Abdul Hamid II
Abd-ul-Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdülhemit, Abdul Hamid, Abd al-Hamid II, or Abdul-Hamid (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. He was the son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, and succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother Murad V on August 31, 1876.
He accompanied his uncle Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his visit to England and France in 1867. At his accession spectators were struck by the fearless manner in which he rode, practically unattended, on his way to be girt with the sword of Eyub. He was supposed to be of liberal principles, and the more conservative of his subjects were for some years after his accession inclined to regard him with suspicion as a too-ardent reformer. But the circumstances of the country at his accession were ill adapted for liberal developments. Default in the public funds and an empty treasury, the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the war with Serbia and Montenegro and the feeling aroused throughout Europe by the methods adopted in stamping out the Bulgarian rebellion all proved to the new sultan that he could expect little aid from the European powers. But, still clinging to the belief, for which British statesmen had afforded the Ottoman Empire no recent justification, that the United Kingdom at all events would support him, he obstinately refused to instigate the reforms for which the European powers had been pressing.
The international Conference which met at Istanbul towards the end of 1876 was, indeed, startled by the salvo of guns heralding the promulgation of a constitution, but the demands of the Conference were rejected, in spite of the solemn warnings addressed to the sultan by the Powers, Midhat Pasha, the author of the constitution, was exiled and soon afterwards his work was suspended. Early in 1877 a disastrous war with Russia followed. The hard terms, embodied in the Treaty of San Stefano, to which Abd-ul-Hamid was forced to consent, were to some extent amended at Berlin, thanks in the main to British diplomacy, but by this time the sultan had lost all confidence in England.
With this, he thought that he discerned in Germany, whose supremacy was evidenced in his eyes by her capital being selected as the meeting-place of the Congress, the future friend of his empire. He employed Germans for the reorganization of his finances and his army, and set to work in the determination to maintain his empire, to resist the encroachments of foreigners, and to take gradually the reins of absolute power into his own hands (for he rightfully distrusted his mimisters). Financial embarrassments forced him to consent to a foreign control over the national debt, and the decree of December 1881, whereby many of the revenues of the empire were handed over to the Public Debt Administration for the benefit of the bondholders, was a sacrifice of principle to which he could only have consented with the greatest reluctance. Trouble in Egypt, where a discredited khedive had to be deposed, trouble on the Greek frontier and in Montenegro, where the European powers were determined that the decisions of the Berlin Congress should be carried into effect, were more or less satisfactorily handled. In his attitude towards Arabi, the would-be saviour of Egypt, Abd-ul-Hamid showed less than his usual astuteness, and the resulting consolidation of England's hold over the country contributed still further to his estrangement from Turkey's old ally.
The union in 1885 of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia, the severance of which had been the great triumph of the Berlin Congress, was another blow. Few people south of the Balkans dreamed that Bulgaria could be anything but a Russian province, and apprehension was entertained of the results of the union until it was seen that Russia really and entirely disapproved of it. Then the best was made of it, and for some years the sultan preserved towards Bulgaria an attitude skilfully calculated so as to avoid running counter either to Russian or to German wishes. Germany's friendship was not entirely disinterested, and had to be fostered with a railway or loan concession from time to time, until in 1899 the great object aimed at, the Baghdad railway, was conceded.
Meanwhile, the sultan had succeeded in reducing his ministers to the position of secretaries, and in concentrating the whole administration of the country into his own hands at Yildiz. But internal dissension was not thereby lessened. Crete was constantly in turmoil, the Greeks were dissatisfied, and from about 1890 the Armenians began clamoring to obtain the reforms promised them at Berlin. Minor troubles had occurred in 1892 and 1893 at Marsovan and Tokat. In 1894 a more serious rebellion in the mountainous region of Sassun was ruthlessly stamped out; the Powers insistently demanded reforms, the eventual grant of which in the autumn of 1895 was the signal for a series of massacres, brought on in part by the injudicious and threatening acts of the victims, and extending over many months and throughout Asia Minor, as well as in the capital itself. These massacres of Armenians from 1894-1894 killed hundreds of thousands and are called the Hamidian Massacres. The reforms became more or less a dead letter. Crete indeed profited by the grant of extended privileges, but these did not satisfy its turbulent population, and early in 1897 a Greek expedition sailed to unite the island to Greece.
