposing of the dead. A French decree passed in 1804, for instance, prohibited burial in common graves, where the dead were stacked up one on top of the other.14 Instead, each cadaver was to be buried in its own space, dug to a specific depth and separated from other graves by a set distance, a method of sepulture eventually adopted in other European countries as well.

More than Ottoman burial practices, however, the unique social life which revolved around Istanbul's cemeteries, especially in the Grand Champs des Morts, aroused the interest of foreigners. Both Muslim and Christian inhabitants of the city followed distinct rituals for remembering their dead, and families of all religious persuasions made regular visits to their respective burial grounds, maintaining their link with the generations which had preceded them. The pleasant surroundings of the cemeteries (places to avoid in Europe's municipalities) encouraged this communion with the departed. Moreover, the great necropolises were more than resting places for the dead. `The Champs des Morts,' as Julia Pardoe recounts, `is the promenade of the whole population - Turk, Frank, Greek, and Armenian. . .'15 It was known to the locals as a place of keyif, or an area connected with ease and enjoyment.16 Spacious, fresh, green, and in close proximity to the residential quarters of Pera, the burial ground served as a kind of parkland - an attractive area of rest and relaxation for the populace of Istanbul.

With whatever views they pay these visits, it is certain that the burying-ground is their favorite resort, where they spend many of their spare hours. Whole families, parents and little children, may be seen gathered around a tomb in silence and seriousness, or in animated and joyous converse. All the burying-grounds, Turkish, Jewish, and Christian, are chief places of public resort.17

The Grand Champs des Morts even had a cafe at the crest of the hill overlooking Dolmabahçe, where customers could while away the day smoking water pipes, drinking Turkish coffee, and gazing out at the sparkling waters of the Bosphorus in the distance.18 Itinerant vendors also wandered through the cemetery, offering refreshments to visitors. Water sellers usually followed in their wake, carrying huge dripping jars and shouting their distinctive cry buz gibi su! (ice-cold water),19 ready to quench the thirst of those strolling or lounging among the tombs.

Yet, perhaps the most fascinating sight for Europeans were the public fairs held in the necropolis. More than just a place for commemoration, quiet contemplation, and repose, the Grand Champs des Morts was also the site of lively festivals and celebrations. On such occasions, the burial grounds - primarily those of the Christians - were transformed into an animated spectacle of gaiety and amusement. Julia Pardoe describes in colorful detail one such fête for the living amongst the monuments of the dead.

I have already spoken elsewhere of the indifference, if not absolute enjoyment with which the inhabitants of the East frequent their burying grounds; but on the occasion of this festival I was more impressed than ever by the extent to which it is carried. The whole of the Christian cemetery had assumed the appearance of a fair. . .


Grave-stones steadied the poles which supported the swings - divans, comfortably overlaid with cushions, were but chintz-covered sepulchers - the kibaub merchants had dug hollows to cook their dainties under the shelter of the tombs, and the smoking booths were amply supplied with seats and counters from the same wide waste of death.

Every hundred yards that we advanced, the scene became more striking. One long line of diminutive tents formed a temporary street of eating-houses; there were kibaubs, pillauf, fritters, pickled vegetables, soups, rolls stuffed with fine herbs, sausages, fried fish, bread of every quality, and cakes of all dimensions. . . .

Here and there a flat tomb, fancifully covered with gold-embroidered handkerchiefs, was overspread with sweetmeats and preserved fruits; while in the midst of these rival establishments, groups of men were seated in a circle, wherever a little shade could be obtained, smoking their long pipes in silence, with their diminutive coffee-cups resting on the ground beside them. The wooden kiosk overhanging the Bosphorus was crowded; and many a party was snugly niched among the acacias, with their backs resting against the tombs, and the sunshine flickering at their feet.20


Undoubtedly, Europeans were amazed by the merging of the realms of the living and the dead that occurred at Istanbul's Grand Champs des Morts, where, as French embassy member Charles Pertusier remarked, `those who weep are not disturbed by the lyric songs of joy, and those who laugh pay no attention to those who weep.'21 Visiting - much less taking one's pleasure in - burial grounds would have been almost inconceivable in the West. However, in the first half of the nineteenth century, this had already begun to change with the closing of inner-city churchyards and the creation of cemeteries on the periphery of urban areas in Europe. Planted with a rich variety of trees and shrubs, the burial grounds founded in Paris and London during this era constituted a distinctly new style. Essentially funerary gardens, they served both as cemeteries and parklands. Burial grounds such as Pere Lachaise, Montmartre, Kensal Green, and Highgate became renowned for their natural beauty, and were frequented - much like today - both by mourners wishing to commemorate the dead as well as visitors seeking a quiet spot for meditation and repose.

