Difference between revisions of "Istanbul"

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Yaklaşık 60.000 Ermeniler - hesaba ile [[Türkiye]] 'de büyük şehir, hemen hemen tüm ülkenin kalan Ermeniler. Seat İstanbul]] ve [[Ermeni Patrikliği'nin.
+
[[File:Constantinople demographics-1881.png|thumb|400px|Demographic breakout of Constantinople in 1881.]]
 +
Formerly Constantinople. Called Bolis or Polis (Պոլիս) by Armenians, a clipping of Կոստանդնուպոլիս (Kostandnupolis).
  
=== Kumkapı ===
+
Largest city in [[Turkey]], with about 60,000 Armenians today - which account for most of Turkey's remaining Armenians. Seat of the [[Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople]].
  
1453 yılında fethi ardından Kumpaki alan başlıca tarafından iskân edilmiştir
+
===Kumkapi===
Müslüman olmayan Karamanlis ve on yedinci yüzyılda meşhur oldu
 
onun taverns için Türk yazar ve gezgin göre
 
Evliya Çelebi. Onun çağdaş ve İstanbul'un bir tarih yazar,
 
Ereemya Çelebi Komurciyan, kayıtlar ilçe Yunan ve Ermeni
 
kilise ve tahrip ateşler. İstanbul onun Topoğrafya, In
 
Hovhannnesyan Kumkapı, kraliyet sarayı ve büyük evlerin açıklanır
 
Burada, katir Han (kentsel Kervansaray) ve çarşı.
 
  
Little Kumkapı öncesi 19. yüzyılda binalar nedeniyle kalır
+
Following the conquest in 1453 the Kumpaki area was mainly settled by
yangınlar, ancak bir ilçe olan meyhane ve balık için ünlü kalır
+
non-Muslim Karamanlis, and by the seventeenth century was famous
restoranlar.
+
for its taverns according to the Turkish writer and traveller
 +
Evliya celebi. His contemporary and author of a history of Istanbul,
 +
Ereemya Celebi Komurciyan, records the district's Greek and Armenian
 +
churches and fires which destroyed it. In his Topography of Istanbul,
 +
Hovhannnesyan describes the grand houses of Kumkapi, a royal palace
 +
here, katir Han (an urban kervansaray) and bazaar.
  
=== Grand Champs des Morts ===
+
Little remains from the pre-19th century buildings of Kumkapi due
 +
to fires, but it remains a district famous for its taverns and fish
 +
restaurants.
  
Fountain Magazine, NJ <br>
+
==Armenian Landmarks==
31 Aralık 2004
+
The Central Prison of Constantinople, where over 200 Armenian intellectuals were gathered and held on April 24, 1915, before being moved and virtually all killed, now houses the Turkish-Islamic Arts Museum.
  
Ölüler İstanbul'un Vanished Şehir: Grand Champs des Morts
+
===Eastern Diocese Visit===
 +
PRESS OFFICE
 +
Diocese of the Armenian Church of America (Eastern)
 +
630 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10016
 +
Tel: (212) 686-0710; Fax: (212) 779-3558
 +
E-mail: publicrelations@armeniandiocese.org
 +
Website: http://www.armenianchurch-ed.net
  
İHTİYAÇ DÜZENLEME sadece parçalar Ermeniler alakalı kurtarmak için!
+
October 28, 2011
 +
_______________________________________________
  
Beyin JOHNSON By
 
  
zengin ve çeşitli mimarlık tarihinin yüzyıllar barındıran ile
+
Pilgrims from the Eastern Diocese Visit Istanbul's Historic Armenian
İstanbul dünyanın en ünlü şehirlerinden biridir. Ayrıca
+
Landmarks
muhteşem anıtları ile, Bizans ve Osmanlı mirası klasik,
 
İstanbul'un mezarlıklar aynı zamanda ünlü katkıda bulunmuştur.
 
Tarihsel olarak, Eyüp, Üsküdar ve Grand muazzam nekropollerinden
 
Champs des Morts Pera en dikkat çekmiştir. bu sırada
 
İlk iki mezarlıkları hala bir ikinci dayandı sadece hayatta
 
bellek - seyahat hesapların sayfalarda açıklanan, eski resmedilen
 
gravür ve haritalar ve tangibly bir saçılma anlaşılır
 
bir zamanlar onun geniş coğrafyaya yayılmış süslemektedir mezar anıtları. Ancak, biraz üzerinde
 
yüz elli yıl önce, Grand Champs des Morts olarak var
 
Dünyanın büyük nekropoller ile. Bir bölge nerede yaşıyor
 
ölü ile iç içe, bu ilgi ve hayal roused
 
reform ve bir çağda İstanbul'a ziyaretçi, ve, daha önemlisi,
 
değiştirmek ve çağdaş tasarımcılar için bir model ilham teklif
 
Batı Avrupa'da mezarlıkları.
 
  
geri on altıncı yüzyıldan kalma 1 Grand Champs des Morts oldu
 
İstanbul'un nekropoller arasında, mezar zemin ile benzersiz
 
yakın hem de İslam ve Hıristiyanlık takipçileri.
 
Taksim az (site kabaca tarihinden itibaren nerede Atatürk Kültür
 
Merkezi artık) standları ve Gümüþsuyu ve eteklerinde aşağı uzanan
 
Yöre germe sırasında Fýndýklý, Müslümanların mezarları yatıyordu
 
Harbiye kuzeye doğru ayrı bölüme için ayrıldı
 
Şehrin muhtelif Hıristiyan cemaatleri. İngiliz gezgin Julia
 
Pardoe 1836 yılında alanını anlatır:
 
  
baraka geçtikten sonra zemin ilk arsa, topçu [
+
On the final leg of a pilgrimage to historic Armenian sites in present-day
Taksim] at Selim III kışla, Franklar mezarını-tersane olduğunu;
+
Turkey, a group from the Diocese of the Armenian Church of America (Eastern)
ve burada Latince yazıtlar ile her tarafta karşılaşacaksınız;
+
toured some of the great Armenian centers of Istanbul, and met with
ruhları için dua etmeyi emir The Departed, geliştiği ve
+
community members and municipal dignitaries.  
Fransız duygu; calembourgs2 oyma sonsuz taş,
 
gül ve Reine Marguerites ve tedavisi; özlü İngilizce kayıtların
 
doğum, ölüm, yaş ve hastalıkları; pişmanlık İtalyan elaborations
 
ve umutsuzluk ve sıradan bir mezar-ground.3 tüm ortak yerler
 
  
 +
The pilgrimage began last week, with Archbishop Khajag Barsamian, Primate of
 +
the Diocese of the Armenian Church of America (Eastern), leading a group of
 +
Diocesan leaders to the city of Diarbekir (Dikranakert), where they took
 +
part in the October 22 re-consecration of the historic St. Giragos Armenian
 +
Church.
  
Hemen Avrupa mezarlık bir çizgi olarak, bir
+
The group, which included the Diocese's Ecumenical Director, Archbishop
Ermenilerin mezar-zemin. Bu kalın-peopled nokta ve aynı
+
Vicken Aykazian, had to cancel a scheduled trip to the historic Armenian
sen kokulu akasya ve yapraklı dallar ve altında dolaşmak
+
region of Van due to the October 23 earthquake in that area. Instead, they
mezarlar arasında iplik senin yol, sen bir özelliği ile vurdu vardır
+
toured monuments and churches in the vicinity of Mardin. But they resumed
onların yazıtlar. Asil Ermeni karakteri derin oyma olduğunu
+
plans on Monday, October 24, when they returned to Istanbul.  
taş içine; isim ve tarih usulüne uygun ve hükümleri, ancak bu,
 
render Ermeni levha. . . tuhaf ve farklı olan bir
 
mezar ticaret veya meslek amblemi üzerine keskileme
 
rahmetli.
 
  
Türk mezarlık arkasındaki tepenin yamacı boyunca uzanan
+
That afternoon the pilgrims visited one of Istanbul's most famous and
baraka ve çok vadiye iniyor. Onun kalın-dikti
+
enduring Armenian institutions: the 125-year-old Getronagan Armenian School.
selvi yoğun bir gölge, form olan uzun boylu kafa taşları altında
+
There, director Silva Kuyumcuyan welcomed the pilgrims to the school, which
parıltı dışında beyaz ve korkunç. Koru patikalar tarafından kesilmiştir
+
remains a thriving hub of Armenian cultural activity and education. She
ve orada burada yeşil glade güneşiyle, gösteriş için sağlar
+
introduced the young teaching staff, and answered questions from the
nice yaldızlı mezar üzerine. Dalma daha kalın karanlığa
+
visitors.  
kapalı noktalar ve bir an için neredeyse sizin stand düşünecek
 
Bazı harap kentin kalıntıları arasında. Sen çevrilidir ne
 
bir an için sayısız parçaları gibi görünen bazı güçlü
 
bütün ama kasvet sen aldatmış - Bir ortasında bulunmaktadır
 
Nekropol - The Dead.4 bir Şehir
 
  
Genişlik ve Grand Champs des Morts doğal güzellik
+
On Tuesday morning the group visited the Armenian Patriarchate, where they
yabancı sakinleri ve İstanbul'a ziyaretçilerin ilgisini ele
+
were welcomed by Archbishop Aram Ateshian, the Patriarchal Vicar. He spoke
benzer ve çok az seyahat hesapları ve geçmişten günlükler başarısız
+
about the centuries-old Armenian community of the city, and about the
anma - bile sadece referans geçerken - mezarlık üzerinde
+
churches, schools, and other Armenian institutions which have proliferated
Pera eteklerinde. Grand Champs des Morts sunulan keskin
+
throughout its history.  
olarak görev yoğun dolu şehir içi churchyards aksine
 
böylece Avrupa şehirleri kadar birçok başlıca gömü alanına
 
On dokuzuncu yüzyıl. Bazı tarihçiler büyüklüğü dikkate rağmen
 
Pera mezarlık yanı sıra büyük nekropoller sınırlayan diğer
 
İstanbul, kentsel genişleme ve bir engel ilçelerinde
 
arazi gibi geniş, orman yolları geliştirilmesi, 5 avantaj
 
ölünün defin için de tanındı.
 
  
Çok uzak olmayan bu [Taksim'den biz onlardan biri geniş İstinaden girdi]
+
Archbishop Ateshian led the American visitors on a tour of the Patriarchate,
biri en göze çarpan özelliklerinden form gömme-zemin
+
culminating in a visit to the St. Mary Armenian Cathedral across from the
Her Türk şehri. . . Birkaç kelime. . . Ben devlet olabilir ki
+
Patriarchate, where the pilgrims held a prayer service. They also saw the
mezarlık. . . Fazla 100 dönümlük bir alanı kaplar ve kalın
+
Bezcian Armenian School, located next to the cathedral.  
selvi orman (şeklinde kavak benzeyen, ama bir karanlık
 
yapraklar) yeşil bir ciddi gölge, onu overspreads son derece
 
onun sıradan kullanır uygun. . 0,6
 
  
Batı Avrupa'da mezarlığı planlamacıları, üzerinde kamu çağrıları ile mahmuzlu
 
hijyen ve yerel mezar zemin görünümünü yenilik,
 
İstanbul'da emsal - yanı sıra Doğu ve diğer alanlarda gösterdi - in
 
onların çaba şehir içi churchyards kapatmak ve bunların yerine
 
büyük, yerleşik alanları dışında daha yararlı mezarlıkları. Bu
 
reform süreci aslında Fransa'da sırasında başlayan onsekizinci
 
yüzyıl. Bu yazarlar tarafından natüralist gibi teşvik edildi
 
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737-1814), kim, onun kutladı Études içinde
 
de la Nature, ölü gömme Türk özel övdü
 
kırsal (bir gelenek de klasik antik ve gözlenen
 
çağdaş Çin) ve benzeri uygulanması önerilen
 
Paris uygulamaları. O `in gibi Elysees landscaped önerilen
 
büyük ve güzel, ve kamu mezarlıklarının mezar yerinde
 
(Aslında ölmüş gömülmüş olacaktır ve bahçeler
 
refah izin verilirse, anıtlar) dikildi. . . Kamu mezarlıkların
 
Kentin çevresinde ile ekili oluşturulmalıdır
 
selvi, çam ve meyve ağaçları ve anıt dikildi böyle bir
 
ayar yalnızca derin manevi duygular ve ihale neden olabilir
 
Onlardan ziyaret içinde melankolik. '7
 
  
ölü atılması için geç 1700 olarak, yeni yöntem bulundu
+
A Cosmopolitan Spirit
Avrupa'nın büyük kentlerinin çoğunda mutlak zorunluluk değil, sadece
 
estetik amaçlar için değil, halk sağlığı korumak için. the doğru
 
On sekizinci yüzyılın sonunda, Paris belediye aldı
 
gibi eski mezar alanları, kapatarak ilk adımları eski
 
Cimetière des Innocents, ve dahil olmak üzere yeni mezarlıklar, kuran
 
ünlü Père-Lachaise, Montparnasse ve Montmartre erken
 
Gelecek. eylem benzer bir ders biraz sonra Londra'da meydana
 
1832 yılında Kensal Green açılması ile başlayan, ilki
 
yedi yeni özel mezarlıkların Önümüzdeki on yıl içinde kurulmuş
 
1852 yılında city.8 Son eteklerinde, iç bütün mezarlıklar
 
şehir sınırları Büyükşehir yasası içine geçişini ile kapatıldı
 
Mezar Yasası. O zamana kadar, Londra'nın churchyards, birçok kalma
 
Orta Çağ, kritik bir durumda idi. Çağdaş dergi, The
 
Builder, 1843 yılında bu 50.000 organları yıllık tarihinde bir kazıklı söylediler
 