War followed, in which the Ottoman Empire was easily successful and gained a small rectification of frontier; then a few months later Crete was taken over en depot by the Four Powers — Germany and Austria not participating — and Prince George of Greece was appointed their mandatory. In the next year the sultan received the visit of the German emperor and empress.
Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam against aggressive Christendom. The Panislamic propaganda was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman Empire — often an obstacle to government — were curtailed; the new railway to the holy places of Mecca and Medina was pressed on, and emissaries were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the caliph's supremacy. This appeal to Muslim sentiment was, however, powerless against the disaffection due to perennial misgovernment. In Mesopotamia and Yemen disturbance was endemic; nearer home, a semblance of loyalty was maintained in the army and among the Muslim population by a system of delation and espionage, and by wholesale arrests; while, obsessed by terror of assassination, the sultan withdrew himself into fortified seclusion in the palace of Yildiz.
The national humiliation of the situation in Macedonia, together with the resentment in the army against the palace spies and informers, at last brought matters to a crisis. In the summer of 1908 the Young Turk revolution broke out and Abd-ul-Hamid, on learning of the threat of the Salonica troops to march on Constantinople (July 23), at once capitulated. On the 24th an irade announced the restoration of the suspended constitution of 1875; next day, further irades abolished espionage and censorship, and ordered the release of political prisoners. On December 17, the sultan opened the Turkish parliament with a speech from the throne in which he said that the first parliament had been "temporarily dissolved until the education of the people had been brought to a sufficiently high level by the extension of instruction throughout the empire."
Abdul Hamid II commissioned thousands of photographs of his empire. Fearful of assassination, photographs provided visual evidence of what was taking place in his realm. The Sultan presented large gift albums of photographs to various governments and heads of state, including the United States (William Allen, "The Abdul Hamid II Collection," History of Photography 8 (1984): 119-45.) and Great Britain (M. I. Waley and British Library., Sultan Abdulhamid II Early Turkish Photographs in 51 Albums from the British Library on Microfiche (Zug, Switzerland: IDC, 1987). The American collection is housed in the Library of Congress and has been digitized  (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pp/ahiiquery.html)
The correct attitude of the sultan did not save him from the suspicion of intriguing with the powerful reactionary elements in the state, a suspicion confirmed by his attitude towards the counter-revolution of April 13, 1909 known as 31 Mart Olayı, when an insurrection of the soldiers backed by a conservative public upheavel in the capital overthrew the cabinet. The government, restored by the Salonica troops, now decided on Abd-ul-Hamid's deposition, and on April 27 his brother Reshid Effendi was proclaimed sultan as Mahommed V. The ex-sultan was conveyed into dignified captivity at Salonica. Back again in İstanbul by 1912, he spent his last days studying, carpentering and writing his memories in custody at the palace of Beylerbeyi, where he died on February 10, 1918.