Ironically, even as Europeans in the nineteenth century were opening new burial grounds influenced by models from Istanbul, sections of the very cemeteries from which they had derived inspiration (including portions of the Grand Champs des Morts) were being lost in the wake of rapid urban development. During the course of this transformation - spurred on by a desire to rebuild the city in contemporary Western fashion - it was inevitable that many of Istanbul's old burial grounds would lessen in size, or vanish completely from the map. The city was unique in that so many of its immediate environs were taken up by vast necropolises for the dead, a conspicuous feature which left a distinct impression on foreign travelers, such as Stephen Olin, who in 1853 remarked on the loss of the cemeteries in the wake of urban growth.

Indeed, so vast a space has been devoted to the dead around Istanbul, that it is no longer possible to respect the sanctity of their abode without interfering greatly with the convenience of the living, and even the entire sacrifice of public convenience. Immense as the city is, I am quite sure that much more ground is occupied by tombs and graves than by the habitations of the living. The whole country about Constantinople, Scutari, and Pera is occupied in this way, and a vast number of tombs and burying grounds are enclosed within the walls. In forming roads, streets, and in building, it is no longer possible to spare them, and one often treads upon causeways or pavements made of sculptured grave-stones and monuments.22


Between 1840 and 1910, the area of Istanbul stretching northward from Taksim to ½iþli was transformed from open countryside to densely inhabited residential settlement. Early nineteenth-century maps of Istanbul show much of the area in this direction taken up by the non-Muslim burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts, with the Frankish section directly in the path of the main route of expansion. Already, by 1842, this burial ground was being whittled down, as a contemporary account by Reverend William Goodell attests. One of the founders of the American Board mission to the Armenians at Istanbul, Goodell had lost his nine-year-old son, Constantine Washington, to gastric typhoid in 1841 and buried him in the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts.

February 18, 1842. On account of the encroachments. . . on the Frank burying ground, I had to remove the body of our beloved boy. The grave . . . had been dug deep, and the coffin was scarcely damp. Every thing was sweet and still. The new grave which we have prepared a few rods distant was also deep and dry; and there we laid the body, to rest in its quiet bed till the resurrection morning. Beloved child, farewell!23

However, little Constantine's tranquility lasted far less than expected, disturbed again by a flurry of construction in the early 1860s, including the widening of the main road running from Taksim to Pangaltý. In July 1863, the remains of more than a dozen Americans, including those of Constantine Washington Goodell, were exhumed from the old Frankish burial ground in the Grand Champs des Morts. They were transferred, along with their grave markers, to a new Protestant cemetery in Feriköy - created by order of Sultan Abdülmecit I in the 1850s - for re-interment.24 The land occupied by the former burial ground was turned into a public park (in a modern Western sense), a project finally completed six years later with the opening of Taksim Garden in 1869.25

As the urban environment around Taksim expanded in succeeding decades, the other burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts also disappeared. The Armenian cemetery, which lay to the north of the Frankish burial ground, was still delineated on the 1925-26 Pervititch insurance maps of Istanbul, but labeled as `ex-Cimetière Armenien,' apparently indicating that it had ceased to be an active place of interment. Most of the Muslim burial grounds which had covered the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and Fýndýklý had already vanished by the First World War; an aerial photograph taken from a balloon at that time shows a small portion - evident as a thick patch of cypresses - still straddling the side of the hill between the Taksim barracks an the military hospital in Gumussuyu.26 The scant remains of the once great necropolis would cease to exist by the mid-twentieth century.27