Bu kalabalık mezarları, diğer üst nereye - sola
 
çürütmek ve rot - onlar exhalations dışarı verdi ve hava karardı
 
buharlar. Charles Dickens sinik IN korkunç durum tasvir
 
Uncommercial Traveller:
 
  
Böyle garip churchyards Londra şehrinin gizlenen; churchyards
 
bazen o kadar tamamen üzerine evler, çok küçük, çok sıra, çok sıkışık
 
sessiz, bu nedenle, hiç aşağıya baktığım birkaç kişi dışında unuttun
 
onların dumanlı pencere içlerine seçin. Ben içinden gözetleme bakılırsa
 
demir kapı ve raylar, ben uzakta, kabuk gibi paslı metal soyabilirsiniz
 
Eski bir ağaçtan. Okunaksız mezar taşları hepsi yana yatmış olan
 
gravemounds olan yağmurlar bir yüz yıl önce şekil kaybetti,
 
Lombardiya Kavak ya da çınar ağacı bir kez drysalter kızı oldu
 
ve çok sayıda ortak councilmen, bu kodamanlar gibi ve solmuş olan
 
yaprakları yola altındaki toz vardır. Bulaşma yavaş Yıkımın
 
yer çıkıntılar. . 0,9
 
  
Göz önüne alındığında kasvetli, içinde gömü alanlarının sağlıksız durum onların
+
Later, the group had an opportunity to meet the U.S. Ambassador to Turkey,
Kendi ülkelerinde, hiç merak Avrupalıların çoğu beliğ mumlu bir
+
Francis Riccardone, along with U.S. Consul General Scott Kilner, at a
İstanbul mezarlıkları, hayatın aura vurgulayarak hangi
+
luncheon hosted by the mayor of greater Itanbul, Dr. Kadir Topbas.
Onlar yol açmıştır. Julia Pardoe özellikle canlı açıklamasına teklifi
+
Archbishop Ateshian also attended. Mayor Topbas warmly welcomed the group,
Osmanlı başkentinde meydana mezar alanlarının nerede mevcut
+
spoke about the city, and answered the group's questions in an open
nesil kolayca bu geçmişin ile birleşti.
+
dialogue.  
  
Türk] [ölüm üzerine sakin ve tutarsızlık olmayan bir görünüme sahiptir; yok
+
Archbishop Barsamian conveyed his thanks to the mayor. Speaking as one
biz de eğilimli olduğu gibi hüzün ve korku fikirleri ile bağlayın değil
+
familiar with Istanbul, he congratulated Mayor Topbas on the developments in
Avrupa'da yapmak, - o güneşli noktalar defnedilmesi yerlere yayılır - Doğum
+
the city under his leadership. "The cosmopolitan spirit-a feeling of
onlar ışık içinde kalmış olan gülüyor tepeler ve armalar
+
openness and progress- is a quality he has renewed in this city, and I have
mavi gökyüzü; şehir, en kalabalık caddelerinden yanında nerede
+
been impressed to see that happen."
öldü, sanki, bir kez daha yaşayan yoğrulmuş - içinde
 
Boğaz yeşil köşe uzanan aşağı, neyin daha bencil
 
ruhlar veya villa, antlaşma imzalamaktan gurur duyuyorum bir bağ dikti var. O
 
vefat nesil - o kendini tanımlar
 
onun yerine vermeye hazır olduğunu da onun own.10 kadar başarılı olabilir
 
  
Avrupa mezarlık reformcular için, bu tür açıklamalar bir teklif
+
Invoking the same spirit, the Primate said: "We have come from America as
daha sağlıklı arayışlarına ideal, estetik çekici
+
pilgrims. And we are pilgrims who are not only longing for the past, but
mezar zemin. in saçaklar üzerinde engebeli kırsal bulunan
+
pilgrims who are looking forward, with hope, to the future. To a future of
şehir, Grand Champs des Morts ve İstanbul'un diğer büyük
+
mutual respect and peace, for all of God's children."
nekropoller edenler oluşturmak için çabaladı için bir model olarak hizmet yeni
 
ölülerin sıhhi bertarafı için mezarlık yanı sıra sağlamak
 
biri en ihale ifade etmek için sakin bir ortam
 
duygu ve derin duyguları. Çağdaş yazar Samuel Taylor
 
Coleridge bile Türk mezar ve duygusal açıdan yorumladı
 
zeminler.
 
  
Hiçbir şey ve yatıştırıcı etkileri isteyenler için özür yapabilirsiniz
+
The day was rounded out with a reception hosted by Istanbul industrialist
doğa ve yenileme ve çürüme bu tür olmaması için
+
Ahmet Calik, where the group met parliamentarian and former professional
hangi alanları ve ormanları ve ciddi fark teklif
+
soccer star Hakan Sukur; and a dinner hosted by leaders of Istanbul's
dalgın zihin. Bu duygular kuvvet hissetmek için izin bir adam
+
Armenian community, in which the Patriarchate's Archbishop Ateshian and
sadece hayal olarak karşılaştırmak, çirkin şekilde hangi bizim
+
Bishop Sahag Mashalian also took part.  
anıtların birlikte meşgul içinde, gürültülü, kirli ve kalabalık
 
hala inzivaya büyük bir şehrin neredeyse grassless kilise,
 
Bazı uzak bir yerde bir Türk mezarlığı ve henüz daha
 
içinde olduğunu serviler koru kutsanmış embosomed.11 /
 
  
Grand Champs des Morts ve Türk diğer Özgü referans
+
Most of the Diocesan group departed Istanbul on Wednesday morning. "The
Archetypes Batı'da taklit etmek gibi mezarlıklarda da görünür
+
prevailing sentiment among us was gratitude for the opportunity to
John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), en birinin yazıları
+
participate in a once-in-a-lifetime event, the re-consecration of an ancient
On dokuzuncu yüzyılın etkili mezarlık reformcular. Bir İskoç
+
Armenian church," said Sandra Shahinian Leitner, speaking of her fellow
peyzaj mimarı, Loudon o mezar gerekçesiyle gerektiğini önerdi
+
pilgrims. "In our visit to our ancestral homes, we gained a deeper
tehlikeye değil kent merkezlerinde yüksek yer, uzak yeterli
+
understanding of the magnitude of our forebears' sacrifice and dedication.
zaman ve azaltmak için yeterince yakın halk sağlığı, henüz
+
We were also touched by the warmth of the hospitality shown to us."
cenaze masraf ve mezarlar için yaşayan ziyaretleri teşvik
 
ölü. Sitenin çekici kılmak için, o yana bir bahçe gibi
 
, Ayar ve ağaçları ve çeşitli tip dikim önerdi
 
çalılar. İstanbul'un nekropoller Bunlardan örnek modeller teklif
 
ilkeleri, Loudon eserlerinde bunları açıklamaları alıntı
 
mezarlık planlama ve tasarım. `, Türk mezarlıkları bulunmaktadır
 
genellikle şehir dışına, yükselen zeminde, Sedir ile ekili,
 
selvi, ve kimin derin yeşillik ve zarif kokulu çalı,
 
formları her meltemle eğilmesi yere, melankolik bir güzellik vermek
 
ve heyecanlandırmak duygular çok hedefine hoş. '12
 
  
doğanın ortasında İstanbul'un mezarlık yeri dışında
+
Remaining in Istanbul, Archbishop Barsamian and Archbishop Vicken Aykazian
ve yaşam yaşama kaldırılır, yerel gelenek
+
visited Istanbul's Sisli district, where there is a large Armenian
Tek interments de Avrupa gözlemciler etkiledi. Olarak Julia
+
population with a church, school, and cemetery. They met the district mayor
Pardoe, ölülerin bir kez laid rahatsız değildi kalır demişti
+
and its deputy mayor, Vazken Barinian. The two archbishops also visited the
bir uygulama hem Müslüman ve Hıristiyan mezar takip dinlenme için
+
offices of the Armenian newspapers Jamanak, Marmara, and Agos.  
Grand Champs des Morts gerekçesiyle. `Hayır ve gömme Vardır
 
Aynı yerde, aynı bizimle reburying. Kalıntıları ayrıldı
 
kutsaldır. '13 yer Avrupalılar - büyük ölçüde nedeniyle tezat olarak
 
onların yoğun nüfuslu şehirlerde kısıtlamalar - düzenli açıldı
 
Mevcut mezar ve yeni kadavra ile dolu, nokta bu
 
Bazı churchyards tehlikeli çukurlar, ciddi tehlikeye oldu
 
halk sağlığı. Geç onsekizinci yüzyılın bu sağlıksız By
 
koşullar dayanılmaz hale gelmişti. etkisi ile
 
çoğu mezar uygulamalarından ilham aldı reformcular,
 
Osmanlılar, yeni yasalar yöntemleri düzenleyen tesis edildi
 
ölülerin olunuz. Bir Fransız kararname 1804 yılında, örneğin, geçti
 
ölüler kadar yığılı olduğunu sık mezarları, yasak mezar
 
bir other.14 yerine üstüne her kadavra toprağa verilecek edildi
 
kendi alanı, belirli bir derinliğe kadar kazdılar ve ayrılmış diğer
 
bir dizi mesafe, defin için bir yöntem sonunda kabul tarafından mezar
 
diğer Avrupa ülkelerinde de.
 
  
Osmanlı mezar uygulamaları devamını Ancak, benzersiz sosyal yaşam daha
+
Thursday morning both archbishops visited the Balikli Armenian cemetery,
hangi İstanbul'un mezarlık çevresinde Grand özellikle dönüyordu
+
where they offered prayers at the gravesite of the late journalist Hrant
Champs des Morts, yabancıların ilgi uyandırdı. Hem Müslüman
+
Dink, murdered in 2007 for his outspoken advocacy of Genocide recognition.  
Şehrin Hıristiyan sakinleri için farklı ritüeller takip
 
tüm dini algılamasına kendi ölü ve aileleri hatırlama
 
kendi mezar alanına, bakımı yapılacak düzenli ziyaretler
 
Onları önce yaşadıkları nesiller ile bağlantısını tıklayın. Hoş
 
mezarlıkların (yerlerin çevresinde önlemek için Avrupa'nın
 
belediyeler) bu birliğin teşvik ayrıldı.
 
Ayrıca, büyük nekropoller yerler için istirahat daha bulundu
 
ölü. `Champs des Morts, 'Julia Pardoe,` anlatıyor gibi bir
 
bütün halkın gezinti - Türk, Frank, Yunan ve Ermeni. .
 
. '15 Bu Hoppala bir yere veya bir alanı olarak yerli biliniyordu
 
kolaylığı ve enjoyment.16 Geniş, ferah, yeşil ile bağlı ve
 
Pera, mezar yerleşim mahalleye yakın
 
zemin park bir tür olarak hizmet - dinlenme ve çekici bir alan
 
İstanbul halkı için gevşeme.
 
  
ne olursa olsun onlar bu ziyaretlerde görüş ile, belli ki
+
The two then visited the Sourp Prgich (Holy Savior) Armenian Hospital, where
gömme-zemin onlar çok harcamak en sevdikleri tatil beldesi, bir
+
they were received by Bedros Shirinoglu-the chairman of the hospital board
bunların yedek saat. Tüm aileler, veliler ve küçük çocuklar, olabilir
+
and a great benefactor of the Istanbul community-along with other board
sessizlik ve ciddiyet, veya bir mezar çevresinde toplanan görülebilir
+
members. They toured the modernized hospital. Then, with Archbishop
ve neşeli sohbet animasyonlu. Tüm gömme-gerekçesiyle, Türk,
+
Ateshian, they paid a special visit to His Beatitude Archbishop Mesrob
, Yahudi ve Hıristiyan, resort.17 kamu şefi yerlerdir
+
Mutafyan, the Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul, who has been undergoing an
 +
extended hospitalization. In his presence the three archbishops offered
 +
prayers.  
  
