HAROUTIUN SHMAVONIAN, was a native of Persia, founder of Armenian journalism and editor of the [Azdarar] journal in Madras, India. Azdarar was published for a period of two years, from 1794-1796. It printed articles of interest not only to the Indian Armenian community but also to Armenians everywhere, including a number of important article that advocated for a free and independent Armenia.
A bust of Shmavonian was unveiled in the yard of Surb Nazaret Armenian Church of Calcutta on December 12, 200?.
Between 1794 and 1863, at least 11 Armenian-language journals were published in Madras, Calcutta and Bombay, including the Patriot Armenian, the official newspaper of the Araratian Society, which was formed in 1845.