All the while, as the great cemetery shrank - sacrificed for the sake of public convenience - reformers in Europe were transforming the spatial relationship of the living and dead in the West. The nineteenth century witnessed an innovative concept in European burial ground design, with the introduction of expansive, magnificently landscaped cemeteries. Serene and picturesque, they served as additional public parks in many towns and cities. Whereas the small, noxious churchyards of previous ages had been shunned, the new necropolises were considered an ideal place for a relaxing stroll or family outing, not to mention a site of regular pilgrimage to pay respects to the well-loved dead. This shift in custom and attitude was the culmination of several decades of reform, which - to no small extent - was inspired by the traditions of sepulture in other lands, including the Ottoman empire. Remarkably, at a time when the Ottomans were actively borrowing ideas and institutions from Europe in an effort to modernize the empire, their centuries-old customs of burial and commemoration of the dead helped fuel a vital social advance in the very countries they looked to for guidance. At the same time, urban development in the Ottoman capital, influenced by Western models, led to the closure of the Grand Champs des Morts - Istanbul's `City of the Dead,' a world-renowned necropolis which had provided inspiration, as well as an ideal, for the cemetery reformers of Europe.

Footnotes

1 By some accounts, the earliest interments at the Grand Champs des Morts date to c. 1560, when Istanbul was struck with a severe epidemic of plague, and the open fields around Taksim were used to bury the great numbers of dead; see Istanbul Ansiklopedisi, s.v. `Ermeni Mezarliklari.' The tombstone of a Dutch physician, Willem Quackelbeen, who died of the disease in 1561, offers physical evidence of this conjecture. It is currently located in the Roman Catholic cemetery at Feriköy, where it was most likely transferred when the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts closed in the mid-1800s, see A.H. de Groot, Old Dutch Graves at Istanbul, Archivum Ottomanicum 5 (1973): 6. Robert Walsh, chaplain to the British Embassy at Istanbul in the 1830s, recounted in his memoirs that the earliest grave-marker in the Frankish burial ground was that of Ludovicus Chizzolo, a Jesuit who succumbed to the plague in 1585, see R. Walsh, A Residence at Constantinople, vol. 2 (London: Richard Bentley, 1838), 441. 2 Calembourg: a pun, or play on words. 3 Julia Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 4th ed. (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1854), 51. 4 Ibid., 53-54. 5 For instance, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, writing in 1717, commented: `The burying fields about it (i.e., Istanbul) are certainly much larger than the whole city. `Tis surprising what a vast deal of land is lost this way in Turkey. Sometimes I have seen burying places of several miles, belonging to very inconsiderable villages. . . .' See Hans-Peter Laqueur, `Cemeteries in Orient and Occident: The Historical Development,' in Cimetières et Traditions Funéraires dans le Monde Islamique (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basýmevi, 1996), 2: 3. 6 An American, Sketches of Turkey in 1831 and 1832 (New York: J. & J. Harper, 1833), 158. 7 James Stevens Curl, The Victorian Celebration of Death (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd.), 17. 8 These included West Norwood (1837); Highgate (1839); Brompton, Nunhead, and Abney Park (1840); and Tower Hamlets (1841). 9 Charles Dickens, The Uncommercial Traveller (London: Oxford, 1860) 233. 10 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 36. 11 John Claudius Loudon, `On the Laying Out, Planting, and Managing of Cemeteries and on the Improvement of Churchyards.' The Gardener's Magazine, 1843, p. 100. 12 Ibid., 405. 13 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50. 14 Thomas A. Kselman, Death and the Afterlife in Modern France, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993, 169-70. 15 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50. 16 Charles White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, vol. 1 (London: Henry Colburn, 1846), 15-16. 17 Stephen Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn (New York: Carlton & Philips, 1854), 249. 18 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 51. 19 White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, 1: 15-16. 20 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 134-35. 21 Petusier further states: `To form a correct idea of these heterogeneous scenes, we must be on the spot, for no description can do justice to them; and even when we see them, for the first time, it appears such a complete illusion, that we can scarsely conceive its reality.' See Charles Petusier, Picturesque Promenades in and near Constantinople and on the Waters of the Bosphorus (London: Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 1820), 96. 22 Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn, 219. 23 E.D.G. Prime, Memoirs of Rev. William Goodell, D.D. (Robert Carter and Brothers, 1876), 275. 24 Burial Registry of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, no. 331-343, 1863, Governing Board of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, Istanbul, Turkey. 25 Zeynep Çelik, The Remaking of Istanbul, Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1986, 69. 26 For a copy of this image, see Çelik Gülersoy, Taksim: Bir Meydanýn Hikayesi (Istanbul: ‹stanbul Kitaplýý, 1986), 37. 27 Some tombstones from the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts still survive in the Protestant and Catholic cemeteries in Istanbul's Feriköy district, where they were transferred after the old burial ground closed in the mid-1800s.

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