Grand Champs des Morts bile tepeye bir kafe vardı
+
Archbishop Barsamian and Archbishop Aykazian will be traveling to the
Dolmabahçe, bakan nerede müşterilerin olabilir süre Günün
+
Republic of Armenia, where the Primate will represent the Eastern Diocese at
sigara su boruları, Türk kahvesi içme ve at bakan
+
a gathering of church leaders at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. They
the distance.18 geziciliği içinde Boğaz'ın köpüklü suları
+
will also take part in the anniversary celebrations honoring His Holiness
satıcıları, mezarlığın üzerinden içecekler sunan gezindi
+
Karekin II, the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians.  
ziyaretçi. Su satıcıları genellikle ardından, büyük taşıma takip
 
damlama kavanoz ve farklı ağlama buz hazırsındır bağırarak su!
 
(Buz gibi su), 19 o veya gezinme susuzluk gidermek için hazır
 
mezarlar arasında uzanmanız.
 
  
Ancak, Avrupalılar için belki de en ilginç görüş kamu edildi
+
--
fuarlar Nekropol düzenlenen. Daha adil bir yer için daha
 
anma, sessiz tefekkür ve yaslanmak, Grand Champs des
 
Morts da canlı festivaller ve kutlamalar yerdi. Bu tür
 
durumlarda, gömü alanına - öncelikle bu Hıristiyanların - edildi
 
şenlik ve eğlence bir animasyonlu gözlük dönüştürülmüştür. Julia
 
Pardoe rengarenk detay yaşayanlar için böyle bir fête açıklanır
 
ölülerin anıtları arasında.
 
  
Ben zaten başka kayıtsızlık, konuştum mutlak değilse
+
Photos attached: Pilgrims from the Eastern Diocese pose for a group photo at
zevk olan nüfusu ile sık sık Doğu onların
+
the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople with Archbishop Aram Ateshian,
gerekçelerle gömme; ama daha bu festival vesilesiyle
+
the Patriarchal Vicar.  
her zamankinden daha ölçüde etkiledi bu da yapılır ekledi. Bütün
 
Hıristiyan mezarlığı adil bir görünümünü üstlenmişti. . .
 
  
 +
===Grand Champs des Morts===
  
Mezar taşları, salıncaklar - Divanlarda desteklenen direkleri steadied
+
The Fountain Magazine, NJ<br>
konforlu yastıklar ile, ama basma kaplı overlaid
+
Dec 31 2004
pişirmek oyuğundan kazdık mezarları - The kibaub tüccarlar yaptıkları
 
mezarların sığınak altında dainties ve sigara kabinleri vardı
 
bolca sandalye ve masalar aynı geniş atık itibaren birlikte
 
ölüm.
 
  
Her yüz metre ki ileri, sahne daha çarpıcı oldu.
+
Istanbul's Vanished City of the Dead: The Grand Champs des Morts
küçücük çadırlarda Bir uzun çizgi geçici bir sokak kurdu
 
yeme-evler, orada kibaubs, pillauf vardı, börek, turşu
 
sebze, çorba, rulo ince otlar, sosis, kızarmış Dolgulu
 
Her kaliteli balık, ekmek, ve tüm boyutları kek. . . .
 
  
Orada burada düz bir mezar fancifully kaplı altın işlemeli
+
NEEDS EDITING to save only parts relevant to Armenians!!!
mendil, şekerleme ile kaplamak ve meyve korunmuş;
 
Bu rakip işyerlerinin ortasında, erkek grupları ise
 
bir daire içinde, her yerde küçük bir gölge elde edilebilir, oturmuş
 
Ile sessizlik içinde uzun boru sigara onların küçücük
 
kahve fincan yere yanlarında oturan. Ahşap köşk
 
Boğaz taşkın kalabalıktı ve birçok parti rahatça oldu
 
akasya arasında, sırtlarına mezarlar karşı istirahat ile niched
 
onların feet.20 ve güneş titreşen
 
  
 +
By Brain JOHNSON
  
Kuşkusuz, Avrupalılar ve alemlerinin birleştirerek şaşırdılar
+
With a rich and varied architecture embodying centuries of history,
yaşayan ve İstanbul'un Grand Champs des meydana geldi ölü
+
Istanbul is one of the world's most celebrated cities. Besides the
Morts, nerede, Fransız elçilik üyesi Charles Pertusier belirttiği gibi,
+
splendid monuments of its classical, Byzantine, and Ottoman heritage,
`Edenler sevinç lirik şarkılar ve rahatsız değildir ağlamak
+
Istanbul's cemeteries have also contributed to its renown.
o kim o kim ağlamaya hiç dikkat gülerim. '21 Ziyaret - çok
+
Historically, the vast necropolises of Eyüp, Üsküdar, and the Grand
daha az çekici kişinin zevk - mezar gerekçesiyle neredeyse olurdu
+
Champs des Morts in Pera have attracted the most notice. While the
Batı'da akıl almaz. Ancak, ilk yarısında
+
first two cemeteries still survive, the latter endures only as a
Ondokuzuncu yüzyılda, bu zaten kapatma ile değiştirmek başlamıştı
+
memory - described in the pages of travel accounts, depicted on old
şehir içi churchyards ve mezarlıkların kurulması üzerinde
+
engravings and maps, and tangibly perceptible in a scattering of
Avrupa'da kentsel alanların çevre. zengin ile Ekili
+
funerary monuments that once graced its broad expanse. Yet, just over
ağaçlar ve çalılar, mezar gerekçesiyle Paris ve Londra'da kuruldu
+
a hundred and fifty years ago, the Grand Champs des Morts existed as
Bu dönemde belirgin biçimde yeni bir tarz oluşturdu. Aslında
+
one of the world's great necropolises. A realm where the living
mezar bahçeleri, onlar mezarlıklar ve parklands her iki yaptı.
+
intermingled with the dead, it roused the interest and imagination of
Pere Lachaise, Montmartre, Kensal Green, ve gibi Burial gerekçesiyle
+
visitors to Istanbul, and, even more notably, in an age of reform and
Highgate doğal güzellikleri ile ünlü oldu ve edildi
+
change, offered inspiration and a model for contemporary designers of
yas tutanlar anmak isteyen uğrak - bugün gibi çok - her iki tarafından
+
cemeteries in Western Europe.  
ölü gibi ziyaretçiler meditasyon ve sakin bir yer arayan
 
yaslanmak.
 
  
İronik olarak, Avrupalılar bile on dokuzuncu yüzyılda olduğu gibi açılış edildi
+
Dating back to the sixteenth century,1 the Grand Champs des Morts was
Yeni mezar gerekçesiyle İstanbul bölümlerine gelen modelleri etkilenmiş
+
unique among Istanbul's necropolises, with burial grounds for
Hangi onlar ilham elde ettiği çok mezarlıkları
+
followers of both Islam and Christianity in close proximity.
(Grand Champs des Morts bölümleri dahil) kaybetti ediliyordu
+
Beginning at Taksim (roughly on the site where the Atatürk Cultural
hızlı kentsel gelişme sonrasında. Bu seyri sırasında
+
Center now stands) and extending down the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and
dönüşüm - isteği şehrin yeniden tarafından geçirdi
+
Fýndýklý lay the graves of Muslims, while the area stretching
çağdaş Batı moda - bu birçok kaçınılmaz oldu
+
northward toward Harbiye was divided into separate sections for the
İstanbul'un eski gömü alanına boyutu, azaltmak istiyorsunuz ya da gözden kaybolmak
+
city's various Christian communities. The English traveler Julia
harita tamamen. Kentin eşsiz öyle çok oldu onun
+
Pardoe describes the site in 1836:
hemen çevresi, ölü için büyük nekropoller tarafından alınmış bir
 
üzerinde farklı bir izlenim bıraktı göze çarpan özelliği, yabancı
 
Stephen Olin, 1853 yılında kaybı demişti gibi gezginler,
 
kentsel büyüme sonrasında mezarlıkları.
 
  
Gerçekten de öyle bir boşluk İstanbul çevresinde ölü ayrılmış oldu, büyük
+
The first plot of ground, after passing the barrack [the artillery
Bu artık mümkün onların mesken kutsallığına saygı duymaktır
+
barracks of Selim III at Taksim], is the grave-yard of the Franks;
büyük ölçüde yaşama kolaylık ve engel olmadan
+
and here you are greeted on all sides with inscriptions in Latin;
umumi tuvalet bile tüm kurban. kenti olarak Sınırsız
+
injunctions to pray for the souls of the departed; flourishes of
Ben çok çok daha fazla yer mezarlar ve işgal emin am
+
French sentiment; calembourgs2 graven into the everlasting stone,
canlıların yaşama tarafından daha mezar. Bütün ülke hakkında
+
treating of roses and reine Marguerites; concise English records of
Konstantinopolis, İşkodra ve Pera bu şekilde ve işgal edilen geniş bir
+
births, deaths, ages, and diseases; Italian elaborations of regret
mezar sayısı ve gömme gerekçesiyle surlar içinde içine alınır. Içinde
+
and despair; and all the common-places of an ordinary burial-ground.3
oluşturan yollar, sokaklar, ve binada, artık mümkün
 
onları yedek ve bir çoğu Caddeleri veya kaldırımları yapılmış üzerine Basamaklı
 
Heykel mezar taşları ve monuments.22
 
  
  
1840 ve 1910, İstanbul alanında kuzeye uzanan arasında
+
Immediately in a line with the European cemetery, is the
Taksim ½ iþli açık kırsal yoğun dönüştü
+
burial-ground of the Armenians. It is a thickly-peopled spot; and as
meskun konut yerleşim. Erken on dokuzuncu yüzyıl haritaları
+
you wander beneath the leafy boughs of the scented acacias, and
İstanbul'da bu yönde tarafından alınan çok alanın gösterisi
+
thread your way among the tombs, you are struck by the peculiarity of
ile Grand Champs des Morts olmayan Müslüman mezar alanları,
+
their inscriptions. The noble Armenian character is graven deeply
genişleme ana rotanın yolunda Frenk bölümü doğrudan.
+
into the stone; name and date are duly set forth; but that which
Zaten, 1842 yılına kadar bu mezarlık, bir de aşağı whittled ediliyordu
+
renders an Armenian slab. . . peculiar and distinctive, is the
Rahip William Goodell tarafından çağdaş hesap kanıtlıyor. One of
+
chiseling upon the tomb the emblem of the trade or profession of the
İstanbul'da Ermenilere Amerikan Board misyonu kurucuları,
+
deceased.  
Goodell onun dokuz yaşındaki oğlu Konstantin Washington için kaybetmişti
 
1841 yılında mide tifo ve bir Frenk bölümünde gömdüler
 
Grand Champs des Morts.
 
  
18 Şubat 1842. encroachments yüzünden. . . üzerine Frank
+
The Turkish cemetery stretches along the slope of the hill behind the
zemin gömme, ben sevgili çocuğun vücut çıkarmak zorunda kaldı.
+
barrack, and descends far into the valley. Its thickly-planted
mezar. . . derin ve kazdık olmuştu tabut pek nemli oldu.
+
cypresses form a dense shade, beneath which the tall head-stones
Her şey tatlı ve sessizdi. biz hazırladık yeni mezar
+
gleam out white and ghastly. The grove is intersected by footpaths,
Birkaç çubuklar uzak da derin ve kuru olduğunu ve orada biz, vücut koydu
+
and here and there a green glade lets in the sunshine, to glitter
Sakin yatakta dirilişi sabaha kadar dinlenmek için. Sevgili
+
upon many a gilded tomb. Plunge into the thick darkness of the more
çocuk, veda! 23
+
covered spots, and for a moment you will almost think that you stand
 +
amid the ruins of some devastated city. You are surrounded by what
 +
appears for an instant to be the myriad fragments of some mighty
 +
whole; but the gloom has deceived you - you are in the midst of a
 +
Necropolis - a City of the Dead.4
  
Ancak, küçük Constantinus'un huzur çok daha az sürdü
+
The vastness and natural beauty of the Grand Champs des Morts
Yine inşaat bir telaş rahatsız beklenen erken
+
captured the attention of foreign residents and visitors to Istanbul
anayola Taksim arasında çalışan genişletilmesi de dahil olmak üzere 1860,
+
alike, and few travel accounts and diaries from the past fail to
Pangaltý. Temmuz 1863 yılında, kalan bir düzine Amerikalılar fazla
+
mention - even if only in passing reference - the cemetery on the
Bu Constantine Washington Goodell in, dahil mezardan edildi
+
outskirts of Pera. The Grand Champs des Morts presented a sharp
Grand Champs des Morts eski Frank mezarlık. Onlar
+
contrast to the densely packed inner-city churchyards which served as
Birlikte onların mezar işaretleri ile taşındı yeni bir Protestan
+
the principal burial grounds in so many of Europe's cities up to the
Feriköy de mezarlık - Sultan I. Abdülmecit emriyle oluşturulan
+
nineteenth century. Although some chroniclers considered the size of
1850'ler - yeniden interment.24 arazi eski mezar tarafından işgal için
+
the Pera cemetery, as well as the great necropolises bordering other
zemin modern Batılı anlamda bir kamusal park (içine) dönük bir
+
districts of Istanbul, a hindrance to urban expansion and
Proje sonunda daha sonra Taksim açılmasıyla birlikte altı yıl tamamlandı
+
development,5 the advantage of such a spacious, sylvan tract of land
Bahçe 1.869,25 içinde
+
for burial of the dead was also recognized.  
  