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
Preceded by: Murad V
Succeeded by: Mehmed V
sesso porno filmati gratis gruppo sesso sfrenato musica download cartoni animati sigla mp3 cazzoni sesso porno filmati gratis italiano fiche guestbook video porno gratis dance mp3 inculate chiavate kunt sluts filmati porno filmati porno sesso porno filmati gratis all\'aperto musica spot sesso porno filmati gratis strano filmati porno escorts sesso porno filmati gratis cazzi sesso porno filmati gratis hard sesso porno filmati gratis fetish striptease anal orge musica etnica sesso estremo inculate artisti stranieri sposo screenmates cantanti nude gif animate sesso porno filmati gratis senza scaricare sesso porno filmati gratis erotico cantanti video divertenti forum zucchero puttane scarica mp3 gratis showgirl musica ascoltare ascoltare musica nata nascita giochi gratis sesso porno filmati gratis etnico scaricare brani musicali file mp3 pop sesso porno filmati gratis orientale matrimono tette chiavare pissing natalia estrada grande fratello 5 sesso porno filmati gratis siti infante sesso porno filmati gratis posizioni scopate coniugato dance motore ricerca mp3 calciatori pompini scarica musica film cicciolina sfondi scopare mp3 dance spartito musica scarica musica filmati porno sposa sesso porno filmati gratis solo gratis trova musica nude fessa accompagnatrici il milionario quiz libri musica sesso porno filmati gratis interrazziale sesso porno filmati gratis latino cazzoni tette sfilate di moda sesso porno filmati gratis italiano cartoni animati mp3 morire sesso porno filmati gratis dildo scopate valeria mazza barzellette gratis pornostar arbitro moreno musica napoletana sesso porno filmati gratis femminile neonato feticismo irene grandi grandi troie sesso porno filmati gratis uomini ballerine sesso porno filmati gratis ciccione scaricare file mp3 filmati porno classica sesso porno filmati gratis hard musica rock sesso porno filmati gratis trans basi musicali mp3 sesso porno filmati gratis telefonico musica online musica techno musica mp3 karaoke porche fiche fica video menphis tarocchi politici moana pozzi sesso porno filmati gratis facciali fighe pelose e bagnate battisti giornaliste etero fica brani di musica italiana xxx brani canzoni mp3 file mp3 musica on sesso porno filmati gratis donne figa giochi online convertitore mp3 sesso vibratori antonacci anno rock musica leggera download file midi musica sepolto sesso porno filmati gratis tantrico daniele interrante sesso porno filmati gratis selvaggio neonata filmati culi figa tette inculate sito porno britney spears sesso porno filmati gratis pompini musica anni 80 culo scopare sesso gratis teenagers cazzo sms pronti orge cognome musica new age sesso dildo sesso porno filmati gratis vecchie scaricare musica dialer notizie assurde sesso porno filmati gratis materiale musica rap musica house baglioni orale asiatiche sesso adulto scarica musica legale musica karaoke anna falchi musica pop scaricare musica download musica classica ascoltare chat immagini porno cock fuck sesso porno filmati gratis terzo sesso porno filmati gratis tutto troie logo suoneria mp3 sesso porno filmati gratis ragazze musica mp3 basi mp3 incesti sesso porno filmati gratis gallerie testi folli leonardo di caprio tetta culo scaricare canzoni mp3 donne pussy pornografia immagini download canzoni mp3 sesso porno filmati gratis perverso sesso porno filmati gratis piedi video index of mp3 parrocchia vip shakira analita classifica musica mp3 italia movies foto porno gratis musica latino americana sesso porno filmati gratis bionde foto celebrita scarica mp3 musica mp3 download motore di ricerca musica da scaricare sesso porno filmati gratis asiatico sesso porno filmati gratis hardcore musica shopping martina stella fica sesso porno filmati gratis sesso dal vivo scaricare musica lesbiche approfondimenti scarica mp3 pubblicazioni mariagrazia cucinotta musica bambini cantare cantare con il computer nude sesso porno filmati gratis collant utero sesso porno filmati gratis super pps dividere file mp3 classifica musica discoteca mp3 scaricare karaoke mp3 antonio banderas brani musicali mp3 musica italiana sesso porno filmati gratis bocca sposato mp3 musica musica blues lucia galeone musica classifiche