Taksim çevresindeki kentsel çevre sonraki genişletilmiş olarak
+
Not far from this [Taksim] we entered upon one of those vast
yıllardır, Grand Champs des Morts da diğer mezar alanına
+
burying-grounds which form one of the most conspicuous features of
kayboldu. Bu serinin kuzeyinde yatıyordu Ermeni mezarlığı
+
every Turkish city. . . In a few words. . . I may state that the
Frenk mezarlık, hala 1925-26 üzerinde belirlenen oldu
+
cemetery. . . covers an area of more than 100 acres, and that a thick
İstanbul Pervititch Sigorta haritalar, ama eski `ibareli-Cimetière
+
forest of cypresses (resembling in shape the poplar, but with a dark
Armenien, 'görünüşte böyle olması kalktığı gösteren aktif bir
+
green foliage) overspreads it with a solemn shade, extremely
defin yeri. olan Müslüman mezar gerekçesiyle çoğu
+
appropriate to its ordinary uses. . .6
Gümüþsuyu eteklerinde ve Fýndýklý kaplı zaten tarafından ortadan kaybolmuştu
 
Birinci Dünya Savaşı; bir hava fotoğrafı balon dan alındığı
 
O zamanlar küçük bir bölümünü gösterir - belirgin kalın bir yama gibi
 
selvi - hala Taksim arasındaki tepenin yan yayılan
 
Kışla Gumussuyu.26 kıt bir askeri hastanede kalır
 
bir zamanlar büyük bir nekropol tarafından ortadan kalkıncaya cekti
 
orta century.27 yirminci
 
  
büyük mezarlık olarak Bu arada küçüldü - uğruna feda
+
Cemetery planners in Western Europe, spurred on by public calls for
kamu Kolaylık - Avrupa'nın reformcular dönüşüm edildi
+
improvements to the hygiene and appearance of local burial grounds,
yaşam mekansal ilişki ve ölü Batı'da.
+
cited precedents in Istanbul - as well as other areas of the East - in
On dokuzuncu yüzyılda Avrupa mezar yenilikçi bir kavram tanık
+
their effort to close inner-city churchyards and replace them with
geniş getirilmesi, muhteşem ile zemin tasarımı,
+
larger, more salubrious cemeteries outside settled areas. This
peyzajlı mezarlıkları. Sakin ve güzel, onlar yaptı
+
process of reform essentially began in France during the eighteenth
birçok kasaba ve şehir ek kamu parkları. küçük, Oysa
+
century. It was encouraged by authors such as the naturalist
önceki yaştan zararlı churchyards, shunned olmuştu yeni
+
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737-1814), who, in his celebrated Études
nekropoller rahatlatıcı bir veya yürüyüş için ideal bir yer olarak kabul edildi
+
de la Nature, praised the Turkish custom of burying the dead in the
aile gezisi değil, normal hac Bir site ödemek için söz
+
countryside (a tradition also observed in classical antiquity and
saygı iyi ölü ekledi. Özel ve tutum bu değişim
+
contemporary China) and recommended the implementation of similar
reform onlarca yıl, en doruk noktası olan - oldu hayır küçük
+
practices in Paris. He proposed `landscaped Élysées as the
ölçüde - diğer topraklarda gömme gelenekleri esinle
+
burial-place of the great and good, and public cemeteries
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu da dahil olmak üzere. Dikkat çekici, bir seferde iken Osmanlı
+
(essentially landscaped gardens where the dead would be buried and,
aktif Avrupa'dan bir fikir ve kurumların borçlanma edildi
+
if prosperity allowed, monuments erected). . . Public cemeteries
çaba imparatorluğu modernleştirmek için, mezar kendi asırlık gümrük
+
should be created in the vicinity of the city, planted with
ölü ve anma hayati bir sosyal önceden yakıt oldu
+
cypresses, pines, and fruit-trees, and monuments erected in such a
Çok ülkelerin rehberlik baktı. Aynı zamanda,
+
setting could only induce profound moral feelings and tender
Batı tarafından Osmanlı başkentinde kentsel gelişim, etkili
+
melancholy in those who visited them.'7
modelleri, Grand Champs des Morts kapanmasına - neden İstanbul'un
 
`City of the Dead," verdiğini dünyaca tanınan bir nekropol
 
ilham, ideal olarak, mezarlığında reformcular için
 
Avrupa.
 
  
Dipnotlar
+
By the late 1700s, new methods for disposing of the dead were of
 +
absolute necessity in most of Europe's major cities, and not simply
 +
for esthetic purposes, but for maintaining public health. Toward the
 +
end of the eighteenth century, the municipality of Paris took the
 +
first steps by closing old burial grounds, such as the ancient
 +
Cimetière des Innocents, and establishing new cemeteries, including
 +
the famed Père-Lachaise, Montparnasse, and Montmartre early in the
 +
next. A similar course of action occurred somewhat later in London,
 +
commencing with the opening of Kensal Green in 1832, the first of
 +
seven new private cemeteries founded over the next decade on the
 +
outskirts of the city.8 Finally, in 1852, all graveyards inside the
 +
city limits were closed with the passage into law of the Metropolitan
 +
Burial Act. By that time, London's churchyards, many dating from the
 +
Middle Ages, were in a critical state. One contemporary journal, The
 +
Builder, asserted in 1843 that 50,000 bodies yearly were piled one on
 +
top of the other in these overcrowded graveyards, where - left to
 +
putrefy and rot - they gave out exhalations and darkened the air with
 +
vapors. Charles Dickens cynically portrayed the grim situation in the
 +
Uncommercial Traveller:
  
1 ile bazı hesapları, Grand Champs des de erken interments
+
Such strange churchyards hide in the City of London; churchyards
Morts tarih c. için 1560, İstanbul ile kalmış oldu şiddetli
+
sometimes so entirely pressed upon by houses, so small, so rank, so
veba salgını ve Taksim çevresindeki açık alanlar için kullanılan
+
silent, so forgotten, except by the few people who ever look down
ölü çok sayıda gömmek; görmek İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, sv
+
into them from their smokey windows. As I stand peeping in through
`Ermeni Mezarliklari. ' Hollandalı bir doktor, Willem bir mezar taşı
+
the iron gates and rails, I can peel the rusty metal off, like bark
Quackelbeen, 1561 yılında hastalığa bağlı ölüm, fiziksel teklifi
+
from an old tree. The illegible tombstones are all lopsided, the
Bu varsayım kanıtı. Şu anda Roma bulunur
+
gravemounds lost their shape in the rains of a hundred years ago, the
Feriköy, büyük ihtimalle nakledildi de Katolik mezarlık
+
Lombardy Poplar or Plane-Tree that was once a drysalter's daughter
Grand Champs des Morts of Frank bölümünde kapalı zaman
+
and several common-councilmen, has withered like those worthies, and
mid-1800s, Groot de AH görmek, Archivum İstanbul Eski Hollanda Graves
+
its departed leaves are dust beneath it. Contagion of slow ruin
Ottomanicum 5 (1973): 6. Robert Walsh, British için papaz
+
overhangs the place . . .9
Büyükelçiliği İstanbul 1830'larda, anılarında o anlattı
+
 
Frank mezarlık içinde eski mezar işareti olarak bu
+
Considering the dismal, unwholesome state of burial grounds in their
Ludovicus Chizzolo bir Cizvit için 1585 yılında görmek veba dayanamadı
+
own countries, it is no wonder that Europeans often waxed eloquent
R. Walsh, İstanbul'a bir Residence, vol. 2 (London: Richard
+
about the cemeteries of Istanbul, highlighting the aura of life which
Bentley, 1838), 441.
+
they engendered. Julia Pardoe offers a particularly vivid description
2 Calembourg: bir cinas veya kelimeleri oynarlar.
+
of the burial grounds in the Ottoman capital, where the present
3 Julia Pardoe, Sultan, 4 ed City. (Londra: George
+
generation readily merged with those of the past.
Routledge and Sons, 1854), 51.
+
 
4 agy., 53-54.
+
[The Turk] looks upon death calmly and without repugnance; he does
5 Örneğin, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, 1717, yazma
+
not connect it with ideas of gloom and horror, as we are too prone to
yorumladı: `Burada gömme alanları (yani, İstanbul) yaklaşık
+
do in Europe, - he spreads his burial places in the sunniest spots - on
kesinlikle çok tüm şehir daha büyüktür. `Tis şaşırtıcı ne
+
the crests of the laughing hills, where they are bathed in the light
Arazinin büyük anlaşma Türkiye'de bu şekilde kaybolur. Bazen gördüm
+
of the blue sky; beside the crowded thoroughfares of the city, where
Çok önemsiz ait birkaç mil yerlerde gömme
+
the dead are, as it were, once more mingled with the living, - in the
köy. . . . ' Bak Hans-Peter Laqueur, `Orient Mezarlıklar ve
+
green nooks that stretch down to the Bosphorus, wherein more selfish
Batı: Tarihsel Gelişimi, 'Cimetières et Geleneklerde
+
spirits would have erected a villa, or have planted a vineyard. He
 +
identifies himself with the generation which has passed away - he is
 +
ready to yield his place to that which is to succeed his own.10
 +
 
 +
For the cemetery reformers of Europe, such descriptions offered an
 +
ideal in their quest for more wholesome, esthetically appealing
 +
burial grounds. Located in the hilly countryside on the fringes of
 +
the city, the Grand Champs des Morts and Istanbul's other great
 +
necropolises served as a model for those who strove to create new
 +
cemeteries for the sanitary disposal of the dead, as well as provide
 +
an idyllic environment for the expression of one's most tender
 +
feelings and deepest sentiments. Contemporary author Samuel Taylor
 +
Coleridge even commented on the emotive aspect of Turkish burial
 +
grounds.
 +
 
 +
Nothing can make amends for the want of the soothing influences of
 +
nature, and for the absence of those types of renovation and decay
 +
which the fields and woods offer to the notice of the serious and
 +
contemplative mind. To feel the force of this sentiment, let a man
 +
only compare in imagination, the unsightly manner in which our
 +
monuments are crowded together in the busy, noisy, unclean, and
 +
almost grassless churchyard of a large town, with the still seclusion
 +
of a Turkish cemetery in some remote place, and yet further
 +
sanctified by the grove of cypresses in which it is embosomed.11 /
 +
 
 +
Specific reference to the Grand Champs des Morts and other Turkish
 +
cemeteries as archetypes to imitate in the West also appear in the
 +
writings of John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), one of the most
 +
influential cemetery reformers of the nineteenth century. A Scottish
 +
landscape gardener, Loudon proposed that burial grounds should be on
 +
elevated ground, distant enough from urban centers as not to endanger
 +
the health of the populace, yet near enough to lessen the time and
 +
expense of funerals and encourage visits by the living to the tombs
 +
of the dead. To make the site attractive, he favored a garden-like
 +
setting, and suggested the planting of various types of trees and
 +
shrubs. Istanbul's necropolises offered exemplary models of these
 +
principles, and Loudon quoted descriptions of them in his works on
 +
burial ground planning and design. `The Turkish cemeteries are
 +
generally out of the city, on rising ground, planted with cedars,
 +
cypresses, and odoriferous shrubs, whose deep verdure and graceful
 +
forms bending in every breeze give a melancholy beauty to the place,
 +
and excite sentiments very congenial to its destination.'12
 +
 
 +
Besides the location of Istanbul's cemeteries in the midst of nature
 +
and removed from the habitations of the living, the local tradition
 +
of single interments also impressed European observers. As Julia
 +
Pardoe remarked, the remains of the dead were not disturbed once laid
 +
to rest, a practice followed in both the Muslim and Christian burial
 +
grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts. `There is no burying and
 +
reburying on the same spot, as with us. The remains of the departed
 +
are sacred.'13 In stark contrast, Europeans - largely due to space
 +
restrictions in their heavily populated cities - regularly opened
 +
existing graves and filled them with new cadavers, to the point that
 +
some churchyards became pestilential pits, seriously endangering
 +
public health. By the late eighteenth century these unsanitary
 +
conditions had become intolerable. Through the influence of
 +
reformers, many of whom took inspiration from the burial practices of
 +
the Ottomans, new laws were instituted regulating methods of
 +
disposing of the dead. A French decree passed in 1804, for instance,
 +
prohibited burial in common graves, where the dead were stacked up
 +
one on top of the other.14 Instead, each cadaver was to be buried in
 +
its own space, dug to a specific depth and separated from other
 +
graves by a set distance, a method of sepulture eventually adopted in
 +
other European countries as well.
 +
 
 +
More than Ottoman burial practices, however, the unique social life
 +
which revolved around Istanbul's cemeteries, especially in the Grand
 +
Champs des Morts, aroused the interest of foreigners. Both Muslim and
 +
Christian inhabitants of the city followed distinct rituals for
 +
remembering their dead, and families of all religious persuasions
 +
made regular visits to their respective burial grounds, maintaining
 +
their link with the generations which had preceded them. The pleasant
 +
surroundings of the cemeteries (places to avoid in Europe's
 +
municipalities) encouraged this communion with the departed.
 +
Moreover, the great necropolises were more than resting places for
 +
the dead. `The Champs des Morts,' as Julia Pardoe recounts, `is the
 +
promenade of the whole population - Turk, Frank, Greek, and Armenian. .
 +
.'15 It was known to the locals as a place of keyif, or an area
 +
connected with ease and enjoyment.16 Spacious, fresh, green, and in
 +
close proximity to the residential quarters of Pera, the burial
 +
ground served as a kind of parkland - an attractive area of rest and
 +
relaxation for the populace of Istanbul.
 +
 
 +
With whatever views they pay these visits, it is certain that the
 +
burying-ground is their favorite resort, where they spend many of
 +
their spare hours. Whole families, parents and little children, may
 +
be seen gathered around a tomb in silence and seriousness, or in
 +
animated and joyous converse. All the burying-grounds, Turkish,
 +
Jewish, and Christian, are chief places of public resort.17
 +
 
 +
The Grand Champs des Morts even had a cafe at the crest of the hill
 +
overlooking Dolmabahçe, where customers could while away the day
 +
smoking water pipes, drinking Turkish coffee, and gazing out at the
 +
sparkling waters of the Bosphorus in the distance.18 Itinerant
 +
vendors also wandered through the cemetery, offering refreshments to
 +
visitors. Water sellers usually followed in their wake, carrying huge
 +
dripping jars and shouting their distinctive cry buz gibi su!
 +
(ice-cold water),19 ready to quench the thirst of those strolling or
 +
lounging among the tombs.
 +
 
 +
Yet, perhaps the most fascinating sight for Europeans were the public
 +
fairs held in the necropolis. More than just a place for
 +
commemoration, quiet contemplation, and repose, the Grand Champs des
 +
Morts was also the site of lively festivals and celebrations. On such
 +
occasions, the burial grounds - primarily those of the Christians - were
 +
transformed into an animated spectacle of gaiety and amusement. Julia
 +
Pardoe describes in colorful detail one such fête for the living
 +
amongst the monuments of the dead.
 +
 
 +
I have already spoken elsewhere of the indifference, if not absolute
 +
enjoyment with which the inhabitants of the East frequent their
 +
burying grounds; but on the occasion of this festival I was more
 +
impressed than ever by the extent to which it is carried. The whole
 +
of the Christian cemetery had assumed the appearance of a fair. . .
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Grave-stones steadied the poles which supported the swings - divans,
 +
comfortably overlaid with cushions, were but chintz-covered
 +
sepulchers - the kibaub merchants had dug hollows to cook their
 +
dainties under the shelter of the tombs, and the smoking booths were
 +
amply supplied with seats and counters from the same wide waste of
 +
death.
 +
 
 +
Every hundred yards that we advanced, the scene became more striking.
 +
One long line of diminutive tents formed a temporary street of
 +
eating-houses; there were kibaubs, pillauf, fritters, pickled
 +
vegetables, soups, rolls stuffed with fine herbs, sausages, fried
 +
fish, bread of every quality, and cakes of all dimensions. . . .
 +
 
 +
Here and there a flat tomb, fancifully covered with gold-embroidered
 +
handkerchiefs, was overspread with sweetmeats and preserved fruits;
 +
while in the midst of these rival establishments, groups of men were
 +
seated in a circle, wherever a little shade could be obtained,
 +
smoking their long pipes in silence, with their diminutive
 +
coffee-cups resting on the ground beside them. The wooden kiosk
 +
overhanging the Bosphorus was crowded; and many a party was snugly
 +
niched among the acacias, with their backs resting against the tombs,
 +
and the sunshine flickering at their feet.20
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Undoubtedly, Europeans were amazed by the merging of the realms of
 +
the living and the dead that occurred at Istanbul's Grand Champs des
 +
Morts, where, as French embassy member Charles Pertusier remarked,
 +
`those who weep are not disturbed by the lyric songs of joy, and
 +
those who laugh pay no attention to those who weep.'21 Visiting - much
 +
less taking one's pleasure in - burial grounds would have been almost
 +
inconceivable in the West. However, in the first half of the
 +
nineteenth century, this had already begun to change with the closing
 +
of inner-city churchyards and the creation of cemeteries on the
 +
periphery of urban areas in Europe. Planted with a rich variety of
 +
trees and shrubs, the burial grounds founded in Paris and London
 +
during this era constituted a distinctly new style. Essentially
 +
funerary gardens, they served both as cemeteries and parklands.
 +
Burial grounds such as Pere Lachaise, Montmartre, Kensal Green, and
 +
Highgate became renowned for their natural beauty, and were
 +
frequented - much like today - both by mourners wishing to commemorate
 +
the dead as well as visitors seeking a quiet spot for meditation and
 +
repose.
 +
 
 +
Ironically, even as Europeans in the nineteenth century were opening
 +
new burial grounds influenced by models from Istanbul, sections of
 +
the very cemeteries from which they had derived inspiration
 +
(including portions of the Grand Champs des Morts) were being lost in
 +
the wake of rapid urban development. During the course of this
 +
transformation - spurred on by a desire to rebuild the city in
 +
contemporary Western fashion - it was inevitable that many of
 +
Istanbul's old burial grounds would lessen in size, or vanish
 +
completely from the map. The city was unique in that so many of its
 +
immediate environs were taken up by vast necropolises for the dead, a
 +
conspicuous feature which left a distinct impression on foreign
 +
travelers, such as Stephen Olin, who in 1853 remarked on the loss of
 +
the cemeteries in the wake of urban growth.
 +
 
 +
Indeed, so vast a space has been devoted to the dead around Istanbul,
 +
that it is no longer possible to respect the sanctity of their abode
 +
without interfering greatly with the convenience of the living, and
 +
even the entire sacrifice of public convenience. Immense as the city
 +
is, I am quite sure that much more ground is occupied by tombs and
 +
graves than by the habitations of the living. The whole country about
 +
Constantinople, Scutari, and Pera is occupied in this way, and a vast
 +
number of tombs and burying grounds are enclosed within the walls. In
 +
forming roads, streets, and in building, it is no longer possible to
 +
spare them, and one often treads upon causeways or pavements made of
 +
sculptured grave-stones and monuments.22
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Between 1840 and 1910, the area of Istanbul stretching northward from
 +
Taksim to ½iþli was transformed from open countryside to densely
 +
inhabited residential settlement. Early nineteenth-century maps of
 +
Istanbul show much of the area in this direction taken up by the
 +
non-Muslim burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts, with the
 +
Frankish section directly in the path of the main route of expansion.
 +
Already, by 1842, this burial ground was being whittled down, as a
 +
contemporary account by Reverend William Goodell attests. One of the
 +
founders of the American Board mission to the Armenians at Istanbul,
 +
Goodell had lost his nine-year-old son, Constantine Washington, to
 +
gastric typhoid in 1841 and buried him in the Frankish section of the
 +
Grand Champs des Morts.
 +
 
 +
February 18, 1842. On account of the encroachments. . . on the Frank
 +
burying ground, I had to remove the body of our beloved boy. The
 +
grave . . . had been dug deep, and the coffin was scarcely damp.
 +
Every thing was sweet and still. The new grave which we have prepared
 +
a few rods distant was also deep and dry; and there we laid the body,
 +
to rest in its quiet bed till the resurrection morning. Beloved
 +
child, farewell!23
 +
 
 +
However, little Constantine's tranquility lasted far less than
 +
expected, disturbed again by a flurry of construction in the early
 +
1860s, including the widening of the main road running from Taksim to
 +
Pangaltý. In July 1863, the remains of more than a dozen Americans,
 +
including those of Constantine Washington Goodell, were exhumed from
 +
the old Frankish burial ground in the Grand Champs des Morts. They
 +
were transferred, along with their grave markers, to a new Protestant
 +
cemetery in Feriköy - created by order of Sultan Abdülmecit I in the
 +
1850s - for re-interment.24 The land occupied by the former burial
 +
ground was turned into a public park (in a modern Western sense), a
 +
project finally completed six years later with the opening of Taksim
 +
Garden in 1869.25
 +
 
 +
As the urban environment around Taksim expanded in succeeding
 +
decades, the other burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts also
 +
disappeared. The Armenian cemetery, which lay to the north of the
 +
Frankish burial ground, was still delineated on the 1925-26
 +
Pervititch insurance maps of Istanbul, but labeled as `ex-Cimetière
 +
Armenien,' apparently indicating that it had ceased to be an active
 +
place of interment. Most of the Muslim burial grounds which had
 +
covered the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and Fýndýklý had already vanished by
 +
the First World War; an aerial photograph taken from a balloon at
 +
that time shows a small portion - evident as a thick patch of
 +
cypresses - still straddling the side of the hill between the Taksim
 +
barracks an the military hospital in Gumussuyu.26 The scant remains
 +
of the once great necropolis would cease to exist by the
 +
mid-twentieth century.27
 +
 
 +
All the while, as the great cemetery shrank - sacrificed for the sake
 +
of public convenience - reformers in Europe were transforming the
 +
spatial relationship of the living and dead in the West. The
 +
nineteenth century witnessed an innovative concept in European burial
 +
ground design, with the introduction of expansive, magnificently
 +
landscaped cemeteries. Serene and picturesque, they served as
 +
additional public parks in many towns and cities. Whereas the small,
 +
noxious churchyards of previous ages had been shunned, the new
 +
necropolises were considered an ideal place for a relaxing stroll or
 +
family outing, not to mention a site of regular pilgrimage to pay
 +
respects to the well-loved dead. This shift in custom and attitude
 +
was the culmination of several decades of reform, which - to no small
 +
extent - was inspired by the traditions of sepulture in other lands,
 +
including the Ottoman empire. Remarkably, at a time when the Ottomans
 +
were actively borrowing ideas and institutions from Europe in an
 +
effort to modernize the empire, their centuries-old customs of burial
 +
and commemoration of the dead helped fuel a vital social advance in
 +
the very countries they looked to for guidance. At the same time,
 +
urban development in the Ottoman capital, influenced by Western
 +
models, led to the closure of the Grand Champs des Morts - Istanbul's
 +
`City of the Dead,' a world-renowned necropolis which had provided
 +
inspiration, as well as an ideal, for the cemetery reformers of
 +
Europe.
 +
 
 +
Footnotes
 +
 
 +
1 By some accounts, the earliest interments at the Grand Champs des
 +
Morts date to c. 1560, when Istanbul was struck with a severe
 +
epidemic of plague, and the open fields around Taksim were used to
 +
bury the great numbers of dead; see Istanbul Ansiklopedisi, s.v.
 +
`Ermeni Mezarliklari.' The tombstone of a Dutch physician, Willem
 +
Quackelbeen, who died of the disease in 1561, offers physical
 +
evidence of this conjecture. It is currently located in the Roman
 +
Catholic cemetery at Feriköy, where it was most likely transferred
 +
when the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts closed in the
 +
mid-1800s, see A.H. de Groot, Old Dutch Graves at Istanbul, Archivum
 +
Ottomanicum 5 (1973): 6. Robert Walsh, chaplain to the British
 +
Embassy at Istanbul in the 1830s, recounted in his memoirs that the
 +
earliest grave-marker in the Frankish burial ground was that of
 +
Ludovicus Chizzolo, a Jesuit who succumbed to the plague in 1585, see
 +
R. Walsh, A Residence at Constantinople, vol. 2 (London: Richard
 +
Bentley, 1838), 441.  
 +
2 Calembourg: a pun, or play on words.  
 +
3 Julia Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 4th ed. (London: George
 +
Routledge and Sons, 1854), 51.  
 +
4 Ibid., 53-54.  
 +
5 For instance, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, writing in 1717,
 +
commented: `The burying fields about it (i.e., Istanbul) are
 +
certainly much larger than the whole city. `Tis surprising what a
 +
vast deal of land is lost this way in Turkey. Sometimes I have seen
 +
burying places of several miles, belonging to very inconsiderable
 +
villages. . . .' See Hans-Peter Laqueur, `Cemeteries in Orient and
 +
Occident: The Historical Development,' in Cimetières et Traditions
 