alessandra pierelli sesso porno filmati gratis scene iada de blanck hard sesso porno filmati gratis bizzarro video porno gratuiti musica mp3 foto vip sesso porno filmati gratis ingoio elisabetta canalis anale mp3 canzoni scaricare xxx porno videos adulti video taroccati successi italiani accompagnatrici musica midi sesso porno filmati gratis quarto download mp3 ricerca mp3 sesso foto trash gratis pompini sesso porno filmati gratis a pagamento canzoni italiane musica italiana scaricare comici sesso porno filmati gratis inculate sesso porno filmati gratis calze sesso porno filmati gratis pompini sesso porno filmati gratis coppie mp3 midi battesimo canzoni filmati orgie video porno gratis sesso adulto sesso porno filmati gratis nere musica latina programma scaricare mp3 erotico sesso porno filmati gratis porno hip hop musica matrimonio comprare musica scaricare mp3 zozze sborrate sportivi mignotte mignottone sesso porno filmati gratis erotico alexia backstage calendari claudia pandolfi programma musica grandi fiche video celebrita sesso porno filmati gratis lesbiche sesso porno filmati gratis video clip sesso musica hip hop zelig erotici incontri bocchini attrici musica jazz video erotici calendari 2005 sesso porno filmati gratis vibratori succhiare download musica pornografico sesso calze programma mp3 mp3 italiano sesso porno filmati gratis webcam colonne sonore mp3 spogliarello sesso porno filmati gratis senza fiche ascoltare musica filmati porno gratis segnala il sito vidcaps kamasutra giarrettiere paparazzi musica discoteca moglie tenniste foto mp3 to midi eseguibili sesso porno filmati gratis squirt mp3 player sesso sfrenato sesso porno filmati gratis culo vasco rossi file audio testi musica suoneria mp3 scherzi artisti stranieri mp3 dance download ricerca scarica mp3 testi musica sesso porno filmati gratis orgie suonerie gratis lettore mp3 mp3 canzoni maritato mese madre sesso violento musica italiana mp3 sesso porno filmati gratis mpeg sesso inculate sesso porno filmati gratis italia notificazioni sesso porno filmati gratis trans mp3 gratis sesso porno filmati gratis pornografici fregna suoneria polifonica mp3 sesso porno filmati gratis immagini mp3 scarica sesso porno filmati gratis grasse anale scarica musica sesso porno filmati gratis italiahard animazioni flash mp3 download sesso porno filmati gratis masturbazioni upskirt suonerie polifoniche mp3 sfondi gratis decesso sborrare mp3 scaricabili porno ingoio sesso porno filmati gratis pagine personali posizioni erotiche 69 sesso porno filmati gratis spinto brani di musica sesso porno filmati gratis matto basi audio mp3 download mp3 gratis porno sesso senza porno video gratis nudi integrali gratis canzoni sesso porno filmati gratis gratis morte musica brasiliana musica pubblicita sesso porno filmati gratis tettone amarcord vittoria belvedere calendari sesso porno filmati gratis mature sito mp3 sesso porno filmati gratis milano sesso porno filmati gratis transessuali masochista fice sesso porno filmati gratis pubblico cazzo selen zinne classifica kunt uomini seppellimento erotici xxx bin laden sigla mp3 suonerie mp3 fica downblouse musica gratis mp3 file mp3 musica italiana musica punk colonne sonore film mp3 vignette buffe free songs cresima sesso porno filmati gratis sadomaso sesso latino nere genitori scarica musica mp3 attori caps scaricare musica programma musica marito brad pitt foto vip musica italiana sesso porno filmati gratis eiaculazioni modelle donne erotico sesso porno filmati gratis pompini software mp3 escort scaricare mp3 topless sesso porno filmati gratis ricerca mp3 musica sesso porno filmati gratis pisciate sesso porno filmati gratis orale inviaci un file bambino sesso porno filmati gratis censure sesso porno filmati gratis esplicito ammucchiate inculate chiavate raul bova inculare nome sesso porno filmati gratis video porno sesso porno filmati gratis teenagers sesso porno filmati gratis pornografico mp3 cartoni animati mp3 cartoni padre musica classica foto attrici sesso porno filmati gratis esplicito sborra donne sepolture sesso porno filmati gratis portale costantino vitagliano musica dance cartoline virtuali cicciolina pompini indice musica free sesso porno filmati gratis oggetti musica leggera battesimo giorgia palmas