Funéraires dans le Monde Islamique (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu
 
Funéraires dans le Monde Islamique (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu
Basýmevi, 1996), 2: 3.
+
Basýmevi, 1996), 2: 3.  
6 Amerikalı, 1831 yılında Türkiye'nin Eskizler ve 1832 (New York: J. & J.
+
6 An American, Sketches of Turkey in 1831 and 1832 (New York: J. & J.
Harper, 1833), 158.
+
Harper, 1833), 158.  
7 James Curl Stevens, Ölüm Victoria Kutlaması (Stroud,
+
7 James Stevens Curl, The Victorian Celebration of Death (Stroud,
Gloucestershire: Sutton Yayıncılık Ltd), 17.
+
Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd.), 17.  
8 Bu West Norwood (1837); Highgate (1839); Brompton dahil
+
8 These included West Norwood (1837); Highgate (1839); Brompton,
Nunhead ve Abney Park (1840) ve Tower Hamlets (1841).
+
Nunhead, and Abney Park (1840); and Tower Hamlets (1841).  
9 Charles Dickens, Uncommercial Traveller (London: 1860 Oxford)
+
9 Charles Dickens, The Uncommercial Traveller (London: Oxford, 1860)
233.
+
233.  
10 Pardoe, Sultan, 36 City.
+
10 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 36.  
Laying Out On 11 John Claudius Loudon, `Dikim ve Yönetme
+
11 John Claudius Loudon, `On the Laying Out, Planting, and Managing
Mezarlıklar ve Churchyards İyileştirme gör. ' Gardener's
+
of Cemeteries and on the Improvement of Churchyards.' The Gardener's
Dergi, 1843, s. 100.
+
Magazine, 1843, p. 100.  
12 agy., 405.
+
12 Ibid., 405.  
13 Pardoe, Sultan, 50 City.
+
13 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50.  
14 Thomas A. Kselman, Ölüm ve Modern Fransa'da Afterlife,
+
14 Thomas A. Kselman, Death and the Afterlife in Modern France,
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993, 169-70.
+
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993, 169-70.  
15 Pardoe, Sultan, 50 City.
+
15 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50.  
16 Charles White, 1844 yılında Türkler, vol İç Manners. 1
+
16 Charles White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, vol. 1
(Londra: Henry Colburn, 1846), 15-16.
+
(London: Henry Colburn, 1846), 15-16.  
17 Stephen Olin, Yunanistan ve Haliç (New York: Carlton &
+
17 Stephen Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn (New York: Carlton &
Philips, 1854), 249.
+
Philips, 1854), 249.  
18 Pardoe, Sultan, 51 Şehri.
+
18 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 51.  
19 White, 1844 yılında Türklerin Yurtiçi Manners, 1: 15-16.
+
19 White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, 1: 15-16.  
20 Pardoe, Sultan, 134-35 Şehri.
+
20 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 134-35.  
21 Petusier ileri devletleri: `Bu doğru bir fikir oluşturmak
+
21 Petusier further states: `To form a correct idea of these
heterojen sahneleri, biz
+
heterogeneous scenes, we
gereken yerde olmak, hiçbir açıklama onlara adalet yapabilirsiniz için; ve
+
must be on the spot, for no description can do justice to them; and
bile, bizim, ilk kez onları görmek, göründüğü gibi tam bir
+
even when we see them, for the first time, it appears such a complete
illüzyon, ki scarsely gerçekler gebe olabilir. ' Bkz: Charles
+
illusion, that we can scarsely conceive its reality.' See Charles
Petusier içinde Picturesque Gezinti Yerleri ve İstanbul ve yakın
+
Petusier, Picturesque Promenades in and near Constantinople and on
Boğaz (Londra Waters: Sir Richard Phillips ve Co,
+
the Waters of the Bosphorus (London: Sir Richard Phillips and Co.,
1820), 96.
+
1820), 96.  
22 Olin, Yunanistan ve Haliç, 219.
+
22 Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn, 219.  
23 E.D.G. Başbakan, Anıları Rev William Goodell, D.D. (Robert Carter
+
23 E.D.G. Prime, Memoirs of Rev. William Goodell, D.D. (Robert Carter
ve Brothers, 1876), 275.
+
and Brothers, 1876), 275.  
Feriköy Protestan Mezarlığı'na 24 Mezar Kayıt Defteri, hayır. 331-343,
+
24 Burial Registry of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, no. 331-343,
Feriköy Protestan Mezarlığı'na, İstanbul 1863, Yönetim Kurulu,
+
1863, Governing Board of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, Istanbul,
Türkiye.
+
Turkey.  
25 Zeynep Çelik, İstanbul Remaking, Seattle ve Londra:
+
25 Zeynep Çelik, The Remaking of Istanbul, Seattle and London:
Washington Üniversitesi Yayınları, 1986, 69.
+
University of Washington Press, 1986, 69.  
26 Bu görüntünün bir kopyasını için, bkz: Çelik Gülersoy, Taksim: Bir Meydanýn
+
26 For a copy of this image, see Çelik Gülersoy, Taksim: Bir Meydanýn
Hikayesi (İstanbul: <stanbul Kitaplýý, 1986), 37.
+
Hikayesi (Istanbul: ‹stanbul Kitaplýý, 1986), 37.  
Grand Champs des olan Frank bölümünden 27 Bazı mezar taşları
+
27 Some tombstones from the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des
Morts hala Protestan ve Katolik mezarlıklarda hayatta
+
Morts still survive in the Protestant and Catholic cemeteries in
onlar sonra nakledilen İstanbul'un Feriköy semtinde,
+
Istanbul's Feriköy district, where they were transferred after the
Eski mezarlık orta 1800'lerin kapalı.
+
old burial ground closed in the mid-1800s.
  
 
http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=fa10d4e718&k=507&780881237&show=part1
 
http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=fa10d4e718&k=507&780881237&show=part1
  
((Kopya))
+
{{copy}}
 +
 
 +
==Map==
 +
<display_map service=leaflet showtitle=on markercluster=on pagelabel=yes zoom=12 height=500 width=700 center=41.011049,28.977708>
 +
41.0526822, 28.9875232~Hrant Dink Site of Memory~Plaque on the sidewalk where Hrant was murdered. Hrant's office inside the building was turned into a museum. Halaskargazi, Halaskargazi Cd. 74, 34371 Şişli/İstanbul. https://museu.ms/museum/details/17603/hrant-dink-site-of-memory#~File:Marker.png
 +
41.02576739795602,28.978394628228806~St. Gregory the Illuminator Church~Hacımimi, Kemeraltı Cd. No:40, 34425 Beyoğlu/İstanbul, Turkey~File:Marker-cross.png
 +
</display_map>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Red Cross is an Armenian Church that remains Armenian. Brown Cross is one of Armenian Churches that were destroyed by the Turkish government.
 +
 
 +
==Armenians of Istanbul==
 +
Armenians who were born or who have lived in Istanbul:
 +
 
 +
{{#ask: [[Category:Person]] [[Ethnicities::Armenian]] [[Birthplace name::Istanbul]] OR [[Lived in::Istanbul]]}}
 +
 
 +
Armenians who's ancestors are from Istanbul:
 +
 
 +
{{#ask: [[Category:Person]] [[Ethnicities::Armenian]] [[Ancestral villages::Istanbul]]}}
 +
 
 +
==See also==
 +
*[[Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople]]
 +
*[[Taksim Square]] (Pangalti Armenian cemetery)
 +
*[[Şişli Armenian Cemetery]]
 +
 
 +
==External links==
 +
*[http://peopleofar.wordpress.com/2014/03/16/armenian-architects-of-istanbul/ Armenian Architects of Istanbul: Online Exhibition]

Latest revision as of 04:07, 16 December 2020

Demographic breakout of Constantinople in 1881.

Formerly Constantinople. Called Bolis or Polis (Պոլիս) by Armenians, a clipping of Կոստանդնուպոլիս (Kostandnupolis).

Largest city in Turkey, with about 60,000 Armenians today - which account for most of Turkey's remaining Armenians. Seat of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Kumkapi

Following the conquest in 1453 the Kumpaki area was mainly settled by non-Muslim Karamanlis, and by the seventeenth century was famous for its taverns according to the Turkish writer and traveller Evliya celebi. His contemporary and author of a history of Istanbul, Ereemya Celebi Komurciyan, records the district's Greek and Armenian churches and fires which destroyed it. In his Topography of Istanbul, Hovhannnesyan describes the grand houses of Kumkapi, a royal palace here, katir Han (an urban kervansaray) and bazaar.

Little remains from the pre-19th century buildings of Kumkapi due to fires, but it remains a district famous for its taverns and fish restaurants.

Armenian Landmarks

The Central Prison of Constantinople, where over 200 Armenian intellectuals were gathered and held on April 24, 1915, before being moved and virtually all killed, now houses the Turkish-Islamic Arts Museum.

Eastern Diocese Visit

PRESS OFFICE Diocese of the Armenian Church of America (Eastern) 630 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10016 Tel: (212) 686-0710; Fax: (212) 779-3558 E-mail: publicrelations@armeniandiocese.org Website: http://www.armenianchurch-ed.net

October 28, 2011 _______________________________________________


Pilgrims from the Eastern Diocese Visit Istanbul's Historic Armenian Landmarks


On the final leg of a pilgrimage to historic Armenian sites in present-day Turkey, a group from the Diocese of the Armenian Church of America (Eastern) toured some of the great Armenian centers of Istanbul, and met with community members and municipal dignitaries.

The pilgrimage began last week, with Archbishop Khajag Barsamian, Primate of the Diocese of the Armenian Church of America (Eastern), leading a group of Diocesan leaders to the city of Diarbekir (Dikranakert), where they took part in the October 22 re-consecration of the historic St. Giragos Armenian Church.

The group, which included the Diocese's Ecumenical Director, Archbishop Vicken Aykazian, had to cancel a scheduled trip to the historic Armenian region of Van due to the October 23 earthquake in that area. Instead, they toured monuments and churches in the vicinity of Mardin. But they resumed plans on Monday, October 24, when they returned to Istanbul.

That afternoon the pilgrims visited one of Istanbul's most famous and enduring Armenian institutions: the 125-year-old Getronagan Armenian School. There, director Silva Kuyumcuyan welcomed the pilgrims to the school, which remains a thriving hub of Armenian cultural activity and education. She introduced the young teaching staff, and answered questions from the visitors.

On Tuesday morning the group visited the Armenian Patriarchate, where they were welcomed by Archbishop Aram Ateshian, the Patriarchal Vicar. He spoke about the centuries-old Armenian community of the city, and about the churches, schools, and other Armenian institutions which have proliferated throughout its history.

Archbishop Ateshian led the American visitors on a tour of the Patriarchate, culminating in a visit to the St. Mary Armenian Cathedral across from the Patriarchate, where the pilgrims held a prayer service. They also saw the Bezcian Armenian School, located next to the cathedral.


A Cosmopolitan Spirit


Later, the group had an opportunity to meet the U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, Francis Riccardone, along with U.S. Consul General Scott Kilner, at a luncheon hosted by the mayor of greater Itanbul, Dr. Kadir Topbas. Archbishop Ateshian also attended. Mayor Topbas warmly welcomed the group, spoke about the city, and answered the group's questions in an open dialogue.

Archbishop Barsamian conveyed his thanks to the mayor. Speaking as one familiar with Istanbul, he congratulated Mayor Topbas on the developments in the city under his leadership. "The cosmopolitan spirit-a feeling of openness and progress- is a quality he has renewed in this city, and I have been impressed to see that happen."

Invoking the same spirit, the Primate said: "We have come from America as pilgrims. And we are pilgrims who are not only longing for the past, but pilgrims who are looking forward, with hope, to the future. To a future of mutual respect and peace, for all of God's children."

The day was rounded out with a reception hosted by Istanbul industrialist Ahmet Calik, where the group met parliamentarian and former professional soccer star Hakan Sukur; and a dinner hosted by leaders of Istanbul's Armenian community, in which the Patriarchate's Archbishop Ateshian and Bishop Sahag Mashalian also took part.

Most of the Diocesan group departed Istanbul on Wednesday morning. "The prevailing sentiment among us was gratitude for the opportunity to participate in a once-in-a-lifetime event, the re-consecration of an ancient Armenian church," said Sandra Shahinian Leitner, speaking of her fellow pilgrims. "In our visit to our ancestral homes, we gained a deeper understanding of the magnitude of our forebears' sacrifice and dedication. We were also touched by the warmth of the hospitality shown to us."

Remaining in Istanbul, Archbishop Barsamian and Archbishop Vicken Aykazian visited Istanbul's Sisli district, where there is a large Armenian population with a church, school, and cemetery. They met the district mayor and its deputy mayor, Vazken Barinian. The two archbishops also visited the offices of the Armenian newspapers Jamanak, Marmara, and Agos.

Thursday morning both archbishops visited the Balikli Armenian cemetery, where they offered prayers at the gravesite of the late journalist Hrant Dink, murdered in 2007 for his outspoken advocacy of Genocide recognition.

The two then visited the Sourp Prgich (Holy Savior) Armenian Hospital, where they were received by Bedros Shirinoglu-the chairman of the hospital board and a great benefactor of the Istanbul community-along with other board members. They toured the modernized hospital. Then, with Archbishop Ateshian, they paid a special visit to His Beatitude Archbishop Mesrob Mutafyan, the Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul, who has been undergoing an extended hospitalization. In his presence the three archbishops offered prayers.

Archbishop Barsamian and Archbishop Aykazian will be traveling to the Republic of Armenia, where the Primate will represent the Eastern Diocese at a gathering of church leaders at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. They will also take part in the anniversary celebrations honoring His Holiness Karekin II, the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians.

--

Photos attached: Pilgrims from the Eastern Diocese pose for a group photo at the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople with Archbishop Aram Ateshian, the Patriarchal Vicar.

Grand Champs des Morts

The Fountain Magazine, NJ
Dec 31 2004

Istanbul's Vanished City of the Dead: The Grand Champs des Morts

NEEDS EDITING to save only parts relevant to Armenians!!!

By Brain JOHNSON

With a rich and varied architecture embodying centuries of history, Istanbul is one of the world's most celebrated cities. Besides the splendid monuments of its classical, Byzantine, and Ottoman heritage, Istanbul's cemeteries have also contributed to its renown. Historically, the vast necropolises of Eyüp, Üsküdar, and the Grand Champs des Morts in Pera have attracted the most notice. While the first two cemeteries still survive, the latter endures only as a memory - described in the pages of travel accounts, depicted on old engravings and maps, and tangibly perceptible in a scattering of funerary monuments that once graced its broad expanse. Yet, just over a hundred and fifty years ago, the Grand Champs des Morts existed as one of the world's great necropolises. A realm where the living intermingled with the dead, it roused the interest and imagination of visitors to Istanbul, and, even more notably, in an age of reform and change, offered inspiration and a model for contemporary designers of cemeteries in Western Europe.

Dating back to the sixteenth century,1 the Grand Champs des Morts was unique among Istanbul's necropolises, with burial grounds for followers of both Islam and Christianity in close proximity. Beginning at Taksim (roughly on the site where the Atatürk Cultural Center now stands) and extending down the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and Fýndýklý lay the graves of Muslims, while the area stretching northward toward Harbiye was divided into separate sections for the city's various Christian communities. The English traveler Julia Pardoe describes the site in 1836:

The first plot of ground, after passing the barrack [the artillery barracks of Selim III at Taksim], is the grave-yard of the Franks; and here you are greeted on all sides with inscriptions in Latin; injunctions to pray for the souls of the departed; flourishes of French sentiment; calembourgs2 graven into the everlasting stone, treating of roses and reine Marguerites; concise English records of births, deaths, ages, and diseases; Italian elaborations of regret and despair; and all the common-places of an ordinary burial-ground.3


Immediately in a line with the European cemetery, is the burial-ground of the Armenians. It is a thickly-peopled spot; and as you wander beneath the leafy boughs of the scented acacias, and thread your way among the tombs, you are struck by the peculiarity of their inscriptions. The noble Armenian character is graven deeply into the stone; name and date are duly set forth; but that which renders an Armenian slab. . . peculiar and distinctive, is the chiseling upon the tomb the emblem of the trade or profession of the deceased.

The Turkish cemetery stretches along the slope of the hill behind the barrack, and descends far into the valley. Its thickly-planted cypresses form a dense shade, beneath which the tall head-stones gleam out white and ghastly. The grove is intersected by footpaths, and here and there a green glade lets in the sunshine, to glitter upon many a gilded tomb. Plunge into the thick darkness of the more covered spots, and for a moment you will almost think that you stand amid the ruins of some devastated city. You are surrounded by what appears for an instant to be the myriad fragments of some mighty whole; but the gloom has deceived you - you are in the midst of a Necropolis - a City of the Dead.4

The vastness and natural beauty of the Grand Champs des Morts captured the attention of foreign residents and visitors to Istanbul alike, and few travel accounts and diaries from the past fail to mention - even if only in passing reference - the cemetery on the outskirts of Pera. The Grand Champs des Morts presented a sharp contrast to the densely packed inner-city churchyards which served as the principal burial grounds in so many of Europe's cities up to the nineteenth century. Although some chroniclers considered the size of the Pera cemetery, as well as the great necropolises bordering other districts of Istanbul, a hindrance to urban expansion and development,5 the advantage of such a spacious, sylvan tract of land for burial of the dead was also recognized.

Not far from this [Taksim] we entered upon one of those vast burying-grounds which form one of the most conspicuous features of every Turkish city. . . In a few words. . . I may state that the cemetery. . . covers an area of more than 100 acres, and that a thick forest of cypresses (resembling in shape the poplar, but with a dark green foliage) overspreads it with a solemn shade, extremely appropriate to its ordinary uses. . .6

Cemetery planners in Western Europe, spurred on by public calls for improvements to the hygiene and appearance of local burial grounds, cited precedents in Istanbul - as well as other areas of the East - in their effort to close inner-city churchyards and replace them with larger, more salubrious cemeteries outside settled areas. This process of reform essentially began in France during the eighteenth century. It was encouraged by authors such as the naturalist Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737-1814), who, in his celebrated Études de la Nature, praised the Turkish custom of burying the dead in the countryside (a tradition also observed in classical antiquity and contemporary China) and recommended the implementation of similar practices in Paris. He proposed `landscaped Élysées as the burial-place of the great and good, and public cemeteries (essentially landscaped gardens where the dead would be buried and, if prosperity allowed, monuments erected). . . Public cemeteries should be created in the vicinity of the city, planted with cypresses, pines, and fruit-trees, and monuments erected in such a setting could only induce profound moral feelings and tender melancholy in those who visited them.'7

By the late 1700s, new methods for disposing of the dead were of absolute necessity in most of Europe's major cities, and not simply for esthetic purposes, but for maintaining public health. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, the municipality of Paris took the first steps by closing old burial grounds, such as the ancient Cimetière des Innocents, and establishing new cemeteries, including the famed Père-Lachaise, Montparnasse, and Montmartre early in the next. A similar course of action occurred somewhat later in London, commencing with the opening of Kensal Green in 1832, the first of seven new private cemeteries founded over the next decade on the outskirts of the city.8 Finally, in 1852, all graveyards inside the city limits were closed with the passage into law of the Metropolitan Burial Act. By that time, London's churchyards, many dating from the Middle Ages, were in a critical state. One contemporary journal, The Builder, asserted in 1843 that 50,000 bodies yearly were piled one on top of the other in these overcrowded graveyards, where - left to putrefy and rot - they gave out exhalations and darkened the air with vapors. Charles Dickens cynically portrayed the grim situation in the Uncommercial Traveller:

Such strange churchyards hide in the City of London; churchyards sometimes so entirely pressed upon by houses, so small, so rank, so silent, so forgotten, except by the few people who ever look down into them from their smokey windows. As I stand peeping in through the iron gates and rails, I can peel the rusty metal off, like bark from an old tree. The illegible tombstones are all lopsided, the gravemounds lost their shape in the rains of a hundred years ago, the Lombardy Poplar or Plane-Tree that was once a drysalter's daughter and several common-councilmen, has withered like those worthies, and its departed leaves are dust beneath it. Contagion of slow ruin overhangs the place . . .9

Considering the dismal, unwholesome state of burial grounds in their own countries, it is no wonder that Europeans often waxed eloquent about the cemeteries of Istanbul, highlighting the aura of life which they engendered. Julia Pardoe offers a particularly vivid description of the burial grounds in the Ottoman capital, where the present generation readily merged with those of the past.

[The Turk] looks upon death calmly and without repugnance; he does not connect it with ideas of gloom and horror, as we are too prone to do in Europe, - he spreads his burial places in the sunniest spots - on the crests of the laughing hills, where they are bathed in the light of the blue sky; beside the crowded thoroughfares of the city, where the dead are, as it were, once more mingled with the living, - in the green nooks that stretch down to the Bosphorus, wherein more selfish spirits would have erected a villa, or have planted a vineyard. He identifies himself with the generation which has passed away - he is ready to yield his place to that which is to succeed his own.10

For the cemetery reformers of Europe, such descriptions offered an ideal in their quest for more wholesome, esthetically appealing burial grounds. Located in the hilly countryside on the fringes of the city, the Grand Champs des Morts and Istanbul's other great necropolises served as a model for those who strove to create new cemeteries for the sanitary disposal of the dead, as well as provide an idyllic environment for the expression of one's most tender feelings and deepest sentiments. Contemporary author Samuel Taylor Coleridge even commented on the emotive aspect of Turkish burial grounds.

Nothing can make amends for the want of the soothing influences of nature, and for the absence of those types of renovation and decay which the fields and woods offer to the notice of the serious and contemplative mind. To feel the force of this sentiment, let a man only compare in imagination, the unsightly manner in which our monuments are crowded together in the busy, noisy, unclean, and almost grassless churchyard of a large town, with the still seclusion of a Turkish cemetery in some remote place, and yet further sanctified by the grove of cypresses in which it is embosomed.11 /

Specific reference to the Grand Champs des Morts and other Turkish cemeteries as archetypes to imitate in the West also appear in the writings of John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843), one of the most influential cemetery reformers of the nineteenth century. A Scottish landscape gardener, Loudon proposed that burial grounds should be on elevated ground, distant enough from urban centers as not to endanger the health of the populace, yet near enough to lessen the time and expense of funerals and encourage visits by the living to the tombs of the dead. To make the site attractive, he favored a garden-like setting, and suggested the planting of various types of trees and shrubs. Istanbul's necropolises offered exemplary models of these principles, and Loudon quoted descriptions of them in his works on burial ground planning and design. `The Turkish cemeteries are generally out of the city, on rising ground, planted with cedars, cypresses, and odoriferous shrubs, whose deep verdure and graceful forms bending in every breeze give a melancholy beauty to the place, and excite sentiments very congenial to its destination.'12

Besides the location of Istanbul's cemeteries in the midst of nature and removed from the habitations of the living, the local tradition of single interments also impressed European observers. As Julia Pardoe remarked, the remains of the dead were not disturbed once laid to rest, a practice followed in both the Muslim and Christian burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts. `There is no burying and reburying on the same spot, as with us. The remains of the departed are sacred.'13 In stark contrast, Europeans - largely due to space restrictions in their heavily populated cities - regularly opened existing graves and filled them with new cadavers, to the point that some churchyards became pestilential pits, seriously endangering public health. By the late eighteenth century these unsanitary conditions had become intolerable. Through the influence of reformers, many of whom took inspiration from the burial practices of the Ottomans, new laws were instituted regulating methods of disposing of the dead. A French decree passed in 1804, for instance, prohibited burial in common graves, where the dead were stacked up one on top of the other.14 Instead, each cadaver was to be buried in its own space, dug to a specific depth and separated from other graves by a set distance, a method of sepulture eventually adopted in other European countries as well.

More than Ottoman burial practices, however, the unique social life which revolved around Istanbul's cemeteries, especially in the Grand Champs des Morts, aroused the interest of foreigners. Both Muslim and Christian inhabitants of the city followed distinct rituals for remembering their dead, and families of all religious persuasions made regular visits to their respective burial grounds, maintaining their link with the generations which had preceded them. The pleasant surroundings of the cemeteries (places to avoid in Europe's municipalities) encouraged this communion with the departed. Moreover, the great necropolises were more than resting places for the dead. `The Champs des Morts,' as Julia Pardoe recounts, `is the promenade of the whole population - Turk, Frank, Greek, and Armenian. . .'15 It was known to the locals as a place of keyif, or an area connected with ease and enjoyment.16 Spacious, fresh, green, and in close proximity to the residential quarters of Pera, the burial ground served as a kind of parkland - an attractive area of rest and relaxation for the populace of Istanbul.

With whatever views they pay these visits, it is certain that the burying-ground is their favorite resort, where they spend many of their spare hours. Whole families, parents and little children, may be seen gathered around a tomb in silence and seriousness, or in animated and joyous converse. All the burying-grounds, Turkish, Jewish, and Christian, are chief places of public resort.17

The Grand Champs des Morts even had a cafe at the crest of the hill overlooking Dolmabahçe, where customers could while away the day smoking water pipes, drinking Turkish coffee, and gazing out at the sparkling waters of the Bosphorus in the distance.18 Itinerant vendors also wandered through the cemetery, offering refreshments to visitors. Water sellers usually followed in their wake, carrying huge dripping jars and shouting their distinctive cry buz gibi su! (ice-cold water),19 ready to quench the thirst of those strolling or lounging among the tombs.

Yet, perhaps the most fascinating sight for Europeans were the public fairs held in the necropolis. More than just a place for commemoration, quiet contemplation, and repose, the Grand Champs des Morts was also the site of lively festivals and celebrations. On such occasions, the burial grounds - primarily those of the Christians - were transformed into an animated spectacle of gaiety and amusement. Julia Pardoe describes in colorful detail one such fête for the living amongst the monuments of the dead.

I have already spoken elsewhere of the indifference, if not absolute enjoyment with which the inhabitants of the East frequent their burying grounds; but on the occasion of this festival I was more impressed than ever by the extent to which it is carried. The whole of the Christian cemetery had assumed the appearance of a fair. . .


Grave-stones steadied the poles which supported the swings - divans, comfortably overlaid with cushions, were but chintz-covered sepulchers - the kibaub merchants had dug hollows to cook their dainties under the shelter of the tombs, and the smoking booths were amply supplied with seats and counters from the same wide waste of death.

Every hundred yards that we advanced, the scene became more striking. One long line of diminutive tents formed a temporary street of eating-houses; there were kibaubs, pillauf, fritters, pickled vegetables, soups, rolls stuffed with fine herbs, sausages, fried fish, bread of every quality, and cakes of all dimensions. . . .

Here and there a flat tomb, fancifully covered with gold-embroidered handkerchiefs, was overspread with sweetmeats and preserved fruits; while in the midst of these rival establishments, groups of men were seated in a circle, wherever a little shade could be obtained, smoking their long pipes in silence, with their diminutive coffee-cups resting on the ground beside them. The wooden kiosk overhanging the Bosphorus was crowded; and many a party was snugly niched among the acacias, with their backs resting against the tombs, and the sunshine flickering at their feet.20


Undoubtedly, Europeans were amazed by the merging of the realms of the living and the dead that occurred at Istanbul's Grand Champs des Morts, where, as French embassy member Charles Pertusier remarked, `those who weep are not disturbed by the lyric songs of joy, and those who laugh pay no attention to those who weep.'21 Visiting - much less taking one's pleasure in - burial grounds would have been almost inconceivable in the West. However, in the first half of the nineteenth century, this had already begun to change with the closing of inner-city churchyards and the creation of cemeteries on the periphery of urban areas in Europe. Planted with a rich variety of trees and shrubs, the burial grounds founded in Paris and London during this era constituted a distinctly new style. Essentially funerary gardens, they served both as cemeteries and parklands. Burial grounds such as Pere Lachaise, Montmartre, Kensal Green, and Highgate became renowned for their natural beauty, and were frequented - much like today - both by mourners wishing to commemorate the dead as well as visitors seeking a quiet spot for meditation and repose.

Ironically, even as Europeans in the nineteenth century were opening new burial grounds influenced by models from Istanbul, sections of the very cemeteries from which they had derived inspiration (including portions of the Grand Champs des Morts) were being lost in the wake of rapid urban development. During the course of this transformation - spurred on by a desire to rebuild the city in contemporary Western fashion - it was inevitable that many of Istanbul's old burial grounds would lessen in size, or vanish completely from the map. The city was unique in that so many of its immediate environs were taken up by vast necropolises for the dead, a conspicuous feature which left a distinct impression on foreign travelers, such as Stephen Olin, who in 1853 remarked on the loss of the cemeteries in the wake of urban growth.

Indeed, so vast a space has been devoted to the dead around Istanbul, that it is no longer possible to respect the sanctity of their abode without interfering greatly with the convenience of the living, and even the entire sacrifice of public convenience. Immense as the city is, I am quite sure that much more ground is occupied by tombs and graves than by the habitations of the living. The whole country about Constantinople, Scutari, and Pera is occupied in this way, and a vast number of tombs and burying grounds are enclosed within the walls. In forming roads, streets, and in building, it is no longer possible to spare them, and one often treads upon causeways or pavements made of sculptured grave-stones and monuments.22


Between 1840 and 1910, the area of Istanbul stretching northward from Taksim to ½iþli was transformed from open countryside to densely inhabited residential settlement. Early nineteenth-century maps of Istanbul show much of the area in this direction taken up by the non-Muslim burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts, with the Frankish section directly in the path of the main route of expansion. Already, by 1842, this burial ground was being whittled down, as a contemporary account by Reverend William Goodell attests. One of the founders of the American Board mission to the Armenians at Istanbul, Goodell had lost his nine-year-old son, Constantine Washington, to gastric typhoid in 1841 and buried him in the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts.

February 18, 1842. On account of the encroachments. . . on the Frank burying ground, I had to remove the body of our beloved boy. The grave . . . had been dug deep, and the coffin was scarcely damp. Every thing was sweet and still. The new grave which we have prepared a few rods distant was also deep and dry; and there we laid the body, to rest in its quiet bed till the resurrection morning. Beloved child, farewell!23

However, little Constantine's tranquility lasted far less than expected, disturbed again by a flurry of construction in the early 1860s, including the widening of the main road running from Taksim to Pangaltý. In July 1863, the remains of more than a dozen Americans, including those of Constantine Washington Goodell, were exhumed from the old Frankish burial ground in the Grand Champs des Morts. They were transferred, along with their grave markers, to a new Protestant cemetery in Feriköy - created by order of Sultan Abdülmecit I in the 1850s - for re-interment.24 The land occupied by the former burial ground was turned into a public park (in a modern Western sense), a project finally completed six years later with the opening of Taksim Garden in 1869.25

As the urban environment around Taksim expanded in succeeding decades, the other burial grounds of the Grand Champs des Morts also disappeared. The Armenian cemetery, which lay to the north of the Frankish burial ground, was still delineated on the 1925-26 Pervititch insurance maps of Istanbul, but labeled as `ex-Cimetière Armenien,' apparently indicating that it had ceased to be an active place of interment. Most of the Muslim burial grounds which had covered the slopes of Gümüþsuyu and Fýndýklý had already vanished by the First World War; an aerial photograph taken from a balloon at that time shows a small portion - evident as a thick patch of cypresses - still straddling the side of the hill between the Taksim barracks an the military hospital in Gumussuyu.26 The scant remains of the once great necropolis would cease to exist by the mid-twentieth century.27

All the while, as the great cemetery shrank - sacrificed for the sake of public convenience - reformers in Europe were transforming the spatial relationship of the living and dead in the West. The nineteenth century witnessed an innovative concept in European burial ground design, with the introduction of expansive, magnificently landscaped cemeteries. Serene and picturesque, they served as additional public parks in many towns and cities. Whereas the small, noxious churchyards of previous ages had been shunned, the new necropolises were considered an ideal place for a relaxing stroll or family outing, not to mention a site of regular pilgrimage to pay respects to the well-loved dead. This shift in custom and attitude was the culmination of several decades of reform, which - to no small extent - was inspired by the traditions of sepulture in other lands, including the Ottoman empire. Remarkably, at a time when the Ottomans were actively borrowing ideas and institutions from Europe in an effort to modernize the empire, their centuries-old customs of burial and commemoration of the dead helped fuel a vital social advance in the very countries they looked to for guidance. At the same time, urban development in the Ottoman capital, influenced by Western models, led to the closure of the Grand Champs des Morts - Istanbul's `City of the Dead,' a world-renowned necropolis which had provided inspiration, as well as an ideal, for the cemetery reformers of Europe.

Footnotes

1 By some accounts, the earliest interments at the Grand Champs des Morts date to c. 1560, when Istanbul was struck with a severe epidemic of plague, and the open fields around Taksim were used to bury the great numbers of dead; see Istanbul Ansiklopedisi, s.v. `Ermeni Mezarliklari.' The tombstone of a Dutch physician, Willem Quackelbeen, who died of the disease in 1561, offers physical evidence of this conjecture. It is currently located in the Roman Catholic cemetery at Feriköy, where it was most likely transferred when the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts closed in the mid-1800s, see A.H. de Groot, Old Dutch Graves at Istanbul, Archivum Ottomanicum 5 (1973): 6. Robert Walsh, chaplain to the British Embassy at Istanbul in the 1830s, recounted in his memoirs that the earliest grave-marker in the Frankish burial ground was that of Ludovicus Chizzolo, a Jesuit who succumbed to the plague in 1585, see R. Walsh, A Residence at Constantinople, vol. 2 (London: Richard Bentley, 1838), 441. 2 Calembourg: a pun, or play on words. 3 Julia Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 4th ed. (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1854), 51. 4 Ibid., 53-54. 5 For instance, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, writing in 1717, commented: `The burying fields about it (i.e., Istanbul) are certainly much larger than the whole city. `Tis surprising what a vast deal of land is lost this way in Turkey. Sometimes I have seen burying places of several miles, belonging to very inconsiderable villages. . . .' See Hans-Peter Laqueur, `Cemeteries in Orient and Occident: The Historical Development,' in Cimetières et Traditions Funéraires dans le Monde Islamique (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basýmevi, 1996), 2: 3. 6 An American, Sketches of Turkey in 1831 and 1832 (New York: J. & J. Harper, 1833), 158. 7 James Stevens Curl, The Victorian Celebration of Death (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd.), 17. 8 These included West Norwood (1837); Highgate (1839); Brompton, Nunhead, and Abney Park (1840); and Tower Hamlets (1841). 9 Charles Dickens, The Uncommercial Traveller (London: Oxford, 1860) 233. 10 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 36. 11 John Claudius Loudon, `On the Laying Out, Planting, and Managing of Cemeteries and on the Improvement of Churchyards.' The Gardener's Magazine, 1843, p. 100. 12 Ibid., 405. 13 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50. 14 Thomas A. Kselman, Death and the Afterlife in Modern France, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993, 169-70. 15 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 50. 16 Charles White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, vol. 1 (London: Henry Colburn, 1846), 15-16. 17 Stephen Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn (New York: Carlton & Philips, 1854), 249. 18 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 51. 19 White, Domestic Manners of the Turks in 1844, 1: 15-16. 20 Pardoe, The City of the Sultan, 134-35. 21 Petusier further states: `To form a correct idea of these heterogeneous scenes, we must be on the spot, for no description can do justice to them; and even when we see them, for the first time, it appears such a complete illusion, that we can scarsely conceive its reality.' See Charles Petusier, Picturesque Promenades in and near Constantinople and on the Waters of the Bosphorus (London: Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 1820), 96. 22 Olin, Greece and the Golden Horn, 219. 23 E.D.G. Prime, Memoirs of Rev. William Goodell, D.D. (Robert Carter and Brothers, 1876), 275. 24 Burial Registry of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, no. 331-343, 1863, Governing Board of the Feriköy Protestant Cemetery, Istanbul, Turkey. 25 Zeynep Çelik, The Remaking of Istanbul, Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1986, 69. 26 For a copy of this image, see Çelik Gülersoy, Taksim: Bir Meydanýn Hikayesi (Istanbul: ‹stanbul Kitaplýý, 1986), 37. 27 Some tombstones from the Frankish section of the Grand Champs des Morts still survive in the Protestant and Catholic cemeteries in Istanbul's Feriköy district, where they were transferred after the old burial ground closed in the mid-1800s.

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Red Cross is an Armenian Church that remains Armenian. Brown Cross is one of Armenian Churches that were destroyed by the Turkish government.

Armenians of Istanbul

Armenians who were born or who have lived in Istanbul:

Adriene Bilemdjian, Aras Özbiliz, Calouste Gulbenkian, Cano Ozgener, Daniel Varoujan, Daron Acemoglu, Garo Paylan, George Mardikian, Agop Jack Hacikyan, Hrant Dink, Mgrdich Khrimian, Pacradooni Kaloost Vartan, Ramela Carman, Sevag Balıkçı, Zabel Yesayan

Armenians who's ancestors are from Istanbul:

Raffi Kojian, Zareh Sinanyan

See also

External links